Descendants of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon

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Madonna of the Catholic Monarchs showing Ferdinand, Isabella and their children
Family tree of Spanish kings (Habsburg)

On October 19, 1469, Ferdinand II of Aragon married Isabella I of Castile. They were among the most powerful monarchs in all of early modern age Europe[citation needed] and their marriage produced many children, five of whom survived to adulthood. They arranged strategic political marriages for all of these children to powerful monarchs and well-connected women. In time, many of their grandchildren became emperors and kings of various countries, and their first and second generation of descendants caused the genealogical lines of Isabella I and Ferdinand II to spread throughout Europe.

The most famous living descendants of Isabella I and Ferdinand II are probably the current European monarchs. First of all, the Kings of Spain are descended from their union, with their current major dynastic heir being King Juan Carlos I of Spain, who reigns in their native territories. However, it is also the case that all the other monarchs currently reigning in Europe – King Albert II of Belgium, Grand-Duke Henri of Luxembourg, Queen Elizabeth II of the U.K., Queen Margrethe II of Denmark, King Harald V of Norway, King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, and Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands – descend from Isabella I and Ferdinand II. This is also true of the Sovereign Princes of Europe: Albert II, Prince of Monaco and Hans-Adam II, Prince of Liechtenstein.

Albert II of Belgium and Grand-Duke Henri of Luxembourg are, given the frequent intermarriage between Catholic dynasties, both descended from the medieval monarchs through multiple lines. The non-Catholic dynasties also share several lines of descent – the following are but a few examples. Elizabeth II of the U.K. descends from the Saxe-Coburg-Gotha family and that line descends from Isabella I and Ferdinand II beginning with the 1636 marriage of Princess Elisabeth Sophie of Saxe-Altenburg (1619–1680) to Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha (1601–1675) (Elisabeth Sophie being a descendant through Isabella and Ferdinand's daughter Joanna of Castile). Margrethe II of Denmark, Harald V of Norway, and Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden also trace their mutual descent from Isabella I and Ferdinand II through that same line as Elizabeth II of the U.K. In addition, Margrethe II, Harald V, and Carl XVI Gustaf also trace their descent from the Iberian couple through Josephine of Leuchtenberg, Queen-consort to King Oscar I of Sweden. Josephine, like Queen Beatrix discussed in the following sentence, is descended from the Landgraves of Hesse-Darmstadt and that family is also descended from the Iberian couple. Beatrix of the Netherlands is descended from Isabella I and Ferdinand II through her great-great-great grandmother Wilhelmine of Prussia, wife of the first king of the Netherlands, William I. Queen Wilhelmine descends from the Landgraves of Hesse-Darmstadt and the Landgraves are descendants by virtue of the aforementioned 1636 marriage of Princess Elisabeth Sophie of Saxe-Altenburg and Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha (Elisabeth Sophie and Ernest I's daughter, Elisabeth Dorothea, married Louis VI, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt).

The Landgraves of Hesse-Darmstadt connection also provides the descent of Albert II, Prince of Monaco from Isabella I and Ferdinand II. Prince Albert's great-great-great grandmother, Princess Marie of Baden, was in turn the granddaughter of Landgravine Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt.

Hans-Adam II, Prince of Liechtenstein is descended from Isabella I and Ferdinand II through his grandmother, Archduchess Elisabeth Amalie of Austria; Elisabeth Amalie descends from the Iberian couple via the Spanish and Hesse-Darmstadt houses, as well as through the formerly-reigning Catholic imperial or royal houses of Austria-Hungary, Portugal, and Bavaria (these formerly-reigning houses all descend from Isabella I and Ferdinand II).

Children[edit]

Image Name Birth Death Notes
Isabel das Asturias.jpg Isabella October 2, 1470 August 15, 1498 Married 1. Afonso, Prince of Portugal, no issue. 2. Manuel I of Portugal and had issue
Juan of Spain1.jpeg John June 30, 1478 October 4, 1497 Married Margaret of Austria, but had no surviving issue.
Juan de Flandes 003.jpg Joanna November 6, 1479 April 12, 1555 Married Philip I of Castile and had issue.
Maria of Aragon.jpg Maria June 29, 1482 March 7, 1517 Married elder sister's widower, Manuel I of Portugal and had issue
Catherine aragon.jpg Catherine December 16, 1485 January 7, 1536 Married 1. Arthur, Prince of Wales, no issue. 2. Henry VIII of England, had issue.

Grandchildren[edit]

Image Name Birth Death Notes
no image Miguel da Paz, Prince of Asturias 1498 1500 Died young
Joos van Cleve 003.jpg Eleanor of Austria November 15, 1498 February 25, 1558 Married 1. Manuel I of Portugal, had issue, 2. Francis I of France but no issue.
Emperor charles v.png Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor February 24, 1500 September 21, 1558 Married Isabella of Portugal and had issue.
Isabella of Spain Denmark.jpg Isabella of Austria July 18, 1501 January 19, 1526 Married Christian II of Denmark, had issue.
Hans Bocksberger der Aeltere 001.jpg Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor March 10, 1503 July 25, 1564 Married Anna of Bohemia and Hungary and had issue.
HabsburgMaria.jpg Mary of Austria September 18, 1505 October 18, 1558 Married Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia, but had no issue.
Infanta Caterina of Spain.jpg Catherine of Habsburg January 14, 1507 February 12, 1578 Married John III of Portugal and had issue.
Mor - Joao III.jpg John III of Portugal June 7, 1502 June 11, 1557 Married Catherine of Habsburg and had issue.
Tizian 057.jpg Isabella of Portugal October 23, 1503 May 1, 1539 Married Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and had issue.
Beatrice of Portugal, Duchess of Savoy.jpg Infanta Beatriz, Duchess of Savoy December 31, 1504 January 8, 1538 Married Charles III, Duke of Savoy and had issue.
Portrait of Infante Luis, Duke of Beja, Belem Collection.JPG Infante Luís, Duke of Beja March 3, 1506 November 27, 1555 Died unmarried, but had illegitimate issue.
Armas duques guarda trancoso.png Infante Fernando, Duke of Guarda and Trancoso 1507 1534 Married Guiomar Coutinho and had issue
Cardeal Afonso de Portugal.jpg Cardinal-Infante Afonso of Portugal 1509 1540 Became cardinal of Portugal, unmarried and no issue
17- Rei D. Henrique - O Casto.jpg Henry of Portugal January 31, 1512 January 1, 1580 Died unmarried with no issue
Duarte, Duque de Guimarães.jpg Infante Edward, 4th Duke of Guimarães October 7, 1515 September 20, 1540 Married Isabel of Braganza and had issue
Mary I of England.jpg Mary I of England February 18, 1516 November 17, 1558 Became Queen of England, married Philip II of Spain, but had no issue

Great-grandchildren[edit]

Image Name Birth Death Notes
Marie de Portugal 1521 1577.jpg Maria of Portugal, Duchess of Viseu 1521 1577 Unmarried and had no issue
King PhilipII of Spain.jpg Philip II of Spain May 21, 1527 September 13, 1598 Married 1. Maria of Portugal and had issue
Married 2. Mary I of England, but had no issue
Married 3. Elisabeth of Valois and had issue
Married 4. Anna of Austria and had issue
Maria of Spain 1557.jpg Maria of Spain June 21, 1528 February 26, 1603 Married Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, had issue.
Infanta Juana of Spain.jpg Joanna of Habsburg June 24, 1535 September 7, 1573 She married João Manuel, Prince of Portugal, had issue.
William Scrots 001.jpg Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor July 31, 1527 October 12, 1576 Married Maria of Spain, had issue.
Anonym Erzherzog Karl II.jpg Charles II, Archduke of Austria June 3, 1540 July 10, 1590 Married Maria Anna of Bavaria (his niece, a great-great-grandchild of Isabella and Ferdinand), had issue.
no image Infante Edward, 5th Duke of Guimarães March 1541 November 28, 1576 Died unmarried with no issue
Francesco Terzio 006.jpg Johanna of Austria January 24, 1547 April 10, 1578 Married Francesco I de' Medici, had issue.
Cranach the Younger Catherine of Austria.jpg Catherine of Austria September 15, 1533 February 28, 1572 Married Sigismund II Augustus, had no issue.
Anonym Erzherzogin Eleonore.jpg Eleonora of Austria November 2, 1534 August 5, 1594 Married William I, Duke of Mantua, had issue.
ChristinavonDaenemarkCoxcie.jpg Dorothea of Denmark 1520 1580 Married Frederick II, Elector Palatine, had no issue
Christina of Denmark, Ducchess of Milan.jpg Christina of Denmark 1522 1590

Married 1 Francesco II Sforza, had no issue
Married 2 Francis I, Duke of Lorraine, had issue.

Maria Manuela de Portugal.jpg Maria Manuela, Princess of Portugal October 15, 1527 August 12, 1545 married Philip II of Spain, had issue.
Joao manuel principe portugal.jpg João Manuel, Prince of Portugal June 3, 1527 January 2, 1554 married Joan of Spain, had issue.
Emanuele Filiberto diSavoia.jpg Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy 1528 1580 Married Margaret of France Had issue
Bottega di Anthonis Mor - Ritratto di Maria di Portogallo.jpg Infanta Maria of Guimarães 1538 1577 Married Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, had issue
Catarina duquesa braganza.jpg Infanta Catarina, Duchess of Braganza 1540 1614 Married John, 6th Duke of Braganza, had issue
Elzbieta Habsburzanka.jpg Elisabeth of Austria July 9, 1526 June 15, 1545 married Sigismund II Augustus, king of Poland, had no issue
Jakob Seisenegger 002.jpg Anna of Austria July 7, 1528 October 16, 1590 Married Albert V, Duke of Bavaria, had issue
Francesco Terzio 005.jpg Barbara of Austria May 30, 1539 September 19, 1572 Married Alfonso II, Duke of Ferrara, had no issue