Descendants of James VI and I

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King James VI of Scotland and I of England

James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625), the only child of Mary, Queen of Scots, was King of Scots from 1567 and King of England and Ireland from 1603, being the first monarch of the House of Stuart to rule all three countries.

Marriage[edit]

Anne of Denmark, wife of King James

In August 1589, James married Anne of Denmark by proxy and their actual wedding ceremony took place in Oslo, Norway, on 23 November of that year. Although James and Anne were close at the beginning of their marriage, they gradually drifted apart. She had been brought up a Lutheran and converted to Catholicism shortly after marrying James, which was unpopular among the people of Presbyterian Scotland (and, later, those of Anglican England).

By the time of her husband's accession to the English throne in 1603, Anne was the mother of three living children (Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, Elizabeth and Charles), but had also suffered at least three miscarriages and stillbirths, and had another four children who died in infancy. Their second son succeeded James as King Charles I.

Children[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages and Issue Death
Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales Henry Prince of Wales 1610 Robert Peake.jpg 19 February 1594
Stirling Castle, Scotland
Never married
no children
6 November 1612 (aged 18)
Elizabeth of Bohemia Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia from NPG.jpg 19 August 1596
Falkland Palace, Fife
Frederick of Bohemia
8 children. The current UK monarchy stems from her
13 February 1662 (aged 65)
Charles I of England Charles I (young).jpg 19 November 1600
Dunfermline, Scotland
Henrietta Maria of France
5 children
30 January 1649 (aged 48)

Descendants of Elisabeth of Bohemia[edit]

Main article: Elizabeth of Bohemia

Elizabeth was the eldest daughter of James VI and I, and the sister of King Charles I. Among her suitors was King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, but she was eventually betrothed to Frederick V, then Elector of the Electorate of the Palatinate in Germany, in 1612.[1] On 14 February 1613, they married and she took up her place in the court at Heidelberg. In 1619, Frederick was offered and accepted the crown of Bohemia. Elizabeth was crowned Queen of Bohemia on 7 November 1619, three days after her husband was crowned King of Bohemia.[2] Frederick's rule was extremely brief, and thus Elizabeth became known as the "Winter Queen". Following the Restoration of the English and Scottish monarchies, she travelled to London to visit her nephew, Charles II, and died while there.

With the demise of the Stuart dynasty in 1714, her direct descendants, the Hanoverian rulers, succeeded to the British throne. Elizabeth's youngest daughter, Sophia of Hanover, became the nearest Protestant relative to the English, Scottish and Irish crowns (later British crown). Under the English Act of Settlement, the succession was settled on Sophia and her issue, so her son George Ludwig ascended the throne as George I.

Progeny of Charles Louis I, Elector Palatine[edit]

Name of Descendant Portrait Birth and Parents Marriages and Issue Death Miscellaneous
Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine Karl Ludwig Pfalz1.jpg 22 December 1617
Son of Elisabeth Stuart and Frederick V, Elector Palatine
Charlotte
3 children
Marie Luise
13 children
Elisabeth Hollander von Bernau
1 child
28 August 1680 (aged 63) Is most infamous for annulling his marriage to Charlotte, his first wife and his subsequent bigamous and morganatic marriage to Marie Luise von Degenfeld;
Was the father of the famous Duchess 'Liselotte' of Orléans, the second wife of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, and hence is an ancestor of the House of Orléans; has other less notable descendants as well.
His progeny were genealogically senior to the progeny of his sister, Sophia of Hanover, but were passed over for the latter in the Act of Settlement 1701, allowing only Protestant descendants of Sophia to inherit the throne of Great Britain
Charles II, Elector Palatine Charles II, Elector Palatine.jpg 31 March 1651
Son of Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine and Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel
Princess Wilhelmina Ernestine of Denmark
No Issue
26 May 1685 (aged 34) After his death, due to the succession rules in the Palatinate, the Electorate passed to the catholic Neuberg branch of the House of Wittelsbach. However his sister Elizabeth Charlotte, Duchess of Orléans, constituted a rival claim, one which was manipulated by her brother-in-law, Louis XIV of France, causing the Nine Years War
Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate Princesse Palatine.jpg 27 May 1652
Daughter of Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine and Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel
Philippe I, Duke of Orléans
3 children
8 December 1722 (aged 70) Along with her husband, she is the founder of the modern House of Orléans. She also has many other descendants, belonging to, among others, the Spanish, Italian, Bulgarian, Austrian royal houses
Karoline von der Pfalz COA family de Pfalz-Simmern.svg 19 November 1659
Daughter of Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine, and Marie Luise von Degenfeld
Meinhardt Schomberg, 3rd Duke of Schomberg 28 June 1696 (aged 37) Her progeny are the lesser known, yet no less greater, descendants of Charles Louis of the Palatine and his morganatic wife, Marie Luise von Degenfeld
Since in England there was no concept of morganatic marriages, her progeny would ideally have been in the Line of succession to the British throne.
However, the Act of Settlement 1701 had already reserved the throne for the Protestant descendants of Sophia of Hanover, her aunt.

Progeny of Edward of Palatine-Simmern[edit]

Name of Descendant Portrait Birth and Parents Marriages and Issue Death Miscellaneous
Edward of Palatine-Simmern Eduardo palatino.jpg 5 October 1625
Son of Elisabeth Stuart and Frederick V, Elector Palatine
Anna Gonzaga
3 children
10 March 1663 Had his wife not influenced him to convert to Catholicism from Protestantism, the succession to the British throne may have passed to his daughters;
has varied descendants, including figures such as Louis XVI of France, Maria Amalia of Saxony, the Queen of Spain as the wife of Charles III of Spain and Frederick Augustus I of Saxony
Louisa Mary of Simmern COA family de Pfalz-Simmern.svg 23 July 1647
Daughter of Edward of the Palatinate-Simmern and Anna Gonzaga
Charles Theodore, Prince of Salm
1 child
11 March 1679
Anne Henrietta of Simmern Anne de Bavière par Gobert.jpg 23 July 1648
Daughter of Edward of the Palatinate-Simmern and Anna Gonzaga
Henry III, Prince of Condé
5 children
23 February 1723 (aged 74) Two of her daughters married into the Conti line of the House of Bourbon and illegitimate Maine line respectively. Hence she was an ancestor of the Conde branch and its cadet Conti line, through her son and daughter.
She is also an ancestor of Henri, Count of Paris, the current Orleanist pretender to the extinct French throne, of Juan Carlos, the present King of Spain and of Victor Emmanuel, pretender to the Italian throne.
Benedicta Henrietta of the Palatinate COA family de Pfalz-Simmern.svg 14 March 1652
Daughter of Edward of the Palatinate-Simmern and Anna Gonzaga
John Frederick, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
2 children
12 August 1730 Through her elder daughter Charlotte, she is an ancestor of Robert, Archduke of Austria-Este, Henri, Count of Paris and Juan Carlos of Spain. Through her younger daughter, Wilhelmina Amalia, she was an ancestor of Frederick Christian, Elector of Saxony and his wife Maria Antonia Walpurgis of Bavaria, Maria Amalia of Saxony, who was Queen of Spain, Maria Anna Sophia of Saxony, Electress of Bavaria, Marie-Josèphe, the mother of Louis XVI of France, among others

Progeny of Sophia of the Palatinate[edit]

Name of Descendant Portrait Birth and Parents Marriages and Issue Death Miscellaneous
Sophia of Hanover Sophie von der Pfalz von Peter Lely.jpg 14 October 1630
Daughter of Elizabeth Stuart and Frederick V, Elector Palatine
Ernst Augustus
7 children
8 June 1714 (aged 83) The Act of Settlement, 1701 declared her heiress to the British throne, and to her cousin Anne, excluding all other Catholic contenders being the only Protestant descendant of James I. The throne eventually passed to her son George Ludwig, who ascended as George I of Great Britain. Her daughter married into the Prussian Royal family, hence she has numerous descendants. (See Line of succession to the British throne)
George I of Great Britain George I Oval.jpg 28 May 1660
Son of Sophia of Hanover and Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Sophia Dorothea of Celle
2 children
3 illegitimate children
11 June 1727 (aged 67) Has many modern day descendants. Through his son he is a direct ancestor of the House of Windsor. His daughter married into the Royal House of Prussia, hence he has the same descendants as his sister, Sophia Charlotte of Hanover (see below). His illegitimate daughter Lady Stanhope was probably the mother of Benedict Swingate Calvert and hence a grandmother of George Washington Parke Custis, stepgrandson and adopted son of George Washington
George II of Great Britain George II of Great Britain-01.jpg 10 November 1683
Son of George I and Sophia Dorothea of Celle
Caroline of Ansbach
8 children
25 October 1760 (aged 76) His main descendants are the present royal House of Windsor, however, his daughters Mary, Louise and Anne married into the Houses of Hesse, Oldenburg and Orange-Nassau respectively. Therefore, the current Danish Royal Family, Dutch Royal Family and the Landgravial House of Hesse-Kassel can claim descent from him. Also, the heir to the British Throne, Charles, Prince of Wales is descended from him through 5 different lines
Frederick, Prince of Wales Fredericpriciwaly.jpg 1 February 1707
Son of George II of Great Britain and Caroline of Ansbach
Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
9 children
20 March 1751 His son ascended the throne as George III of Great Britain. Two of his daughters, Augusta and Caroline Matilda, married into the Houses of Brunswick-Bevern and Oldenburg respectively. Through Augusta, Duchess of Brunswick, he is an ancestor of Jean Christophe, Prince Napoléon and Caroline of Brunswick, spouse of George IV of Great Britain and through his great-grandson Prince Paul of Württemberg, is an ancestor of the present Belgian, Danish, Dutch, Luxembourg, Norwegian and Swedish Royal families.
George III of Great Britain Jean-Etienne Liotard 21.jpg 4 June 1738
Son of Frederick, Prince of Wales and Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
15 children
29 January 1820 Despite having many children, most of George's descendants are confined to the House of Windsor. However through his son, the Duke of Cumberland, he was a direct patrilineal ancestor of Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick and as such the modern House of Hanover, the only extant line of the House of Welf.
Sophia Dorothea of Hanover Queen Sophie Dorothea of Prussia.jpg 16 March 1687
Daughter of George I of Great Britain and Sophia Dorothea of Celle
Frederick William I of Prussia
10 children
28 June 1757 Her husband was her paternal first cousin. Some of her prominent descendants include Queen Louisa Ulrika of Sweden, Maria Feodorovna, Empress of Russia, Anna Pavlovna of Russia (an ancestor of the present Dutch Royal family), Catharina of Württemberg, second wife of Jérôme Bonaparte, among many others. Also, through her great-grandson, Duke Louis of Württemberg, she is an ancestor of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, Juan Carlos I of Spain and Jean Christophe, Prince Napoléon
Sophia Charlotte of Hanover Sohie Charlotte von Hannover; Queen of Preußen.jpg 30 October 1668
daughter of Sophia of Hanover and Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Frederick I of Prussia
1 child
1 February 1705 Her son married his first cousin Sophia Dorothea of Hanover (see above), and fathered many children, hence she is also an ancestor of Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, Juan Carlos I of Spain and Jean Christophe, Prince Napoléon

Descendants of Charles I of England[edit]

Charles I, the second son of James VI and I was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. The monarchy was then abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England, also referred to as the Cromwellian Interregnum, was declared. Charles's son, Charles II, became king after the restoration of the monarchy in 1660.

Progeny of Charles II[edit]

Name of Descendant Portrait Birth and Parents Marriages and Issue Death Miscellaneous
Charles II of England Charles II (1670s).jpg 29 May 1630
St. James's Palace, London
Son of Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria of France
Catherine of Braganza
No issue
8 illegitimate children
6 February 1685(aged 54) See Descendants of Charles II of England;
Ancestor of Diana, Princess of Wales and Sarah, Duchess of York
James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth James Scott, Duke of Monmouth and Buccleuch by William Wissing.jpg 9 April 1649
Rotterdam, Netherlands
Son of Charles II and Lucy Walter
Anne Scott, 1st Duchess of Buccleuch 15 July 1685 (aged 36) Ancestor of Spencer Perceval, Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester and Sarah, Duchess of York
Charles FitzCharles, 1st Earl of Plymouth CharlesFitzCharlesPegge.jpg 1657
Westminster, England
Son of Charles II and Catherine Pegge
Lady Bridget Osborne
No issue
17 October 1680 (aged 23) Has no surviving descendants
Charles Fitzroy, 2nd Duke of Cleveland Barbara Palmer (née Villiers), Duchess of Cleveland with her son, Charles Fitzroy, as Madonna and Child by Sir Peter Lely.jpg 18 June 1662
Son of Charles II and Barbara Villiers, 1st Duchess of Cleveland
Mary Wood
no issue
Anne Pulteney
had issue
9 September 1730 (aged 68) Has no surviving descendants
Charlotte Lee, Countess of Lichfield Royal Arms of England (1603-1707).svg 5 September 1664
Daughter of Charles II and Barbara Villiers, 1st Duchess of Cleveland
Edward Lee, 1st Earl of Lichfield
18 children
17 February 1718 (aged 54) Ancestor of Anthony Eden; Her great-great-granddaughter Eleanor Calvert married John Parke Custis, stepson of George Washington. She is also an ancestor of the Mitford sisters
Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton 1st Duke of Grafton.jpg 28 September 1663
Son of Charles II and Barbara Villiers, 1st Duchess of Cleveland
Isabella Bennet, 2nd Countess of Arlington
1 son
9 October 1690 (aged 27) Ancestor of Diana, Princess of Wales
George FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Northumberland 1stDukeOfNorthumberland.gif 28 December 1665
Son of Charles II and Barbara Villiers, 1st Duchess of Cleveland
Catherine Wheatly
No issue
Mary Dutton
No issue
28 June 1716 (aged 51) Has no surviving descendants
Charles Beauclerk, 1st Duke of St Albans Charles Beauclerk, 1st Duke of St Albans.jpg 8 May 1670
Son of Charles II and Nell Gwynne
Diana de Vere
12 children
1 illegitimate daughter
10 May 1726 (aged 56) Ancestor of Samantha Cameron, wife of Conservative Leader David Cameron
Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond and Lennox by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt.jpg 29 July 1672
England
Son of Charles II and Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth
Anne Brudenell
3 children
1 illegitimate child
27 May 1723 (aged 51) Ancestor of Diana, Princess of Wales

Progeny of Princess Mary[edit]

Name of Descendant Portrait Birth and Parents Marriages and Issue Death Miscellaneous
Mary of England Prinses Henriette Maria Stuart.jpg 4 November 1631, Daughter of Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria of France William II, Prince of Orange
1 son
24 December 1660 (aged 29) Her son became William III of England; She has no surviving descendants
William III of England King William III by Cornelius Johnson.jpg 14 November 1650, Son of Mary and William II Mary II of England
No Issue
8 March 1702 (aged 51) Deposed his uncle James II of England and was crowned King,
Married his cousin, Princess Mary, and jointly ruled with her; has no surviving descendants

Progeny of James II of England[edit]

Name of Descendant Portrait Birth and Parents Marriages and Issue Death Miscellaneous
James II of England James II (Peter Lely).jpg 14 October 1633, Son of Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria of France Anne Hyde
2 children
Mary of Modena
2 children
16 September 1701 (aged 67) Was deposed in the Glorious Revolution; replaced by his nephew and his daughter, William III and Mary II ; Has Descendants to this day
Mary II of England Mary II after William Wissing.jpg 30 April 1662, Daughter of James II and Lady Anne Hyde William III of England
No Issue
28 December 1694 (aged 32) Ruled jointly with her cousin and husband, William ; Has no descendants
Anne, Queen of Great Britain Annavon GroßbritannienDahl.jpg 6 February 1665, Daughter of James II and Lady Anne Hyde Prince George of Denmark
17 children
1 August 1714 (aged 49) Presided over the union of England and Scotland as Great Britain; Her only son to survive infanthood, Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, died young, hence she has no descendants
James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick James FitzStuart, Duke of Berwick.png 21 August 1670, Son of James II and Arabella Churchill Honora de Burgh
1 children
Anne Bulkeley
10 children
12 June 1734 (aged 64) Has surviving descendants
James Francis Edward Stuart Portrait of James Francis Edward Stuart by Antonio David.jpg 10 June 1688, Son of James II and Mary of Modena Maria Klementyna Sobieska
2 children
1 January 1766 (aged 77) The House of Stuart ended with the death of his second son, the Cardinal of York; has descendants to this day
Louisa Maria Teresa Stuart François de Troy, Portrait of Princess Louisa Maria Stuart (c. 1705).jpg 28 June 1692, Daughter of James II and Mary of Modena Never married 18 April 1712 (aged 19) She was the last legitimate female scion of the House of Stuart, other than her elder half sister, Anne;
She was a possible match for Charles XII of Sweden, her first cousin, once removed Charles, Duke of Berry, and another cousin, the future George II of England;
Has no descendants

Progeny of Henrietta of England[edit]

Name of Descendant Portrait Birth and Parents Marriages and Issue Death Miscellaneous
Henrietta of England Henrietta Anne, Duchess of Orleans by Pierre Mignard.jpg 16 June or 26 June 1644, Daughter of Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria of France Philippe I, Duke of Orléans
2 children
30 June 1670 (aged 26) She died young, after giving birth to her second child with her husband. Her descendants include King Juan Carlos of Spain, Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg and Franz, Duke of Bavaria among others. After the extinction of the House of Stuart with the death of Henry Benedict Stuart, the rights of succession to the British Throne, as per primogeniture, passed to her descendants.
Marie Louise d'Orléans Marie Louise Orleans Spain.jpg 26 March 1662, Daughter of Philippe d'Orléans and Henrietta Charles II of Spain
No Issue
12 February 1689 (aged 26) Was the first wife of the Last Habsburg monarch of Spain, Charles II; Has no descendants
Anne Marie d'Orléans Anne Marie d'Orléans, Mademoiselle de Valois.jpg 27 August 1669, Daughter of Philippe d'Orléans and Henrietta Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia
3 children
26 August 1728 (aged 69) Has surviving descendants; her daughter married into the French Royal Family and became the mother of Louis XV of France

References[edit]

  1. ^ Emery Walker, Historical Portraits 1600-1700, READ BOOKS, 2007
  2. ^ Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland; Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland; Museum, 2001