Der Fuehrer's Face
|Der Fuehrer's Face|
|Donald Duck series|
Original theatrical film poster
|Directed by||Jack Kinney|
|Produced by||Walt Disney|
|Story by||Joe Grant
|Voices by||Clarence Nash|
|Music by||Oliver Wallace|
|Animation by||Bob Carlson
|Layouts by||Don DaGradi
|Studio||Walt Disney Productions|
|Distributed by||RKO Radio Pictures|
|Running time||8 minutes|
|Preceded by||Bellboy Donald|
|Followed by||The Spirit of '43|
Der Fuehrer's Face (originally titled Donald Duck in Nutzi Land) is a 1943 American animated propaganda short film produced by Walt Disney Productions and released in 1943 by RKO Radio Pictures. The cartoon, which features Donald Duck in a nightmare setting working at a factory in Nazi Germany, was made in an effort to sell war bonds and is an example of American propaganda during World War II. The film was directed by Jack Kinney and written by Joe Grant and Dick Huemer from the original music by Oliver Wallace. The film is well known for Wallace's original song "Der Fuehrer's Face", which was actually released earlier by Spike Jones.
Der Fuehrer's Face won the Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film at the 15th Academy Awards. It was the only Donald Duck film to receive the honor, although eight other films were also nominated. In 1994, it was voted Number 22 of "the 50 Greatest Cartoons" of all time by members of the animation field. However, because of the propagandistic nature of the short, and the depiction of Donald Duck as a Nazi (albeit a reluctant one), Disney kept the film out of general circulation after its original release. Its first home video release came in 2004 with the release of the third wave of the Walt Disney Treasures DVD sets.
A German oom-pah band -- composed of Axis leaders Hideki Tōjō on sousaphone, Hermann Göring on piccolo, Joseph Goebbels on trombone, Benito Mussolini on bass drum and Heinrich Himmler on snare drum -- marches through a small German town, where everything, even the clouds and trees, are shaped as swastikas, singing the virtues of the Nazi doctrine. Passing by Donald Duck's house (the features of which depict Adolf Hitler), they poke him out of bed with a bayonet to get ready for work. Herr Donald then faces and "Heils" the portraits of the Führer (Adolf Hitler), the Emperor (Hirohito), and Il Duce (Benito Mussolini), respectively. Because of wartime rationing, his breakfast consists of a piece of wooden bread, coffee brewed from a single hoarded coffee bean, and an aromatic spray that smells like bacon and eggs. The band shoves a copy of Mein Kampf in front of him for a moment of reading, then marches into his house, carrying the bass drum, and escorts him to a factory with Donald carrying the drum and Göring kicking him.
Upon arriving at the factory (at bayonet-point), Donald starts his 48-hour daily shift screwing caps onto artillery shells in an assembly line. Mixed in with the shells are portraits of the Führer, so he must perform the Hitler salute every time a portrait appears, all the while screwing the caps onto shells, much to Donald's disgust. Each new batch of shells is of a different size, ranging from minute shells to massive shells, as large as Donald if not larger. The pace of the assembly line intensifies (as in the Charlie Chaplin comedy Modern Times), and Donald finds it increasingly hard to complete all the tasks. At the same time, he is bombarded with propaganda messages about the superiority of the Aryan race and the glory of working for the Fuehrer.
After a "paid vacation" that consists of making swastika shapes with his body for a few seconds in front of a painted backdrop of the Alps as exercise, Donald is ordered to work overtime. He has a nervous breakdown with hallucinations of artillery shells everywhere, some of which are snakes and birds, some sing and are the same shape of the marching band from the start, music and all. When the hallucinations clear, he finds himself in his bed, and realizes that the whole experience was a nightmare, but he sees the shadow of a figure holding its right hand up in the form of a Nazi Salute. He begins to do so himself until he realizes that it is the shadow of a miniature Statue of Liberty. Remembering he is in the United States from New York, he embraces the statue, proud of his United States citizenship.
|"Der Fuehrer's Face"|
|Single by Spike Jones and His City Slickers|
Before the film's release, the popular band Spike Jones and His City Slickers, noted for their parodies of popular songs of the time, released a version of Oliver Wallace's theme song, "Der Fuehrer's Face" (also known informally as "The Nazi Song"). The song parodied the Nazi anthem, the "Horst Wessel Song". Unlike the version in the cartoon, some Spike Jones versions contain the rude sound effect of an instrument he called the "birdaphone", a rubber razzer (aka the Bronx Cheer) with each "Heil!" to show contempt for Hitler. (The version in the cartoon features the use of a tuba instead.) The so-called "Bronx Cheer" was a well-known expression of disgust in that time period and was not deemed obscene or offensive. The sheet music cover bears the image of a tomato splattering in Hitler's face. In the Jones version, the chorus's line, "Ja, we is the Supermen—" is answered by a soloist's "Super-duper super men!" delivered in a stereotypically effeminate character; the Disney versions delivers both lines flat, without any overt suggestion of homoerotic overtones.
- Johnny Bond recorded the song in January 1942 on the OKeh label.
- Tommy Trinder recorded the song in the United Kingdom soon after the cartoon's release.
- In the movie Stalag 17, the American POW's sing part of the song to taunt their guard, Sgt. Schultz.
- In the M*A*S*H episode "Dr. Pierce and Mr. Hyde", Hawkeye Pierce sings part of the song to Radar, while suffering from insomnia. This is the Spike Jones version, with the raspberries included.
- Herman Wouk built a scene around the song in his novel War and Remembrance.
- In the movie Hart's War, a group of American POWs are seen playing the song and dancing to it in elaborate costumes.
- Harry Turtledove adapted the song in one of his Colonization novels, in tune with the novels' theme. See the page on the Race for the lyrics.
- Spike sings a short version of the song in the comic book Spike vs. Dracula Number 3.
In other media
- In August 1943, the cover of Four Favorites comic (Number 11), displayed the four favorites — from left to right, The Unknown Soldier, Captain Courageous, Lightning, and Magno, the Magnetic Man (along with Davey, his boy partner) — all singing "Der Fuehrer's Face" in the background, whilst a strong and powerful "War Bond" simultaneously knocks out Hirohito, Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini with one fierce blow in the foreground.
- This short was featured in part in Donald Duck's 50th Birthday.
- The film makes an appearance in Pearl Harbor (2001)
- 1943 – Original theatrical run
- 2004 – "Walt Disney Treasures: On the Front Lines" (DVD)
- 2005 – "Walt Disney Treasures: The Chronological Donald, Volume Two" (DVD)
- Young, Jordan R. (2005). Spike Jones Off the Record: The Man Who Murdered Music (3rd edition) Albany: BearManor Media ISBN 1-59393-012-7.
- Der Fuehrer's Face at The Encyclopedia of Animated Disney Shorts
- "New U.S. War Songs". LIFE 13 (18): 44. 2 November 1942. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
- Blitz, Marcia (1979). Donald Duck. New York: Harmony Books. p. 133. ISBN 0-517-52961-0.
- "Der Fuehrer's Face". BCDB. 2012-12-16.
- Biographies of 10 Classic Disney Characters from Walt Disney Archives at D23: The Official Disney Fan Club
- Der Fuehrer's Face at the Internet Movie Database
- Der Fuehrer's Face at the Big Cartoon DataBase
- Der Fuehrer's Face on the Encyclopedia of Disney Animated Shorts
- Banned cartoons, including Fuehrer