Dera Ghazi Khan

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ڈیرہ غازي خان
City
Dera Ghazi Khan
Ghazi University Chowk
Ghazi University Chowk
Nickname(s): Dera
Motto: Dera phullain da sehra دیرا پھلیں دا سہرا (Translation: Dera–the garland of flowers)
ڈیرہ غازي خان is located in Pakistan
ڈیرہ غازي خان
ڈیرہ غازي خان
Location in Pakistan
Coordinates: 30°03′N 70°38′E / 30.050°N 70.633°E / 30.050; 70.633
Country  Pakistan
Province Punjab
District Dera Ghazi Khan District
Foundation of Old City 1474
Foundation of New City 1910
Population
 • Urban 273,5,680
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
 • Summer (DST) +6 (UTC)
Postal code 32200
Dialling code 064[1]
Acronym DGK
Demonym Derawal, Dervi
Website http://facebook.com/deraphullandasehraa
Road to Fort Munro, Dera Ghazi Khan

Dera Ghazi Khan (Urdu: ڈيره غازي خان‎), abbreviated as D. G. Khan or traditionally as دیرہ غازی خان in nastaʿlīq script, is a geographically central city of Pakistan at the junction of all four provinces of Pakistan. The city is head quarter of Dera Ghazi Khan Division, which consists of the Dera Ghazi Khan, Rajanpur, Muzaffargarh and Layyah districts.

Etymology[edit]

The word "Dera" is derived from the local word ḍerā which means "encapment".[2] Dera Ghazi Khan thus means the settlement or city of Ghazi Khan. Many cities in South Asia have Dera as a pre-fix such as Dera Ismail Khan and Dera Allah Yar. People of Dera Ghazi Khan as well as Dera Ismail Khan are also known as Derawal or sometimes as Dervi while the latter is used as Pen name or Takhallus.

Location[edit]

Dera Ghazi Khan is a mid-country city located on the junction of all the four provinces of Pakistan i.e. Sindh, Punjab, Balochistan and Khyber Pukhtunkhwa. Due to its location, it has been once in the list of prospective capitals of Pakistan. It has beautiful and unique landscape including Indus River, Green Fields, Pachad Desert and the Sulaiman Mountains.

Ecological features[edit]

Pachad (West) Desert, Dera Ghazi Khan
Clouds on Anari Hill, Fort Munro, Dera Ghazi Khan

Religion[edit]

Islam came into this region during eighth century when Muhammad bin Qasim (695–715), the Ummayad general entered Sindh and Punjab. More than 99% people are Muslims. independence of Pakistan in 1947, Hindu population of the city migrated to India. There are three Hindu temples in the city.

Language[edit]

Dialects of Punjabi

Following are the demographics of the Dera Ghazi Khan district, by spoken language:

Inhabitants of DG Khan District speak Punjabi[3] and a great variety of its dialects, including a major dialect Saraiki, but because of good and loving nature of people there is no distinction or hate among different dialects and have a mix culture of Great (North and South) Punjab.

  • Derawali (Mainly)
  • Majhi or standard (Sizeable population in cities also in newly cultivated areas)
  • Raangri (A mixture of Punjabi and Urdu spoken by sizeable population in cities)
  • Thlochi (Border areas near Layyah & Muzafargarh districts)
  • Khetrani (Border areas near Barkhan & Musa khel districts)

Other Languages include:

  • Urdu is mother tongue of few people but being national language is spoken and understood by the sizeable population.
  • English is also understood and spoken by the educated elite.
  • Balochi is also spoken by sizeable population in the Balochistan province border areas.[4]
  • Pashto which is spoken by minority population in the Balochistan province border areas and in the cities.

History[edit]

Tomb of Ghazi Khan, one of the few remaining examples of the original architecture

Foundation of old city[edit]

The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region. The Multan region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region. The city was founded in 1476 on the western bank of the Indus River and named after Nawab Ghazi Khan Mirani, son of Nawab Haji Khan Mirani, a Balochi chieftain, who had declared independence from the Langah Dynasty's Sultans of Multan. Together with two other Deras, Dera Ismail Khan and Dera Fateh Khan, it gave its name to Derajat. After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh invaded and occupied Dera Ghazi Khan District. The Muslims faced severe restrictions during the Sikh rule. During the period of British rule, Dera Ghazi Khan district increased in population and importance.

British era and foundation of new city[edit]

Derajat eventually came into the possession of the British Raj after the Sikh War in 1849 and was divided into two districts: Dera Ghazi Khan and Dera Ismail Khan.[5] General Courtland was appointed as first Deputy Commissioner of this District. Presently there are three revenue sub-division or tehsils of Dera Ghazi Khan District i.e. Dera Ghazi Khan Tehsil, Taunsa Sharif, and a tribal belt/political area spread along with western side of the district. Following flash floods in 1908 which partially destroyed the original city, in 1910, the present-day city was established around 10 miles (16 km) away from the old town near Drahma.

The new town was planned in a grid plan, consisting of 66 city blocks with wide roads. Each alternative street join the main street of block to form choks or town squares for social gatherings, and each block has two such choks (northern and southern). The town suffered decrease in population due to the move- in 1909, there were 23,731 inhabitants, whereas in 1911 there were 18,446. In the year 1913, the Municipal Committee came into existence. At that time, the area of the town was very small. Physical growth continued and now the area was about 4 square miles (10 km2). During British periods, canals were dug in the region. Dera Ghazi Khan is in the province of Punjab.

The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslims refugees from India settled down in the Dera Ghazi Khan.

Post independence[edit]

After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while many Muslims refugees from India settled down in the Dera Ghazi Khan District. Many Hindus and Sikhs from Dera Ghazi Khan settled in Delhi found Derawal Nagar along with the migrants from Dera Ismail Khan.[6] Similarly, Muslims from different parts of India migrated to Pakistan and settled in different cities of Pakistan including Dera Ghazi Khan. This further increased the cultural diversity of Dera Ghazi Khan.

The major growth of the town has taken place since 1947. The town has largely spread to the north and south; it could not expand to the west due to the danger of flooding torrents such as affected the town in 1955. However, growth has also taken place in the eastern side. Almost all of the new developments in north and east of the planned town are haphazardly built. The development in the town from 1947 to 1958 remained slow, due to lack of transportation and communication facilities. Only a boat bridge on the river Indus in winter season and steamer service for summer season linked Dera Ghazi Khan with the rest of the Punjab. The Taunsa Barrage on the river Indus was completed in 1953 and the pace of development has since gained momentum. Keeping in view the rapidly increasing population, district D. G. Khan was further divided in two districts in 1982 i.e. Dera Ghazi Khan District and Rajanpur District. During the last 5 years, 72 industrial units were established. The Ghazi Textile mills are an attempt to establish a heavy industrial complex to raise the economic base of the town.

Climate and geography[edit]

Dera Ghazi Khan is located at 30'03" N and 70'38" E. The overall climate of the city is dry with little rainfall. The winter is relatively cold and the climate is hot during the remaining part of the year, but it is very hot in summer. The temperature during summer is usually about 115 °F (46 °C), while during winter season the temperature is as low as 40 °F (4 °C). The prevailing wind direction is North-South. Due to the barren mountains of Koh-Suleman (Sulaiman Mountains) and the sandy soil of the area, wind storms are very common in the summer. During summer, the temperatures are generally amongst the highest in Pakistan. Fort Munro, located on the edge of Punjab Province, has relatively cooler weather. In winter, scattered snowfall is also reported in this area.

Climate data for Dera Ghazi Khan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 25.0
(77)
30.0
(86)
35.0
(95)
38.0
(100.4)
42.0
(107.6)
44.0
(111.2)
43.0
(109.4)
42.0
(107.6)
40.0
(104)
38.0
(100.4)
32.0
(89.6)
22.0
(71.6)
44
(111.2)
Average high °C (°F) 20.3
(68.5)
22.1
(71.8)
26.9
(80.4)
33.5
(92.3)
38.7
(101.7)
41.5
(106.7)
38.5
(101.3)
37.4
(99.3)
36.7
(98.1)
33.4
(92.1)
27.7
(81.9)
21.9
(71.4)
31.55
(88.79)
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.2
(54)
14.7
(58.5)
19.9
(67.8)
26.0
(78.8)
30.9
(87.6)
34.2
(93.6)
32.7
(90.9)
31.9
(89.4)
30.2
(86.4)
25.3
(77.5)
19.1
(66.4)
13.6
(56.5)
24.23
(75.62)
Average low °C (°F) 4.2
(39.6)
7.3
(45.1)
12.9
(55.2)
18.5
(65.3)
23.1
(73.6)
26.8
(80.2)
26.9
(80.4)
26.4
(79.5)
23.8
(74.8)
17.3
(63.1)
10.5
(50.9)
5.3
(41.5)
16.92
(62.43)
Record low °C (°F) −2.2
(28)
−2.0
(28.4)
4.0
(39.2)
9.5
(49.1)
14.4
(57.9)
17.5
(63.5)
18.6
(65.5)
19.5
(67.1)
15.8
(60.4)
8.0
(46.4)
2.2
(36)
−2.8
(27)
−2.8
(27)
Precipitation mm (inches) 10.0
(0.394)
17.5
(0.689)
34.8
(1.37)
21.7
(0.854)
17.2
(0.677)
14.4
(0.567)
60.8
(2.394)
57.5
(2.264)
17.6
(0.693)
4.8
(0.189)
2.1
(0.083)
10.4
(0.409)
268.8
(10.583)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 222.2 206.8 234.3 259.2 290.1 247.7 241.3 261.1 271.1 283.2 249.7 220.4 2,987.1
Source: NOAA (1961–1990)[7]

Fauna and flora[edit]

Along with its many other fauna and flora it has Jerdon's Babbler. It has also one unconfirmed occurrence of Markhor, the national animal of Pakistan. This specie is called Sulaiman Markhor and is found at high altitudes.

Natural resources[edit]

There are iron, gypsum, marble, limestone, cement, precious stones, uranium, coal and petroleum and gas reserves in the district. The Koh-e-Sulaiman constitutes a major part of this area, and is full of natural deposits.

Floods[edit]

The area is also vulnerable to floods from the Indus River in the East and from the Rod Koh coming from Sulaiman Mountains in the West. In 1957 flood water entered in the city and almost after 60 years second time in history water entered in the city on 9 September 2012 due to heavy rains in Koh-e-Sulaiman.

Civic administration and politics[edit]

City of Dera Ghazi Khan is administratively subdivided into seven Union Councils.[8]

Although majority of the population is poor but they have been ruled by the rich landlords and chiefs of Baloch tribes which played significant role in the national and provincial politics. some of these feudals, who use the title Sardar for themselves, include former President of Pakistan Farooq Leghari, Governors of Punjab Zulfiqar Ali Khosa and Latif Khosa, Chief Minister of Punjab Dost Muhammad Khosa, present Chief Secretary, Punjab Nasir Mehmood Khosa, Former Inspector General Police Punjab Tariq Khosa, and present Supreme Court Judge Asif Khosa. The city is one of the old districts in South Asia and most of its politicians have been in power but Dera Ghazi Khan could not develop as other cities in Punjab. Based on the surveys of 2004–2005, Dera Ghazi Khan district is considered one of the twenty most poorest districts of Pakistan with about 51% of its population living under the poverty line.[9] The Lund, kamelani baloch,Khosa,Jhangail (Baloch tribe),Leghari, Gaurmani,Warya, Qaisrani, Sulemani, Wadani, Mastoi, Nutkani and Buzdar tribes are politically active.

Political representation[edit]

National Assembly Constituencies

  • NA-171
  • NA-172
  • NA-173

Provincial Assembly Constituencies

  • PP-241
  • PP-242
  • PP-243
  • PP-244
  • PP-245
  • PP-246
  • PP-247
  • PP-248

Notable people[edit]

Education[edit]

Dera Ghazi Khan has a literacy rate of 60 percent, which is relatively equal to the national level. Due to lack of adequate higher education facilities locally, most students go to colleges and universities in other cities of Punjab. In the past few years, there has been rapid growth in institutions for higher and technical education. Dera Ghazi Khan has produced well-known scientists, educationalists and scholars. The city is famous for its doctors and engineers usually working in the big cities of Pakistan due to lack of opportunities in this small city until recently.

Schools[edit]

The city has a variety of schools, public and private sector, with the Government High School No. 1 being the most prominent and old school of the city for boys. With the adjoining primary school No. 1, it was constructed pre-independence. Government City High School and Government Comprehensive School are also prominent schools for boys. Similarly, there are several schools for girls. All of them are affiliated with the Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Dera Ghazi Khan. These schools hold several academic and extra-curricular awards. A large proportion of the students go on to serve in prominent positions all over the world. Three high (matriculation) school for girls and four for boys provide enough facilities to educate the young. The Divisional Public School is the oldest private school established in 1986 and is the only school to offer A-levels. The city includes branches of private nationwide school chains, such as Garrison college, Bloomfield Hall School (BHS), Pakistan Atomic Energy School, The City School (TCS), The Educators, AIMS Army Public School Dera Ghazi Khan Cantt, and the Danish School. Many newly established of international and national standards are also established like The Education Zone (TEZ).APS Choti DG Khan

D.G.Khan Cantonment[edit]

In DG Khan, the Army Cantonment was established in 2006 near D.G.Khan Int. Airport. Since, Cantonment is at a distance from the main city, APS Choti was established inside the Cantonment area to facilitate the wards of Army personnel.

Initially, the school was housed in a temporary building and was up till primary level with eleven faculty members and sixty students. The school got its affiliation with APSACS in January 2007 and in the same year Classes VI–VII commenced. In 2009 and 2010 the school was upgraded to Matric level. The school was shifted to its present custom-built campus in 2010.

Army Public Schools & Colleges System (or APSACS) is an educational institution with branches in the four provinces of Pakistan. Army Public School has a branch in Dera Ghazi Khan Cantt. area near the airport. APSACSs are semi-private institutions, affiliated with the Federal Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Islamabad.

Colleges[edit]

There are following colleges in Dera Ghazi Khan:[11]

General

  • College of Agriculture, DG Khan Sub-Campus University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. (CADGK)[12]
  • PAEC Inter Science College, Dera Ghazi Khan
  • Army Public school and College D.G.Khan Cantonment near airport.
  • Govt. Postgraduate College, Dera Ghazi Khan
  • Govt. College for Women, Model Town
  • Govt. College for Women
  • Govt. College for Women, kot chutta
  • Govt. College, Behind Shalimar Hotel, Dera Ghazi Khan
  • Govt. College for Women, Choti Zareen (Dera Ghazi Khan)
  • Indus International Institute: It is affiliated with Federal Urdu University of Science and Technology has been established by private sector.[13] For the needs of remote area students, the institute has its own buses to facilitate the transport availability for the students. Indus has a library and Computer Lab as well.

. Govt. Degree College Choti Zareen (Dera Ghazi Khan)

Commerce

  • Govt. College of Commerce
  • Citi College of Commerce

Education

University of Education, Dera Ghazi Khan campus
  • The College of Education: It was established in 1989 under the affiliation of Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan. The college became a constituent institution of the University of Education in 2002 and is in its new building adjacent to the Shah Faisal (Bihari) Colony. The campus has a hostel for boys and onel for girls. The campus offers teacher education programs like BEd Secondary, MEd, M.A. Education and B.A. BEd Several private sector colleges also exist in the city.
  • Govt. College for Elementary Teacher (M)
  • Govt. College for Elementary Teacher (W)

Law[14]

  • Indus Law College, Near General Bus Stand Road, Dera Ghazi Khan
  • Multan Law College, Dera Ghazi Khan
  • Pak Law College

Ghazi Khan Medical College

Ghazi Khan Medical College, Dera Ghazi Khan
  • Ghazi Khan Medical College: The government decided to establish a medical college in Dera Ghazi Khan to improve the facilities in southern part of the province.[15] Ghazi Khan Medical College classes were started in 2010 in Q.M.C Bahawapur. The foundation stone for Ghazi University and D.G.Khan Medical College was laid on December 2011.[16] And classes shifted from Q.M.C Bahawalpur to G.K.M.C Dera Ghazi Khan in March 2012. Niaz Ahmed Baloch has been appointed as a first principal of D.G.Khan Medical College. D.G.Khan Medical and Dental College has been developed as a state-of-the-art medical institution imparting accredited and approved medical education and research. The D.H. Hospital and Research Institute, which will be a research oriented teaching hospital, will fulfill the requirement of training and research of medical students. The curriculum of D.G.Khan Medical and Dental College will be in line with the PM&DC regulations and international health standards in producing community and research oriented doctors who will be competent to deal with the common health problems of the people in a scientifically sound and cost effective manner, using the appropriate technology and holistic approach. Its graduates will be able to assume leadership in a health care team and will communicate effectively as a good clinician in accordance with the code of medical ethics.

Technology and Specialization

  • UAF College of Agriculture, Dera Ghazi Khan: It is constituent college of University of Agriculture Faisalabad located near the airport imparts training in the degree of BSc (Hons.) Agriculture. The college consists of teaching sections of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Horticulture, Agronomy, Soil and Forestry Range Management and Wildlife, Agricultural Entomology, Plant Pathology, Animal Production and Health, Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Social Sciences and Rural Development. It aims to develop as a university.
  • Govt. Institute of Technology: It is situated at airport road, is one of the biggest institute in the region offering diploma and B Tech classes in more than ten technologies in morning and evening shifts. Diploma courses in technologies are Civil, Mechanical,Electrical, Auto-mechanical, Petroleum, Chemical, Petrochemical, I.T. and Computer etc.
  • Science institute of Technology college: It is situated at Mohsin Town near by Pull Dot,is second of the biggest institute in region which offering Diploma classes in more than four technologies in morning and evening shifts.DAE courses are Electrical,Electronics,Civil,Mechanical,Chemical and etc.

Universities[edit]

Ghazi University,D.G.Khan[edit]

Ghazi University Building near airport, Dera Ghazi Khan

The government has established a state-of-the-art Ghazi University in Dera Ghazi Khan since 2011 near airport.For this purpose 1000 acre land has been acquired for next 50 yeares requirement of the university.The foundation stone for Ghazi University and Ghazi Medical College was laid on December 2011.[17] The Govt. Postgraduate College,FAU Agriculture College and Ghazi Medical College will work under this university.Vice Chancellor of Islamia University Bahawalpur Dr.Mukhtar Ahmed has given additional charge of Ghazi University v.c since 11.06.2014. The Virtual University of Pakistan has established its campus here since 2004 which is providing both campus based and distance learning education primarily based on IT tools and technology. Another prominent educational organisation is the Allama Iqbal Open University campus. The government has approved Akhuwat University of Engineering and Technology in Dera Ghazi Khan since 2012.[18] The university will be established on 351 kanals and will offer courses in Engineering, Veterinary Science, Computer Science, Information Science, Communication Science and Management Science. Sardar Kaurey Khan donated 84000 kanal area for education in Jatoi. University for Health, Engineering, Sciences & Arts can be established by this huge amount of revenue.

Historical and tourist places[edit]

Tomb of Hazarat Sakhi Sarwar[edit]

Main article: Sakhi Sarwar

Hazrat Syed Ahmad, also known as Sultan Sakhi Sarwar, Lakh Data, Sakhi Sultan and Lalan Wali Sarkar, was the son of Hazrat Zain ul Abedin, who migrated from Baghdad and settled in Shahkot, near Multan in 13th century. He studied from Syed Muhammad Ishaq, known as Miran Badshah who came from Iran and settled in Lahore during the time of the Tughlaq dynasty and is buried in the courtyard of Wazir Khan Mosque in Lahore. Syed Ahmed later went to Dhaunkal, Wazirabad for further education and is also reported to visit Baghdad. Sakhi Sarwar preached Islam in Sodhra, Wazirabad. From Dhounkal, Sakhi Sarwar came to Dera Ghazi Khan and settled in Nagaha, now named after him, Sakhi Sarwar. He died at the age of 53. His shrine was built in Sulaiman Mountains, 35 kilometres (22 mi) from Dera Ghazi Khan city. It is located in a small village named Muqam. Later, Mughal king Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur amended his tomb. It is a unique building of Mughal architecture. Thousands of people from all over South Asia come here on the Annual Celebrations of Birth of Sakhi Sarwar in March every year.

Tomb of Ghazi Khan[edit]

See also: Ghazi Khan

The tomb of Nawab Ghazi Khan Mirrani, locally called as handeera in local dialect, was built in the beginning of 15th century. This seems like the tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam in Multan. It is located in the Mulla Quaid Shah Graveyard. Its main gate is from eastern side and two small doors are in side of north and south. In it there are 11 graves, which are of the family of Nawab Ghazi Khan Mirrani. Every side of the tomb is 13 feet (4.0 m) and 3 inches (76 mm) from inside and there are conical minarets from the outside. Its circular distance from the earth is 17 feet (5.2 m) and half. The half diameter of the conical minarets remains 34 inches (860 mm) on the highest of 19 feet (5.8 m). There are 28 ladders from northern side in the internal side. The graveyard was built up around the tomb of Nawab Ghazi Khan Mirrani. This is the oldest building in the city. The tomb condition is continuously deteriorating and many social activists are raising voice to preserve this heritage.[19]

Tomb of Ali Ahmed Qadri (Darbar Qadiriyya)[edit]

Hazrat Ali Ahmed Qadri (1898–1962) was born in 1898 in Kaithal, India.[13] His father died three years after birth. He was considered to be an in-born wali. He belonged to the Qadiriyya Sufi order from the lineage of 17th-century saint Shah Kamal Qadri Kaithaly. After the independence, he migrated to Pakistan in 1949. Initially, he settled in Kot Qaboola (Arifwala Tehsil, Pakpattan District) and Multan and then finally moved to Dera Ghazi Khan. He died in 1962 and his tomb is in Block 35.

Taunsa Barrage[edit]

Main article: Taunsa Barrage

Taunsa Barrage is also the location of one of the notable structures on the Indus River called Taunsa Barrage, located several kilometres north of Dera Ghazi Khan city. Taunsa Barrage produces 100,000 kilowatts of electricity. It is a best visiting place and lot of families make trip to this tourist spot. It was designated a Ramsar site on 22 March 1996. The Taunsa Barrage was completed in 1958, and it has been identified as the barrage with the highest priority for rehabilitation. It requires urgent measures to avoid severe economic and social impacts on the lives of millions of poor farmers through interruption of irrigation on two million acres (8,000 km²) and drinking water in the rural areas of southern Punjab, benefiting several million farmers. In 2003, the World Bank approved a $123 million loan to Pakistan to rehabilitate the Taunsa Barrage on the River Indus whose structure had been damaged owing to soil erosions and old-age. The project was designed to ensure irrigation of the cultivated lands in the area of the Muzaffargarh[2] and Dera Ghazi Khan Tehsil[3] canals, and through the Taunsa-Panjnad Link Canal that supplements the water supply to Panjnad headworks canals.

Ghazi Ghat[edit]

Ghazi Ghat is one of the notable structures on the Indus River, located 10 kilometres east of Dera Ghazi Khan city. It is a very beautiful village of southern part of Punjab province. Mostly baloch tribes live in this village. Some famous tribes include Bozdar (Bakhri), Chandia, Kori, Guramani and Surani. It is a best visiting place and lot of families make trip to this tourist spot. A lot of people from Multan visit this picturesque spot.There are lot of fresh river fish stalls where scores of people come to eat this delicious dish.There is a nice view of Indus River from here. Boat riding is available for rent.There is also a petrol station and a very nice and famous hotel here.

Fort Munro[edit]

Main article: Fort Munro
Damis Lake, Fort Munro

Fort Munro, locally in Balochi language it is called "Nimroo". It is a hill station in Dera Ghazi Khan which lies on the Quetta Road at 80 km west ward from Dera Ghazi Khan city in the Sulaiman Mountains Range. According to renowned research Scholar Dr. Ghulam Qasim Mujahid Baloch: "the hill station was named during the British forward policy era in 1880 on the name of Colonel Munro the commissioner Dera jaat and Layyah Division. The old Balochi name of this place was "loh larhi (the iron rock) and "Anari Molh" (the peak of pomegranates). The famous Balochi poet of Rind Era Mir Mando visited this top and narrated the classical Balochi "Fairy Poem" which is included in the "popular poetry of the Baloches" written by famous orientalist Mr. Longworth Dames the Deputy commissioner of Dere Ghazi Khan. A lake at Fort Munro on the name of Mr. Longworth Dames still exists as: "Dames Lake"(Ref: "Biaz e Dera" University College of Education (Government Elementary College) Dera Ghazi Khan, 2005, PP.176–188). The Fort Munro is away from dusty and hot climate of Multan and D.G.Khan. It is blessed with clean and cool weather. Its altitude is 18e of 00 meters (6,470 feet) above sea level and attracts many people for short stays during the summer. Many school trips and families use to go for recreation. Families from south Punjab cities, such as Multan, Muzaffar Garh, Rajanpur, Jampur, Layyah, Taunsa, Kot addu, Lodhran, Bahawalpur and Kot Mithan make trips to this beautiful hill station during summer. In summer when the temperature reaches 48 °C (118 °F) in south Punjab, the temperature remains at 20 °C (68 °F).

Pir Zinda near cement factory[edit]

It is located near D. G. Khan Cement Factory some 40 km from the city. It is believed that a Sufi saint lived and preached here in Suri nala (Rod Koh). Its nearest village is Sahar. There is small mazar of Pir Zinda Sahib. Many people come here during pir zinda mela. Beside this mazar is its speciality, which is hot water chashma. Warm and salty water constantly comes from the ground, due to pressure. There are lot of mineral and Sulfur rich warm water ponds and springs (chashmas). People normally take bath from these ponds, in the belief that they cure disease. These warm waters have minimum temperature of 35 °C (95 °F) and are rich in salts and minerals, especially sulphur that is anti itching and effective in eliminating skin diseases. These are called thermal and medical baths. Many people come here for their refreshment and the hope of recovery from different diseases and sickness. The road conditions around this place are very poor.

Tribal area and Koh-Suliman Mountains[edit]

Main article: Sulaiman Mountains

The Sulaiman Mountains, or the Kesai Mountains, are a major geological feature of southeastern Afghanistan (Zabul, most of Loya Paktia and northeastern Kandahar Province) and Pakistan (South Waziristan and most of northern Balochistan and Dera Ghazi Khan and Rajanpur districts of Punjab). The Sulaiman Mountains form the eastern edge of the Iranian plateau where the Indus River separates it from the Subcontinent. Bordering the Sulaiman Range to the north are the arid highlands of the Hindu Kush, where more than 50 percent of the lands lie above 2,000 meters.

Famous mosques[edit]

  • Jamia Masjid is the biggest Masjid of the city. It was constructed in year 1916. There is a large pool in the Masjid which is used for making ablution. It has a big hall whose length is 100 feet (30 m) and width is 45 feet (14 m), in which 3,000 people can say their prayer at one time. Its courtyard is also wide, and can fit 10,000 men in. The minarets of the Masjid are 85 feet (26 m) high, in which there are 100 ladders.
  • Shah Bagh Mosque was the first Mosque in which people performed their first Jumma Namaz after the destruction of the old Dera Ghazi Khan when the people of Dera Ghazi Khan shifted in the new city. It is named after the Imam of the time. It is in Block No. 7.
  • Maulvi Fazl-e-Haq Masjid is also one of the oldest and big mosques in the city.
  • Eidgah near the Nizamabad is one of the oldest one while another Eidgah is near the Company Park.
  • Imambargah Haidrea Imam Bargah Haidrea is oldest Imambargah of the city.
  • Canal Colony Mosque(Located in DGKhan Medical College) is also a well known mosque.

Parks of the city[edit]

Nawaz Sharif Park, Dera Ghazi Khan
  • Nawaz Sharif Park is at Quetta road near Virtaul University Campus with a beautiful scenery and covering vast area. Its exact location is between the grid station and the cricket stadium. Its main gate is on Dera-Gadai road in front of the Model Town.
  • D.C. Garden has an area of 81 canals and 3 marlas. Divisional Public School and Wild Life Park was also the part of D.C. Garden. Although it is an administrative and residential area, it has natural greenery. Dera Ghazi Khan administration has made the Dera Ghazi Khan officers' club inside the D.C. Garden, where the officers play games such as squash, badminton, and tennis. Government employees, advocates, politicians, journalists and local people are also members of this club.
  • Company Bagh is called the second garden of the city. The East Indian Company made the company bagh in every district. This is known as company bagh. Its area is 162 canals and 12 Marlas. In 1948 a friends' club was made in this area. Company Bagh is used to play football, hockey, volleyball, badminton and table tennis, amongst other games
  • Ghazi Park is a decent sized theme park, and is the largest theme park in the city. It is located at the North-West outskirts of Dera Ghazi Khan. Exhibitions are arranged through part of the year since 1999, which attract many more visitors than on other days when there are usually only a handful. The exhibitions are held between February and March.
  • The Bank of Indus River is a peaceful picnic point for the people of Dera Ghazi Khan. From here the view of the river is beautiful. It is also known as the name of Ghazi Ghaat. Ghazi Ghaat welcomes the people coming to Dera Ghazi Khan from the eastern side. There is a boat renting service available at the river.
  • Wild Life Park Dera Ghazi Khan has recently been re-developeding. It is a good place for recreation. It has many types of animals and birds. It is commonly called Dera Ghazi Khan Zoo. The Wild Life Park is government funded and free to visit.
  • D.G.Khan and Kachi Canal is becoming a peaceful picnic point for the people of Dera Ghazi Khan. From here the view of both canals is beautiful. It is very near to city at and can access via airport road.It welcomes the people coming from Fort Munro, Sakhi Sarwer and Balochistan to Dera Ghazi Khan.

Churchyard[edit]

It is situated in the northern side of the Canal colony, residential colony in front of the Central Jail Dera Ghazi Khan. It has the walls on its four sides. This churchyard could not spread because of Christian minority in the local area. This was constructed in 1910.

Economy[edit]

Agriculture[edit]

Agriculture in Dera Ghazi Khan

Dera Ghazi Khan is located in rich agricultural land with cotton, wheat, sugarcane, rice, tobacco being the major crops grown. Dera Ghazi Khan is also well known for its dates. The district is now connected by railroad with other parts of the country including Multan, Lahore, Karachi and Quetta. The railway was built by the British before the independence of Pakistan.

Major crops[edit]

Wheat, sugarcane and cotton are the main crops grown in the district. Rice, jawar, bajra, moong, mash, masoor, ground nuts, maize and oil seeds such as rape / mustard and sunflower are also grown in minor quantities in the district.

Fruits[edit]

Mangoes, dates, citrus and pomegranate are the main fruits grown in the district. Dates, jaman, pears, phalsa and bananas are also grown in minor quantities in the district.

Vegetables[edit]

Onions, carrots, cauliflower and peas are the main vegetables grown in the district. Ladyfinger, turnips, tomatoes, potatoes, garlic and chillies are also grown in the district in minor quantities.

Fish Farming[edit]

D.G.Khan is the leading district in Pakistan in fish farming. About 15000 acres of land are under fish farming. Mainly Indian Major Carps are cultured. Now some progressive farmers are turning to Tilapia farming as well.

Forests[edit]

An area of 100,864 acres is forested in the district. There is also linear plantation of 1250 A.V. mile the roads/rails/canals in the district. Trees grown in the area are kikar, shisham, millbury and eucalyptus.

Large industries[edit]

The prominent employers in Dera Ghazi Khan are the D. G. Khan Cement Company Limited, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, the Al-Ghazi Tractors and Rahim Bux textile Mills. It is considered that these companies, along with various other flour mills, companies in the cotton, chemical and textile industries, as well as rice, sugar, and ghee mills, form the backbone of the Pakistan's economy. However, private sector investment is increasing rapidly and a large number of private banks and national corporations are offering their services in the city. The city also has an oil refinery owned by OGDC located in the Sulaiman mountain, near Taunsa. In addition to this there are also many oil rigs owned by the Dewan Group located in the tribal areas.

Dera Ghazi Khan is also famous for the production of automotive oil,air and fuel filters. Advance Auto Filters is one of the leading filters manufacturing industry in country.

Business[edit]

Chamber of commerce & industry[edit]

Chamber of commerce & industry D.G. Khan Chamber of Commerce & Industry Khakwani House, Block-34 Dera Ghazi Khan Website : http://dgkhanchamber.wetpaint.com

Foreign Remittances[edit]

Due to lack of industries and job facilities in the city, large numbers of people work in other countries mostly is GCC (Arab countries).and they share large amount in foreign remittances.There is a strong demand of night landing facility and direct flights from Saudi Arabia, Dubai and Qatar to and from D.G.Khan International Airport.

Real estate[edit]

The property and real estate businesses have very much progressed in the past few years. New housing schemes near Sakhi Sarwar road, Jampur road and Multan road have been established with all modern facilities. The capital value of rural farming land has also increased because of a huge number of workers from the city in Arab countries as a lot of them want to come back home and live with their families by having farm land as a source of income.

Hotels and restaurants[edit]

There are many hotels in the city like the Shalimar Hotel, Pakeza Hotel, Ajwa Hotel, Indus Hotel, D.G. Hotel, Mola Bux Hotel, Mugel_e_Azam Hotel, Alsarwar Hotel, Madina Hotel etc. Moula Bux Hotel is the oldest hotel in the city and it was established in 1935 and now they made Pakeeza Hotel and Kashif Bakers Royl Hotel

Markets[edit]

Travel Mark Plaza, Dera Ghazi Khan

The following shopping Markets/Centres are situated in the city:

  • Model Bazaar is a new and modern bazaar at jail road in the city.
  • Pathar Bazaar is considered as the oldest bazaar in the city.
  • The Grain market of Dera Ghazi Khan is renowned in the south Punjab. Mostly, farmers and traders of the region are affiliated with the grain market. Cotton, rice and wheat are the major crops of the area.
  • Rani bazar is a business center situated in city Dera Ghazi Khan. All kinds of jewellery and beautiful dresses for ladies are available in this market. Mostly ladies purchase their items from this market.
  • The cloth market is a business centre of the city and situated in Saddar Bazar near Committee Gollai.
  • The garments market is a business centre of the city located in Block-10 behind Govt. City High School and situated in Rani Bazar near Committee Gollai.
  • The electronic market falls within the middle of the city, near the Gollai Committee.
  • The medicine market is situated near the Civil Hospital Dera Ghazi Khan. All kinds of medicine are available from the market. Traders supply a variety of medicines for consumption by the populace.
  • The vegetable and fruit market is situated within the area near the Faridi bazar. A huge quantity of apple, apricots (khubani), plums(aalubukhara) and other vegetables are brought in this market from Balochistan and from there are supplied to the other districts the of Punjab province.
  • The mobile market is a big market in the heart of Dera Ghazi Khan. Every type of mobile phone and mobile-related shops are in this area.
  • The Mowaish Mandi is held in Shah Saddar-Din.
  • The spices industry Diamondstar Salt & spices is the famous name in spice industry in Dera Ghazi Khan.

Transportation[edit]

Dera Ghazi Khan International Airport[edit]

Dera Ghazi Khan international Airport

Dera Ghazi Khan International Airport is over 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from the city of Dera Ghazi Khan.[citation needed] It is near D.G. Khan Cantonment.It has a single, double-sided runway. It was built in 1996.

The airport provides flights to Multan, Lahore, Karachi, Islamabad. Because of high demand, it has been operating flights to and from Dubai since 2008, making it an international airport. The traffic to and from most airports is usually high, although flights to Karachi, especially, get a large number of passengers. From November 2012 Shaheen Air started its operation from this airport. In 2013 Air Indus also began its flights from this airport. FlyDubai agreed to start flights from the D.G. Khan International Airport if night landing facility is provided. Although it is international airport, a night landing facility is still not provided.

Airlines and destinations[edit]

Airlines Destinations
Pakistan International Airlines Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Bahawalpur, Dubai, Jeddah
Shaheen Air Karachi [begins 28 October 2012]
Air Indus Karachi [begins 2013]
FlyDubai Dubai [soon]
Emirates Dubai [soon]

Motorways and Road[edit]

The city is well connected with whole country by road. It is the only city in country which is at the cross of two National Highways: N70 Quetta to Lahore and N55 (Indus Highway) Karachi to Peshawar. Indus Highway, which connects the country from Karachi to Peshawar, and National Highway from Gowader to Lahore passed through Dera Ghazi Khan.

The M-5 Motorway is a planned four-lane motorway that will link Multan with Dera Ghazi Khan. It will be constructed after the completion of the M-4 Motorway. The M-6 is a planned four-lane motorway that will link Dera Ghazi Khan with Ratodero. It will be constructed after the completion of the M-5 Motorway Daewoo Express Bus Service, Faisal Movers and other bus services operate from the city to the entire country.

Pak China Link Road Via D.G.Khan[edit]

"The project will help save time, cost and freight charges, as it is the shortest route between China, the Middle East and European countries through Gwadar port.Pak China Link Road will cross through D.G.Khan The prime minister said a Chinese delegation would arrive in Islamabad Monday to review the proposed economic corridor project. He added that special economic zones would be established in D.G.Khan and along the economic corridor, and that Chinese companies have shown willingness to set up industries in the zones. Gwadar port has the potential to become a free port, adding that a special status like of Hong Kong could be awarded to Gwadar.

Rail[edit]

Railway Station, D.G. Khan

Dera Ghazi Khan is connected with the country through Chiltan Express and Khushal Express trains.

Demography[edit]

Population[edit]

The population according to the 1901 census of India (then a British colony) was 471,149 – the great majority being Baloch Muslims. The frontier tribes on the Dera Ghazi Khan border include the Ahmedani, Mazari, Lashari, Changwani,Jhangail,Jarwar, Qaisrani, Bozdar,Khosa, Lund, Leghari, Khetran, Nutkani(Notkani) Gurchani,Dasti, Jaskani, Marri, Mastoi,Jatoi, Mirani, Bugti, Malghani is part of Nutkani or Notkani and Bamozai Known as Akhund/Akhwand tribes, whose ancestors came in from Afghanistan around 200 years ago and settled in the old Dera Ghazi Khan.Also the local clans, Bhatti, Langah , Khundo, Koriya , Daha , Bhutta , Metla , Mochi , Khakhi , Khakh, Hinjra , Chajra , living in the city.

Historical populations of Dera Ghazi Khan city[20]

National Census Year Population
1972 720,343
1981 1020,007
1998 198,9680
2010 271,3520

Main towns[edit]

Aaliwala, Basti Qaisrani, Baghalchur, Bahadur Garh, Barthi, Basti Bukna, Basti Buzdar, Basti Fauja, Basti Malana, Chhabri, Chak Jhangail, Choti Zareen, Chotibala, Churatta, Darkhast Jamal Khan, Darya Khan Drahma, Fateh Khan, Fazal Katchh, Gadai, Ghaus Abad, Gulzar Khanwala, Gulzarwala, Haji Ghazi, Hero Sharqi, Hydr chowk chit Sarkani, Jakhar Imam Shah, Jaluwali, Jhoke Uttra, Kala, Khakhi, Khalid Abad chit sarkani, Kot Chutta, Kot Haibat, Kot Mubarak, Kot Qaisrani, Lakhani, Makwal Kalan, Mamoori, Mana Ahmadani, Manghrotha, Mithankot, Morejhangi, Mutafariq Chahan, Nari Shumali, Nawan, Notak, Paigah, Pir Adil, Ramin, Roonghan, Sakhi Sarwar, Samina, Shadan Lund, Shah Sadar Din, Taunsa Sharif, Tibbi Qaisrani, Tuman Khosa, Tuman Leghari, Tuman Qaisrani, Vehoa, Wadore, Yaroo,

Health[edit]

Divisional Headquarters Hospital, Dera Ghazi Khan

In D.G. Khan, there is a civil hospital called the Divisional Headquarters Hospital (DHQ), along with many private hospitals and labs. The number of beds is being doubled from 250 to 500 in DHQ. Along with the DHQ there are several private hospitals working for the welfare of the people of Dera Ghazi Khan. The overall condition of public health is unsatisfactory in the city. Hospitals of Dera Ghazi Khan also provide services to people from neighboring areas of Balochistan where situation of health facilities is even more deteriorated compared to Dera Ghazi Khan.

Culture[edit]

Charpai and Hamacha[edit]

Charpai,D.G.Khan

In the city there is Charpai, locally known as khatt and Hamacha culture. Charpai and Hamacha means a big wooden cart, which are kepts at chowks and baithaks. Normally peoples sit on charpai and hamacha in the evening and on holidays. There they discuss their daily personal, social and political issues in friendly environment.

Fairs and festivals[edit]

  • Sangh Mela, is a Vaisakhi fair during March and April, is celebrated in Sakhi Sarwar by people coming from Jhang and Faisalabad since centuries. This festival is celebrated by Hindus and Muslims especially at the time of wheat harvesting and at some places it is called as Basant. Throughout history, a large number of followers coming from different religions became the followers of Sakhi Sarwar. Max Arthur Macauliffe, a colonial office appointed in Punjab, observed in 1875 that not only Muslims but Hindus also visited the shrines during the [urs]. In the 1911 census of India, 79,085 Sikhs reported to be the follower of Sakhi Sarwar.[21]
  • Pir Adil Mela is also very famous which is celebrated at the shrine of Hazrat Pir Adil in a village named after him. Sometimes, the Jalsa or National Horse and Cattle Show is merged with this mela.
  • Jhand is the ceremony of first haircut of the child as part of a Rite of passage ceremonies which is very common in the rural areas of Dera Ghazi Khan as well. This ceremony usually takes place in the desi month of Chaitr at some shrine like Pir Adil or Fateh Shah.

Literature and poetry[edit]

Dera Ghazi Khan is also famous for its poets. The tradition of Mushaira is still very common in the city and villages. Famous Urdu poet Mohsin Naqvi was born in Dera Ghazi Khan.

Cuisine[edit]

  • Sohanjhnrran or the flowers of Moringa oleifera is very peculiar food of Dera Ghazi Khan.
  • Sohan Halwa is traditional sweet made by boiling a mixture of water, sugar, milk and wheatflour (coarse pieces)/cornflour until it becomes solid.[22]
  • Sohbat is very peculiar food of Dera Ghazi Khan and Taunsa.
  • Sijji is very peculiar food of Dera Ghazi Khan and Fort Munro.

Sports[edit]

Dera Ghazi Khan has a cricket stadium which is still under construction. It also has a hockey stadium but without AstroTurf. Other popular games are shooting volleyball, kabaddi and desi wrestling. Imran Abbas is a right-handed batsman and a right-arm medium fast bowler who has played for the Pakistani cricket team. Najeeb Amar, famous Hong Kong cricketer, was born in Dera Ghazi Khan in 1971.

Following traditional games are also very famous:

  • Geeti Danna (گیٹی ڈنا) or Gilli-danda is one of the famous traditional sports especially in boys in rural areas.
  • Doda Game
  • Baandar Killa
  • Pittu Garam
  • Stapu
  • Kabaddi
  • Ludo
  • Akh Macholi
  • Yassu Panju
  • Dubbiyan
  • Chirri Uddi, Kawa Udda
  • Pugan Pugai
  • Luk Chhap or Chuppan Chupai
  • Bantay, also called as Chidday or Goliyan

Arts and entertainment[edit]

The city has produced various famous artists like Tauqeer Nasir, which are known nationally and internationally. The National Arts Council, D. G. Khan is also established to promote the arts and theatre in the city.

Radio FM[edit]

Solo Radio FM D.G. Khan LOCATION Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan GENRES Bollywood, Indian Music LANGUAGE URDU,PUNJABI,SARAIKI CONTACT Block No. W, D.G. Khan 0642 466606

Press and media[edit]

Daily Jang is also published from Dera Ghazi Khan[23] along with many local newspapers in local languages. Daily Kasak is also published in D.G.Khan.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ "National Dialing Codes". Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited. Retrieved 5 April 2012. 
  2. ^ "A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages". Dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  3. ^ Farina Mir (2010). The Social Space of Language: Vernacular Culture in British Colonial Punjab. University of California Press. Retrieved 5 March 2014.  Page 70
  4. ^ India Census Commissioner (1902). Census of India, 1901, Volume 17, Part 1, Page 280. Rajputana Mission Press. Retrieved 5 March 2014. 
  5. ^ "Explore Pakistan | Dera Ghazi Khan". Findpk.com. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  6. ^ "Colonies, posh and model in name only!". NCR Tribune. Retrieved 16 December 2007. 
  7. ^ "Dera Ghazi Khan Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 16 January 2013. 
  8. ^ "Tehsils & Unions in the District of D.G. Khan – Government of Pakistan". Nrb.gov.pk. Retrieved 24 March 2012. 
  9. ^ Haroon Jamal (June 2007). Income Poverty at District Level: An Application of Small Area Estimation Technique (Report). Social Policy and Development Centre. pp. 15–18. http://www.spdc.org.pk/Publications/Research%20Reports/rr70.pdf. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
  10. ^ "HAFIZ ABDUL KAREEM". Geo News. Retrieved 9 March 2014. 
  11. ^ "Universities Affiliated Colleges". Sc.hec.gov.pk. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  12. ^ "CADGK – College of Agriculture, D. G. Khan". University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Retrieved 26 January 2014. 
  13. ^ "Indus International Institute". Indusdgk.edu.pk. 11 December 2011. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  14. ^ [1][dead link]
  15. ^ "Leading News Resource of Pakistan". Daily Times. 17 October 2008. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  16. ^ Jafri, Owais. "Dera visit: Sharif lays medical college’s foundation – The Express Tribune". Tribune.com.pk. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  17. ^ "Punjab Assembly: Ghazi University Bill among eight passed". The Express Tribune. 4 January 2012. Retrieved 16 March 2012. 
  18. ^ "Cabinet approves provision of land for 2 universities". The Express Tribune, 22 February 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2012. 
  19. ^ "Dera Ghazi Khan : ALL THINGS PAKISTAN". Pakistaniat.com. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  20. ^ "Pakistan: Provinces, Major Cities & Urban Areas – Statistics & Maps on City Population". Citypopulation.de. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  21. ^ Census of India, 1911, Vol. XIV, Punjab, Part I Report, by Pandit Harkishan Singh Kaul, 39
  22. ^ "Sohan Halwa a gift of saints’ city". Dawn.com. 16 December 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2014. 
  23. ^ "Daily Jang Urdu News | Pakistan News | Latest News – Breaking News". Jang.com.pk. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
Bibliography
  • "How Pakistan Made Nuclear Fuel" by Munir Ahmad Khan, former chairperson of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission: Islamabad The Nation 7 February 1998, page 7 [Pakistan: Article on How Pakistan Made Nuclear Fuel: FBIS-NES-98-042 : 11 February 1998].

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 30°03′N 70°38′E / 30.050°N 70.633°E / 30.050; 70.633