Desa (monarch)

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Desa
Grand Prince of Serbia
Duke of Duklja, Travunija and Zahumlje
Reign 1150–1153 (Co-ruler of Rascia)
1153–1155, 1162–1166 (Rascia)
1148–1162 (Duklja)
House Vukanović
Father Uroš I
Mother Anna Diogenissa

Desa (Serbian: Деса) was the Serbian co-ruler from 1148 to 1153, alongside his elder brother Uroš II, Grand Prince of Serbia; the Duke of Duklja, Travunija and Zahumlje from 1149 to 1162; the Grand Prince of Serbia from 1153 to 1155, and again from 1162 to 1166.

Life[edit]

Early life[edit]

Desa was the youngest of three sons of Uroš I, the Grand Prince of Serbia from c. 1112 to 1145. His mother was Anna Diogenissa, a Byzantine noblewoman. The eldest son Uroš II succeeded their father in 1145. Their sister, Helena, married Béla II of Hungary (r. 1131–1141). Upon the death of Béla II, Helena and the middle son Beloš became regents of Hungary. Desa initially held the region of Dendra, near Niš, until his later recognizal as Grand Prince.

1148–49[edit]

In ca. 1148, the political situation in the Balkans was divided by two sides, one being the alliance of the Byzantines and Venice, the other the Normans and Hungarians. The Normans were sure of the danger that the battlefield would move from the Balkans to their area in Italy.[1] Manuel also allied himself with the Germans after defeating the Cumans in 1148.[2] The Serbs, Hungarians and Normans exchanged envoys, being in the interest of the Normans to stop Manuel's plans to recover Italy.[3]

The Serbs under brothers Uroš II and Desa revolted against the Byzantines, when Manuel was in Avlona planning an offensive across the Adriatic, and this revolt posed danger to the Emperor if he would attack Italy, as the Serbs could strike at the Adriatic bases.[3] The Serbs next took an offensive against Radoslav, who was a loyal Byzantine vassal.[3] Radoslav was pushed to the southwestern corner of Duklja, to Kotor, and retained only the coastal area, with the brothers holding much of inland Duklja and Trebinje – over two thirds of Duklja.[3] Radoslav sought help from the Emperor, who sent aid from Durazzo.[3] At this moment, the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja ends, presumably because the author of the text had died.[3] A major war was about to erupt in the Balkans; Uroš II and Desa, in light of Byzantine retaliation, sought aid from their brother Beloš, the count palatine of Hungary.[3] By 1150, Hungarian troops played an active role in Serbia.[3]

1150–65[edit]

His brother Uroš II Primislav ruled Rascia alone from 1140 until the battle of Tara river against the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I in 1150, when the Byzantines defeated the Serbs and Hungarians. Uroš II was spared and Desa was instated as co-ruler along with Uroš. He is mentioned in Venetian charters from 1150 as a Prince of Duklja, Travunija and Zahumlje, and again in 1151.

In 1153 a dispute between the two brothers resulted in Desa and the Rascian court ousting Uroš II. Byzantine Emperor Manuel I intervened and re-instated Uroš II in 1155, deposing Desa. He tried to engage in diplomacy with Hungarian king Frederick. In the summer of 1165, Manuel I sent an army to pursuit Desa. Desa was granted a safe meeting with Manuel I and was escorted by a bodyguard. Desa gave oaths to Manuel I in a public humiliation after being examined in Constantinople on his diplomacy with Hungary. Manuel put Tihomir on the throne in 1166.

Some have concluded that Desa was the father of Stefan Nemanja, this however is disputed among other theories.

Titles[edit]

Ancestry[edit]

Desa (monarch)
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Uroš II
Grand Prince of Rascia
Co-ruler with Uroš II

1149–1153
Succeeded by
Uroš II
Grand Prince of Rascia
Only ruler of Serbia

1153–1155
Grand Prince of Rascia
1162–1166
Succeeded by
Tihomir
Royal titles
Preceded by
Radoslav
Byzantine vassal
Duke of Primorje
Duklja
and Travunia
1148–1162
Succeeded by
Mihailo III
as King of Duklja

Grdeša
as Župan of Trebinje

References[edit]

  1. ^ Srpska akademija nauka i umetnosti (1940). Društveni i istoriski spisi. Око 1148. год. ситуација на Балкану била је овака. На једној страни беху у савезу Византија и Млеци, а на другој Нормани и Мађари. Нормани су били побеђени и у опасности да се ратиште пренесе с Балкана на њихово подручје у Италију. Да омету Манојла у том плану они настоје свима средствима, да му направе што више неприлика код куће. Доиста, 1149. год. јавља се нови устанак Срба против Ви- зантије, који отворено помажу Мађари. Цар ... 
  2. ^ Fine 1991, p. 236.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Fine 1991, p. 237.