Desert Air Force
|Desert Air Force|
|Founded||21 October 1941|
|Role||Tactical air force|
|Size||over 1,500 combat aircraft (late 1942)|
|Engagements||World War II|
The Desert Air Force (DAF), also known chronologically as Air Headquarters Western Desert, Air Headquarters Libya, the Western Desert Air Force, and the First Tactical Air Force (1TAF), was an Allied tactical air force initially created from No. 204 Group under RAF Middle East Command in North Africa in 1941 to provide close air support to the British Eighth Army. Throughout World War II, DAF was made up of squadrons from the British Royal Air Force (RAF), the South African Air Force (SAAF), the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF), and other Allied air forces.
Prior to the establishment of the Desert Air Force, several RAF formations operated in North Africa. On 3 September 1939, RAF Middle East Command—under Air Chief Marshal Sir William Mitchell, Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief Middle East—comprised four separate commands: for Egypt (designated Middle East), RAF Iraq, Mediterranean at Malta, and RAF Aden (No. 8, No. 203, and No. 94 Squadrons). Mitchell handed over to Air Vice Marshal Sir Arthur Longmore in early May 1940. When Italy declared war in June 1940, Longmore had just 29 squadrons numbering less than 300 aircraft — dispersed across the four commands detailed above.
On 10 June 1940, RAF bomber squadrons in AHQ Egypt—under the direction of No. 202 Group RAF—totalled five squadrons of Bristol Blenheims, one of Vickers Valentias and one of Bristol Bombays. The Valentia and Bombay could either be used as troop transports or medium bombers.
- HQ 202 Group, Ma'aten Bagush
- No. 250 Wing RAF, Ismailia
- No. 253 Wing RAF, Advanced HQ Ma'aten Bagush
- No. 70 (Bomber-Transport) Squadron RAF, Valentia, Helwan
- No. 216 (Bomber-Transport) Squadron RAF, Bombay, Heliopolis
Prior to the Italian invasion of Egypt, under Air Commodore Raymond Collishaw, the RAF in Egypt—which comprised nine squadrons—focused its activities on ground support, reconnaissance, and only when necessary aerial combat with the Italian Regia Aeronautica. The force at Collishaw's disposal consisted of No. 33, No. 80, and No. 112 Squadrons with Gloster Gladiators, No. 208 Squadron RAF with Westland Lysanders, four Blenheim squadrons (No.s 30, 55, 113, and 211) and No. 216 Squadron RAF with Bombays. With this small force, the RAF had to "equate its attempt to dominate the front line with avoidance of unnecessary losses". Aggressive actions induced a "defensive mentality among the Italians", aided by expedients such as using the single Hawker Hurricane in the Middle East, rapidly switched between landing grounds, to provide an exaggerated picture of British strength in the eyes of Italian reconnaissance aircraft. There were occasional signal successes as well; on 17 August 1940, Gladiators covering the Mediterranean Fleet shot down eight Savoia-Marchetti SM.79 bombers without loss.
The force in the Middle East was clearly too small, and reinforcement via the Western Mediterranean was hardly practical due to the ranges involved, which only bombers could achieve. Thus, an alternate reinforcement route began to be pioneered via Takoradi in the Gold Coast. By this and other means, by the end of November 1941 the RAF in Egypt had been bolstered by No. 73 and No. 274 Squadrons with Hurricanes and No. 37 and No. 38 Squadrons with Vickers Wellingtons, as well as several South African Air Force squadrons, ready for the beginning of Operation Compass. During Compass, "the squadrons of Hurricanes, Lysanders, and Blenheims .. strove hard to keep pace [with the ground forces], often landing after a combat sortie at a more advanced strip than from which they had set out."
On 19 April 1941, RAF No. 204 Group was created under the command of Air Commodore Raymond Collishaw and consisted of the following units:
- No. 73 Squadron (Hurricanes) at Tobruk
- No. 274 Squadron (Hurricanes) at Gerawla
- No. 14 Squadron (Blenheim IVs) at Burg el Arab
- Detachment of No. 39 Squadron (Marylands) at Maaten Baggash
- Detachment of No. 24 Squadron RAAF (Marylands) at Fuka
- No. 45 Squadron (Blenheim IVs) at Fuka
- No. 55 Squadron (Blenheim IVs) at Zimla
- No. 6 Squadron (Hurricanes and Lysanders) at Tobruk.
On 30 July 1941, Collishaw handed over No. 204 Group to Air Vice-Marshal Arthur Coningham. Later that year, the RAF's whole Middle East Command came under the command of Air Marshal Sir Arthur Tedder. On 21 October 1941, Air Headquarters Western Desert was created by upgrading 204 Group to command status.
Three wings operated in North Africa at first, 258 and 269 Wings operated over the front line and 262 Wing defended the Nile Delta. On 20 January 1942, the command was renamed Air Headquarters Libya; however, on 3 February it reverted to its former name of the Air Headquarters Western Desert.
Western Desert Air Force
On 27 October 1942, the Western Desert Air Force (WDAF) was organized as shown below:
Subordinated to General Headquarters RAF Middle East (GHQ RAF Middle East)
- No. 3 South African Air Force (SAAF) Bomber Wing
- No. 232 Bomber Wing
- No. 285 Reconnaissance Wing
- No. 2 PRU Squadron RAF (Photo Reconnaissance) (Spitfire VB)
- No. 40 Squadron SAAF (Tactical Reconnaissance) (18 × Hurricane I/II/A/B)
- No. 60 Survey Squadron SAAF (Photo Reconnaissance) (12 × Marylands)
- No. 208 Squadron RAF (Tactical Reconnaissance) (18 × Hurricane IIA/B)
- No. 1437 Flight RAF (Strategic Reconnaissance) (8 × Baltimores I/II/III)
- No. 211 Group
- 7 Squadron SAAF (anti-tank) (16 × Hurricane IID)
- No. 6 Squadron RAF (anti-tank) (16 × Hurricane IID)
- 64th Fighter Squadron USAAF (25 × P-40F Warhawks)
- 65th Fighter Squadron USAAF (25 × P-40F Warhawks)
- No. 233 Wing
- No. 239 Wing
- No. 244 Wing
- No. 212 Group
- No. 243 Wing
- No. 7 Wing
U.S. Desert Air Task Force (Part of U.S. Middle East Air Force but, with exception of 81st Bombardment Squadron, under WDAF operational control):
- 57th Fighter Group USAAF
- 12th Bombardment Group USAAF
- 82nd, 83rd, and 434th Bombardment Squadrons with B-25C Mitchells detached to RAF (see above).
- 81st Bombardment Squadron not detached to RAF.
- Air Ambulance Squadron
On 18 February 1943, the Mediterranean Air Command (MAC) was established with Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Tedder in charge of all Allied air forces in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations (MTO). The major sub-commands of MAC included RAF Middle East Command under Air Chief Marshal Sir Sholto Douglas, Air H.Q. Malta under Air Vice Marshal Sir Keith Park, and the Northwest African Air Forces (NAAF) under Major General Carl Spaatz.
MAC structure was based on historical precedent. As Air Officer Commander-in-Chief of RAF Middle East Command during the campaigns in Egypt and Libya in 1942, Tedder successfully coordinated three air force units:
- No. 205 (Heavy Bomber) Group under Air Commodore Alan P. Ritchie
- No. 201 (Naval Co-operation) Group under Air Vice Marshal Hugh Lloyd
- Air Headquarters Western Desert under Air Vice Marshal Arthur Coningham
These strategic, coastal, and tactical units provided the model upon which British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, American President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and their staffs reorganized the Allied air forces in the North African and Mediterranean Theater of Operations (MTO) at the Casablanca Conference in January 1943. The result of this reorganization was Tedder's Mediterranean Air Command and its major sub-command—the Northwest African Air Forces (NAAF), under Lt. Gen. Carl Spaatz—was structured according to Tedder's tri-force model. Accordingly, the three main combat forces of NAAF consisted of:
- Northwest African Strategic Air Force (NASAF) under former 12th Air Force commander Major General Jimmy Doolittle
- Northwest African Coastal Air Force (NACAF) under Group Captain G. G. Barrett until relieved by Air Vice Marshal Sir Hugh Lloyd
- Northwest African Tactical Air Force (NATAF) under Acting Air Marshal Sir Arthur Coningham.
Western Desert Air Force became a sub-command of Coningham's NATAF in February 1943 and Air Vice Marshal Harry Broadhurst was named commanding officer of the Western Desert Air Force. Other sub-commands of NATAF were the Northwest African Tactical Bomber Force under Air Commodore Laurence Sinclair, XII Air Support Command under Major General Edwin House, and No. 242 Group under Air Commodore Kenneth Cross.
Air Headquarters Western Desert—as the tactical component of Tedder's original tri-force—contributed significantly not only to the organization of the Northwest African Air Forces established in February 1943, but also to the structuring of the Mediterranean Allied Air Forces (MAAF) in December 1943, the Allied Expeditionary Air Forces (AEAF) of the Normandy Campaign, and even some air forces of today.
Throughout these periods of World War II when air interdiction was practiced and developed, Tedder was always at the forefront as Air Commander-in-Chief of RAF Middle East Command, Mediterranean Air Command (MAC), Mediterranean Allied Air Forces, and as Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower's Deputy Supreme Allied Commander for planning the air operations of the Normandy campaign.
When the Allied forces invaded Sicily (Operation Husky) on 10 July 1943, Desert Air Force (DAF) was created by simply renaming Western Desert Air Force. For Operation Husky, DAF contained Advanced and Rear elements.
Advanced Headquarters, Desert Air Force,
No. 211 (Offensive Fighter) Group with Spitfires:
|No. 244 Wing||No. 322 Wing||No. 324 Wing|
|No. 1 Squadron (SAAF)||No. 81 Squadron||No. 72 Squadron (RAF)|
|No. 92 Squadron (RAF)||No. 154 Squadron (RAF)||No. 93 Squadron (RAF)|
|No. 417 Squadron (RCAF)||No. 232 Squadron (RAF)||No. 111 Squadron (RAF)|
|No. 601 Squadron (RAF)
Sqn. Ldr. Stanislaw Skalski
|No. 242 Squadron (RAF)||No. 152 Squadron (RAF)|
|No. 145 Squadron (RAF) Polish Fighting Team P.F.T. Flight "C" "Skalski Circus"||No. 43 Squadron (RAF)||No. 243 Squadron (RAF)|
Other Advanced units included:
- No. 40 Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron (Spitfires)
- 1/2 No. 600 Squadron (TEF/N) operating on Malta under A.O.C. Malta (Beaufighters)
- No. 325 Wing RAF (Beaufighters)
- 1/2 No. 600 Squadron
- No. 153 Squadron (TEF/N) operating from North Africa.
- Rear Headquarters, Desert Air Force.
Operating from Tripoli Area
(60 and 682 were Photographic Reconnaissance (PR) squadrons assigned from the Northwest African Photographic Reconnaissance Wing)
DAF continued to provide close tactical support to the British 8th Army as a subordinate element of NATAF. MAC was disbanded in December 1943 and reorganized into the Mediterranean Allied Air Forces (MAAF) which absorbed NAAF, RAFM, and possibly some units of RAFME. DAF, still under Broadhurst, became a component of the Mediterranean Allied Tactical Air Force (MATAF) under Major General John K. Cannon. The successful tactical air support of ground forces in Egypt and Libya pioneered by Tedder and Coningham was the model for the establishment of NAAF at the Casablanca Conference and the tri-force (strategic, coastal, tactical) elements of this air interdiction model were retained in the new MAAF structure which generally persisted until the end of World War II. DAF existed until 30 June 1946, when it was renamed the Advanced AHQ Italy.
The air defence of Britain always received priority, so the DAF was generally equipped with older aircraft types. Initially equipped with obsolete types like the Gloster Gladiator biplane fighter and the Bristol Blenheim light bomber, the DAF made a good showing against the equally obsolete Italian Air Force. After the direct threat to Britain receded, newer types were assigned to the DAF, such as the Hawker Hurricane and Douglas Boston medium bomber in 1941.
U.S.-built P-40 Tomahawks/Kittyhawks also went to the DAF as it was unsuited to European operations which were generally fought at much higher altitudes and against more formidable opposition. The P-40 was used initially as an air superiority fighter but it was also adapted (and found to be ideally suited) to ground attack missions.
The DAF always outnumbered its Axis opponents and concentrated on long-range interdiction and direct tactical 8th Army support. Unfortunately, these tactics meant that the faster Messerschmitt Bf 109s of Jadgdeschwader 27 usually had the advantage of height and surprise over the low-level, slow-flying DAF fighters and losses were correspondingly heavy.
In 1942, the DAF reorganized its tactics and upgraded its inventory. Spitfires were eventually assigned in the air superiority role, becoming operational in August 1942, which allowed the DAF to finally turn the tide.
The DAF adapted the Luftwaffe concept of tactical air support and Army co-operation by using fighter-bombers controlled via radio by "Forward Air Controllers"; trained air force observers attached to forward Army units.
The DAF improved the concept by introducing "cab ranks" of fighter-bombers in the air waiting to be called in to attack specific tactical targets. In this way the DAF provided vital and decisive air support to the Eighth Army until the end of the war, fighting through Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Sicily and mainland Italy. The tactical concepts which had proven so successful in the latter part of the North African campaign were subsequently adopted with even greater success during the Invasion of Europe in 1944.
The SAAF provided over a dozen squadrons to the DAF. This was their main theatre of operations, as the South African government had decided their military should not operate outside Africa. Between April 1941 and May 1943, the 11 squadrons of the SAAF flew almost 34,000 sorties and claimed 342 enemy aircraft destroyed.
The Australian contribution included fighter and bomber squadrons, perhaps most notably No. 3 Squadron RAAF which arrived in North Africa in late 1940 and served with the DAF until the closing stages of the war in Europe. By that time, No. 3 Sqn had the most substantial service record of any DAF squadron, including the greatest number of kills (217 claims). Many Australian pilots also flew with RAF or SAAF squadrons in the DAF.
Many exiles from Occupied Europe—especially Polish airmen—also flew in DAF squadrons. No. 112 Squadron RAF was largely made up of Poles and in 1943, the Polish Fighting Team ("Skalski's Circus") was attached to No. 145 Squadron RAF.
From July 1942, the U.S. Army Middle East Air Force (USAMEAF) commander—Maj. Gen. Lewis H. Brereton—attached USAAF personnel from the 57th Fighter Group and 12th Bombardment Group to DAF fighter and bomber units, as "observers". This was technically a violation of the Arnold-Portal-Towers agreement, which included a stipulation that American personnel should serve only in U.S. units. From mid-September, the P-40 Warhawk squadrons of the 57th FG and the B-25 squadrons of the 12th BG were officially attached to DAF units. On 12 November 1942, USAMEAF was dissolved and replaced by the 9th Air Force, although some U.S. units remained with Commonwealth formations for some time afterward.
Commonwealth personnel who served with the DAF were awarded the Africa Star campaign medal with a bronze rosette in the "bar" position on the ribbon.
In October 1941, the Western Desert Air Forces had 16 squadrons of aircraft (nine fighter, six medium bomber and one tactical reconnaissance) and fielded approximately 1,000 combat aircraft by late 1941. By the time of the Second Battle of El Alamein, the DAF fielded 29 squadrons (including nine South African and three USAAF units) flying Boston, Baltimore and Mitchell medium bombers and Hurricane, Kittyhawk, Tomahawk, Warhawk and Spitfire fighters and fighter-bombers. There were over 1,500 combat aircraft, more than double the number of aircraft the Axis could field.
The following were the air officers commanding either the Air Headquarters Western Desert or the Desert Air Force:
- AHQ Western Desert
- Desert Air Force
- List of World War II North Africa Airfields
- Balkan Air Force
- Second Tactical Air Force
- Third Tactical Air Force
- Northwest African Tactical Air Force
- No. 242 Group RAF
- Northwest African Air Forces
- Northwest African Coastal Air Force
- Leo Niehorster, http://orbat.com/site/ww2/drleo/017_britain/39_raf/_raf_middle-east.html
- Philip Moyes, Bomber Squadrons of the RAF, McDonald, London, 1964, Appendix 15, p.309.
- John D.R. Rawlings et al., The History of the Royal Air Force, Temple Press Aerospace, 1984, p.93
- Rawlings et al., 1984, p.94
- Vol.II of the Official History
- The Australians at War Film Archive - 25
- Playfair, Vol. IV, Appendix 8 (a).
- Molony, p. 72.
- Playfair, Vol. IV, pp. 271 & 272.
- Craven & Cate, p. 27, 28
- Craven & Cate, p.33
- Craven & Cate, p. 35
- Dear & Foot (2005), p. 992
- Commands - Med/Mid East_P
- Bowyer, Chaz (1984). Men of the Desert Air Force, 1940-43. William Kimber. ISBN 0-7183-0539-6.
- Bowyer, Chaz; Shores, Christopher (1981). Desert Air Force at War. Ian Allen. ISBN 0-7110-1154-0.
- Craven, Wesley Frank; Cate, James Lea (eds) (1983) . The Army Air Forces in World War II, Volume Two: Torch to Pointblank (August 1942 to December 1943). US Official history; full text online from Google Books. Diane Books. ISBN 1-4289-1587-7.
- Dear, I.C.B.; Foot, M.R.D. (editors) (2005) . The Oxford Companion to World War II. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280666-1.
- Herington, John (1954). Volume III — Air War Against Germany and Italy, 1939–1943. Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Canberra: Australian War Memorial.
- Historical Office Headquarters, Army Air Forces (1945). Participation of the Ninth & Twelfth Air Forces in the Sicilian Campaign, Army Air Forces Historical Study No. 37,. Army Air Forces Historical Office, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama.
- Maurer, Maurer (1983). Air Force Combat Units Of World War II. Office of Air Force History, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama.
- Molony, Brigadier C.J.C.; with Flynn, Captain F.C. (R.N.); Davies, Major-General H.L. & Gleave, Group Captain T.P. (2004) [1st. pub. HMSO:1973]. Butler, Sir James, ed. The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume V Part 1: The Campaign in Sicily 1943 and The Campaign in Italy 3rd September 1943 to 31st March 1944. History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Uckfield, UK: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-84574-069-6.
- Playfair, Major-General I.S.O.; Molony, Brigadier C.J.C.; with Flynn, Captain F.C. (R.N.) & Gleave, Group Captain T.P. (2004) [1st. pub. HMSO:1966]. Butler, Sir James, ed. The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume IV: The Destruction of the Axis Forces in Africa. History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Uckfield, UK: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-84574-068-8.
- Shores, Christopher; Williams, Clive (1991). Aces High. Grub Street.
- Woerpel, Don (1977). A hostile sky: the Mediterranean airwar of the 79th Fighter Group. Andon Press. OCLC 3294390.
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