The Derazhnia Raion is located in the central-eastern part of the Khmelnytskyi Oblast, corresponding to the modern-day boundaries of the Podolia historical region. Its total area constitutes 910 square kilometres (350 sq mi). To its south and east, the raion borders upon the neighboring Vinnytsia and Zhytomyr Oblasts, respectfully.
The Derazhnia Raion was first established on March 7, 1923 as part of a full-scale administrative reorganization of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. During the same reorganization the Vovkovyntsi Raion was created with its administrative center in Vovkovyntsi, which existed until it was merged with the Derazhnia Raion in 1958.
The Derazhnia Raion is divided in a way that follows the general administrative scheme in Ukraine. Local government is also organized along a similar scheme nationwide. Consequently, raions are subdivided into councils, which are the prime level of administrative division in the country.
Each of the raion's urban localities administer their own councils, often containing a few other villages within its jurisdiction. However, only a handful of rural localities are organized into councils, which also may contain a few villages within its jurisdiction.
Accordingly, the Derazhnia Raion is divided into:
1 city council—made up of the city of Derazhnia (administrative center)
2 settlement councils—made up of the urban-type settlements of Vovkovyntsi and Lozove
27 village councils
Overall, the raion has a total of 62 populated localities, consisting of one city, two urban-type settlements, and 59 villages.