Descendants of Charles I of England

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King Charles I of England
Busts of King Charles and his wife Queen Henrietta Maria

Charles I of England was the second King of the then newly enthroned House of Stuart. He was the second surviving son of King James I of England. He became heir apparent to the English, Irish and Scottish thrones on the death of his elder brother in 1612. Later, he married the Bourbonprincess Henrietta Maria of France, after a failed Spanish match.

His reign is known for his conflicts with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the divine right of kings, which was against the belief of many of his subjects, leading to them perceiving his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, made him an enemy of the Puritans and Calvinists. Most of his actions as monarch ultimately helped precipitate his own downfall, and his eventual deposition and beheading in 1649 and the declaration of the Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell.

Many European Royals can claim descent from Charles today, such as Juan Carlos I of Spain, Franz, Duke of Bavaria, Philippe of Belgium, Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg and the late Otto von Habsburg and many are related to him via collateral bloodlines, such as Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands and Margrethe II of Denmark. This article deals with the numerous individuals who are and were descendants of Charles and his wife Henrietta (Since he is not known to have had an illegitimate children).

Marriage and Progeny[edit]

King Charles and Queen Henrietta Maria with their eldest infant children
Name Portrait Birth Death Marriages and issue
Charles II of England Charles II (by Gerrit van Honthorst).jpg 29 May 1630 6 February 1685 Married Catherine of Braganza in 1662. No legitimate liveborn issue.
had illegitimate issue from various mistresses
Mary, Princess Royal Mary, Princess of Orange by Cornelius Johnson.jpg 4 November 1631 24 December 1660 Married William II, Prince of Orange (1626–1650) in 1641. She had one child: William III.
James VII and II James Stuart, Duke of York.jpg 16 September 1633 6 September 1701 Married (1) Anne Hyde (1637–1671) in 1659. Had issue including Mary II and Anne, Queen of Great Britain;
Married (2) Mary of Modena (1658–1718) in 1673. Had issue.
Henry, Duke of Gloucester Henry, Duke of Gloucester.jpg 8 July 1640 13 September 1660 No issue.
Princess Henrietta Anne Henrietta Anne Stuart (child).jpg 16 June 1644 30 June 1670 Married Philip, Duke of Orléans (1640–1701) in 1661. Had issue.

Descendants[edit]

Progeny of Charles II of England[edit]

Name of Descendant Portrait Birth and Parents Marriages and Issue Death Miscellaneous
Charles II of England Charles II (1670s).jpg 29 May 1630
St. James's Palace, London
Son of Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria of France
Catherine of Braganza
No issue
8 illegitimate children
6 February 1685(aged 54) See Descendants of Charles II of England;
Ancestor of Diana, Princess of Wales and Sarah, Duchess of York
James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth James Scott, Duke of Monmouth and Buccleuch by William Wissing.jpg 9 April 1649
Rotterdam, Netherlands
Son of Charles II and Lucy Walter
Anne Scott, 1st Duchess of Buccleuch 15 July 1685 (aged 36) Ancestor of Spencer Perceval, Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester and Sarah, Duchess of York
Charles FitzCharles, 1st Earl of Plymouth CharlesFitzCharlesPegge.jpg 1657
Westminster, England
Son of Charles II and Catherine Pegge
Lady Bridget Osborne
No issue
17 October 1680 (aged 23) Has no surviving descendants
Charles Fitzroy, 2nd Duke of Cleveland Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland with her son, Charles Fitzroy, as Madonna and Child by Sir Peter Lely.jpg 18 June 1662
Son of Charles II and Barbara Villiers, 1st Duchess of Cleveland
Mary Wood
no issue
Anne Pulteney
had issue
9 September 1730 (aged 68) Has no surviving descendants
Charlotte Lee, Countess of Lichfield Royal Arms of England (1603-1707).svg 5 September 1664
Daughter of Charles II and Barbara Villiers, 1st Duchess of Cleveland
Edward Lee, 1st Earl of Lichfield
18 children
17 February 1718 (aged 54) Ancestor of Anthony Eden; Her great-great-granddaughter Eleanor Calvert married John Parke Custis, stepson of George Washington. She is also an ancestor of the Mitford sisters
Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton 1st Duke of Grafton.jpg 28 September 1663
Son of Charles II and Barbara Villiers, 1st Duchess of Cleveland
Isabella Bennet, 2nd Countess of Arlington
1 son
9 October 1690 (aged 27) Ancestor of Diana, Princess of Wales
George FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Northumberland 1stDukeOfNorthumberland.gif 28 December 1665
Son of Charles II and Barbara Villiers, 1st Duchess of Cleveland
Catherine Wheatly
No issue
Mary Dutton
No issue
28 June 1716 (aged 51) Has no surviving descendants
Charles Beauclerk, 1st Duke of St Albans Charles Beauclerk, 1st Duke of St Albans.jpg 8 May 1670
Son of Charles II and Nell Gwynne
Diana de Vere
12 children
1 illegitimate daughter
10 May 1726 (aged 56) Ancestor of Samantha Cameron, wife of Conservative Leader David Cameron
Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond and Lennox by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt.jpg 29 July 1672
England
Son of Charles II and Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth
Anne Brudenell
3 children
1 illegitimate child
27 May 1723 (aged 51) Ancestor of Diana, Princess of Wales

Progeny of Princess Mary[edit]

Name of Descendant Portrait Birth and Parents Marriages and Issue Death Miscellaneous
Mary of England Prinses Henriette Maria Stuart.jpg 4 November 1631
Daughter of Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria of France
William II, Prince of Orange
1 son
24 December 1660 (aged 29) Her son became William III of England; She has no surviving descendants
William III of England King William III by Cornelius Johnson.jpg 14 November 1650
Son of Mary and William II
Mary II of England
No Issue
8 March 1702 (aged 51) Deposed his uncle James II of England and was crowned King,
Married his cousin, Princess Mary, and jointly ruled with her; has no surviving descendants

Progeny of James II of England[edit]

Name of Descendant Portrait Birth and Parents Marriages and Issue Death Miscellaneous
James II of England James II (Peter Lely).jpg 14 October 1633, Son of Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria of France Anne Hyde
2 children
Mary of Modena
2 children
16 September 1701 (aged 67) Was deposed in the Glorious Revolution; replaced by his nephew and his daughter, William III and Mary II ; Has Descendants to this day
Mary II of England Mary II after William Wissing.jpg 30 April 1662, Daughter of James II and Lady Anne Hyde William III of England
No Issue
28 December 1694 (aged 32) Ruled jointly with her cousin and husband, William ; Has no descendants
Anne, Queen of Great Britain Annavon GroßbritannienDahl.jpg 6 February 1665, Daughter of James II and Lady Anne Hyde Prince George of Denmark
17 children
1 August 1714 (aged 49) Presided over the union of England and Scotland as Great Britain; Her only son to survive infanthood, Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, died young, hence she has no descendants
James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick James FitzStuart, Duke of Berwick.png 21 August 1670, Son of James II and Arabella Churchill Honora de Burgh
1 children
Anne Bulkeley
10 children
12 June 1734 (aged 64) Has surviving descendants
James Francis Edward Stuart Portrait of James Francis Edward Stuart by Antonio David.jpg 10 June 1688, Son of James II and Mary of Modena Maria Klementyna Sobieska
2 children
1 January 1766 (aged 77) The House of Stuart ended with the death of his second son, the Cardinal of York; has descendants to this day
Louisa Maria Teresa Stuart François de Troy, Portrait of Princess Louisa Maria Stuart (c. 1705).jpg 28 June 1692, Daughter of James II and Mary of Modena Never married 18 April 1712 (aged 19) She was the last legitimate female scion of the House of Stuart, other than her elder half sister, Anne;
She was a possible match for Charles XII of Sweden, her first cousin, once removed Charles, Duke of Berry, and another cousin, the future George II of England;
Has no descendants

Progeny of Henrietta of England[edit]

Name of Descendant Portrait Birth and Parents Marriages and Issue Death Miscellaneous
Henrietta of England Henrietta Anne, Duchess of Orleans by Pierre Mignard.jpg 16 June or 26 June 1644, Daughter of Charles and Henrietta Maria Philippe I, Duke of Orléans
2 children
30 June 1670 (aged 26) She died young, after giving birth to her second child with her husband. Her descendants include King Juan Carlos of Spain, Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg and Franz, Duke of Bavaria among others.
After the extinction of the House of Stuart with the death of Henry Benedict Stuart, the rights of succession to the British Throne, as per primogeniture, passed to her descendants.
Marie Louise d'Orléans Marie Louise Orleans Spain.jpg 26 March 1662,
Daughter of Philippe d'Orléans and Henrietta
Charles II of Spain
No Issue
12 February 1689 (aged 26) Was the first wife of the Last Habsburg monarch of Spain, Charles II
Has no descendants
Anne Marie d'Orléans Anne Marie d'Orléans, Mademoiselle de Valois.jpg 27 August 1669,
Daughter of Philippe d'Orléans and Henrietta
Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia
3 children
26 August 1728 (aged 69) Has surviving descendants
her daughter married into the French Royal Family and became the mother of Louis XV of France
Marie Adélaïde of Savoy Marie Adélaïde of Savoy (1685–1712), Duchess of Burgundy in 1710 by Gobert.jpg 6 December 1685,
Daughter of Anne Marie and Victor Amadeus
Louis, Duke of Burgundy
2 children
12 February 1712 (aged 26) Has surviving descendants through her only surviving son, Louis,
who succeeded his great-grandfather as Louis XV of France
Louis XV of France Head of King Louis XV by François Lemoyne.jpg 15 February 1710,
Son of Marie Adélaïde and Louis, Duke of Burgundy
Marie Leszczyńska
10 children
10 May 1774 (aged 64) Has surviving descendants, among whom are Juan Carlos I of Spain and Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou,
the current legitimist pretender to the defunct French Throne
Louise Élisabeth, Duchess of Parma Portræt af Louise-Elisabeth de France, Louis XV's datter "Mme Infante", hertuginde af Parma (1749) by Jean-Marc Nattier.jpg 14 August 1727,
Daughter of Louis XV and Marie Leszczyńska
Philip, Duke of Parma
3 children
6 December 1759 (aged 32) Has numerous descendants through her son, Ferdinand, Duke of Parma and her daughter Maria Luisa (later Queen of Spain).
Their descendants frequently intermarried between each other and as such, many individuals today can claim descent from both siblings.
Among their descendants are Juan Carlos I of Spain, Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Philippe of Belgium, Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou and Infanta Alicia, Duchess of Calabria
Ferdinand, Duke of Parma Ferdinando de Parma2.png 20 January 1751,
Son of Louise Élisabeth and Philip, Duke of Parma
Maria Amalia of Austria
3 children
9 October 1802 (aged 51) His surviving daughter Caroline married into the Royal Family of Saxony and has many descendants within the Royal Families of Saxony, Italy, Austria and Bavaria.
His son Louis continued the line of the House of Bourbon-Parma.
He is also an ancestor of the current Carlist pretender to the Spanish Throne, Carlos, Duke of Parma and also of members of the Tuscan, Austrian and Luxembourgian Royal Families
Maria Luisa, Queen of Spain Francisco de Goya y Lucientes 109.jpg 9 December 1751
Daughter of Louise Élisabeth and Philip, Duke of Parma
Charles IV of Spain
7 children
2 January 1819 (aged 67) Has numerous descendants in the existing branches of the House of Bourbon and also shares many descendants with her brother, Ferdinand, due to the intermarriage prevalent in the Spanish branch of the House of Bourbon and its own cadet branches.
Royal Heads of State like Juan Carlos I of Spain, Philippe of Belgium and Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg descend in direct lines from her

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]