Derek J. de Solla Price

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Derek J. de Solla Price
DerekdeSollaPrice.jpg
Derek de Solla Price with a model of the Antikythera mechanism
Born (1922-01-22)January 22, 1922
Died September 3, 1983(1983-09-03) (aged 61)
Institutions University of London
University of Cambridge
Institute for Advanced Study
Yale University
Known for Scientometrics
Notable awards John Desmond Bernal Prize (1981)

Derek John de Solla Price (22 January 1922 – 3 September 1983) was a physicist, historian of science, and information scientist, credited as the father of scientometrics.[1][2]

Biography[edit]

Price was born in Leyton, England, to Philip Price, a tailor, and Fanny de Solla, a singer. He began work in 1938 as an assistant in a physics laboratory at the South West Essex Technical College, before studying Physics and Mathematics at the University of London, where he received a Bachelor of Science in 1942. He obtained a Doctor of Philosophy in experimental physics from the University of London in 1946.

Price worked as a teacher of applied mathematics at Raffles College (which was to become part of the University of Singapore in 1948). It was there that he formulated his theory on the exponential growth of science, an idea that occurred to him when he noticed the growth in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society between 1665 and 1850 – he had the complete set in his home while Raffles College had its library built.

After three years, Price returned to England to work on a second Ph.D., in the history of science, this time at the University of Cambridge. During his Ph.D. studies, he accidentally discovered Equatorie of the Planetis, a manuscript written in Middle English, which he attributed to Geoffrey Chaucer.

Around 1950, Price adopted his mother's Sephardic name, "de Solla", as a middle name. He was a "British Atheist... from a rather well-known Sephardic Jewish family", and although his Danish wife, Ellen, had been christened as a Lutheran, he did not, according to their son Mark, regard their marriage as "mixed", because they were both atheists.[3]

After obtaining his second doctorate, Price moved to the United States, where he served as a consultant to the Smithsonian Institution, and as a fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. His next post was at Yale University, where he worked until his death, serving as the Avalon Professor of the History of Science, and as chair of a new department that encompassed the histories of science, technology, and medicine.

In 1984, Price received, posthumously, the ASIS Research Award for outstanding contributions in the field of information science.

Scientific contributions[edit]

Price's major scientific contributions include:

  • studies of the exponential growth of science and the half-life of scientific literature; together with the formulation of Price's Law, namely that 25% of scientific authors are responsible for 75% of published papers (Price 1963);
  • quantitative studies of the network of citations between scientific papers (Price 1965), including the discovery that both the in- and out-degrees of a citation network have power-law distributions, making this the first published example of a scale-free network;
  • Price's model, a mathematical theory of the growth of citation networks, based on what would now be called a preferential attachment process (Price 1976);[4]
  • an analysis of the Antikythera mechanism,[5] an ancient Greek analogue computer and astronomical instrument (Price 1959, 1974).[6][7][8][9][10][11]

Notable publications[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Crawford, S. (1984). "Derek John De Solla Price (1922-1983): The man and the contribution". Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 72 (2): 238–239. PMC 227421. PMID 6375781.  edit
  2. ^ Mackay, Alan (1984). "Derek John de Solla Price: An Appreciation". Social Studies of Science 14 (2): 315–320. doi:10.1177/030631284014002013. JSTOR 284662.  edit
  3. ^ Price, Mark de Solla (2007-06-17). "Mark de Solla Price UU Sermon Gay Pride 2007". Retrieved 2008-08-01. [dead link]
  4. ^ The technical elements of Price's treatment relied heavily upon previous work by Herbert Simon, but Price was the first to apply the idea to the growth of a network.
  5. ^ Price, D.J. de Solla (November 1974). "Gears from the Greeks. The Antikythera Mechanism: A Calendar Computer from ca. 80 B. C.". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society New Series 64 (7): 1–70. doi:10.2307/1006146. ISBN 978-0871696472. JSTOR 1006146.  edit
  6. ^ De Solla Price, D. J. (1970). "Smiles at the Unobtrusive". Nature 226 (5249): 985. doi:10.1038/226985a0. PMID 16057627.  edit
  7. ^ De Solla Price, D. J. (1969). "Citations of literature". Acta cytologica 13 (10): 544. PMID 5260004.  edit
  8. ^ De Solla Price, D. J. (1967). "Citation indexing". The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 15 (5): 299. PMID 6033265.  edit
  9. ^ De Solla Price, D. J. (1967). "A guide to graduate study and research in the history of science and medicine". Isis; an international review devoted to the history of science and its cultural influences 58 (3): 385–395. doi:10.1086/350271. PMID 4867473.  edit
  10. ^ De Solla Price, D. J. (1964). "Ethics of Scientific Publication". Science 144 (3619): 655–657. doi:10.1126/science.144.3619.655. PMID 17806989.  edit
  11. ^ De Solla Price, D. J. (1963). "Letter to the Editor". Science 139 (3555): 682–682. doi:10.1126/science.139.3555.682. PMID 17788361.  edit
  12. ^ Price, Derek J. de Solla (1975). Science since Babylon. New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-01797-9. 
  13. ^ Gillispie, C. C. (1961). "Science Since Babylon. Derek J. de Solla Price. Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn., 1961. 149 pp. $4.50". Science 133 (3467): 1817–1812. doi:10.1126/science.133.3467.1817.  edit
  14. ^ Price, Derek J. de Solla (1963). Little science, big science. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-08562-1. 

Further reading[edit]