Desfontainia

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Desfontainia spinosa
Desfontainia spinosa.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Bruniales
Family: Columelliaceae
Genus: Desfontainia
Species: D. spinosa
Binomial name
Desfontainia spinosa
Ruiz & Pav.

Desfontainia is a monotypic genus of flowering plants placed currently in the family Columelliaceae, though formerly in Loganiaceae[1]Potaliaceae (now subsumed in Gentianaceae) or a family of its own, Desfontainiaceae. Its single, very variable, species, Desfontainia spinosa (Chilean holly), is a native of rainforests and mountain slopes in southern Central America and South America,occurring from Costa Rica in the north to certain islands of Tierra del Fuego (shared by Chile and Argentina) in the extreme South,being present also in Panama, Colombia, Venezuela Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador.[2][3] The uses include medicinal / hallucinogenic purposes, a natural dye and as an ornamental evergreen shrub. In cultivation,it will grow slowly (in 10–20 years) to some 2.5m in height and width, but,in the wild,it can also take the form of a small tree and reach around 4m.It has glossy dark green, holly-like leaves, and waxy red tubular flowers, often with yellow tips, and reaching 4 cm in length. The fruit is a greenish-yellow berry circa 1.5 cm in diameter and contains around 44 glistening, coffee-brown seeds. It is a calcifuge (i.e. requires a lime-free environment) and will thrive in wetter conditions in the wild than it is sometimes given credit for in the horticultural literature, occurring as it does in bogs and swamps. It is usually a terrestrial plant, but can also grow as an epiphyte.

The genus was named for the French botanist, René Louiche Desfontaines.[4] It is hardy to −5 °C (23 °F), and requires winter protection in areas with significant frosts.

The species was introduced into cultivation in Europe by William Lobb in 1843. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[5]

Habitat[edit]

In the Valdivian temperate rainforest of Chile and Argentina D. spinosa is typically found growing in the understorey of forests dominated by Nothofagus (Southern Beech) species - particularly 'Lenga' (Nothofagus pumilio) and 'Coihue' (Nothofagus dombeyi).[6]

Epiphyte[edit]

In 2001 D.spinosa was described for the first time as having been observed growing as a (fully autotrophic) epiphyte,the host tree in question being the lahuán / alerce - the gigantic and extremely long-lived conifer Fitzroya cupressoides.The epiphyte communities of the largest substrates (Substrate (biology)) (deep soil mats some 34 m (111 ft) up in the Fitzroya crowns),featured not only Desfontainia,but also the shrub Pseudopanax laetevirens (Araliaceae) and two tree species,namely Tepualia stipularis (Myrtaceae)and Weinmannia trichosperma (Cunoniaceae).These normally terrestrial species were thriving in their epiphytic existence - even a 4m tall specimen of Tepualia showed no sign of stress.Some Fitzroya crowns sported such large epiphytic trees as to give the impression of a 'double crown effect'[7]

Seed-Dispersal[edit]

The sole seed-dispersal vector for both epiphytic and terrestrial populations of Desfontainia in the Fitzroya forest remnants of Chile and Argentina is the chumaihuén (Dromiciops gliroides),an edible dormouse-like marsupial some 20 cm in length (including tail).This little creature,part frugivore / part insectivore forms an evolutionary link from the marsupials of South America to the marsupial fauna of Australia.It is better-known by its Spanish name Monito del Monte (=Little Monkey of the Mountain ). Largely arboreal and nocturnal,Dromiciops distributes in its faeces the seeds of many of the berry-bearing, endemic plants present in its range,including those of not one,but two shrubs hallucinogenic to humans : Desfontainia spinosa (see below) and Gaultheria insana,formerly known as Pernettya furens (Ericaceae).[8] [9]

Pollinators[edit]

D.spinosa,like many red-flowered plants,is pollinated by birds,the species involved being the Green-backed Firecrown - Sephanoides sephaniodes - the most southerly species of hummingbird. A bumblebee species - Bombus dahlbomii is also involved.Bee species are barely receptive to red wavelengths of light i.e. greater than 600 nm,but have been found still to be able to perceive red flowers,particularly blue-ish red ones,thanks to their l-receptors.Desfontainia flowers are mostly of a true red (scarlet as opposed to deep pink) but,seen with the green-sensitive component of a bee's vision,still present enough of a contrast with green foliage to be noticeable and thus pollinatable. Furthermore,the yellow flower mouths of certain varieties of Desfontainia would be visible by bees at 590 nm.(See Bee learning and communication section 1.6 Neurobiology of colour vision). Bombus dahlbomii,a large,golden-furred species and the only one native to the South American temperate forest of southern Chile and Argentina,is now,sadly, endangered,thanks to the introduction of European Bombus terrestris.[10][11][12]

Uses[edit]

D. spinosa has twice been reported with voucher specimens as a hallucinogen from Andean southern Colombia by Richard Evans Schultes : the first time in 1942 from the Paramo de Tambillo and the second from the Paramo de San Antonio in 1953. Shamans in Colombia's Sibundoy Valley make a tea of the leaves 'when they want to dream' or 'to see visions and diagnose disease'. One report states that the tea is so powerful that it causes the shamans to 'go crazy'. It is not used frequently, partly because of its potency, partly because the plant itself is not cultivated and must be gathered in the wild in remote paramos. The Colombian name of the shrub is Borrachero de Paramo (=intoxicating plant of the mountain bog/bleak upland moor). The Camsá shamans of the Sibundoy Valley are also expert in the use of the dangerously toxic solanaceous hallucinogens Brugmansia and Iochroma and their occasional employment of Desfontainia for similar divinatory purposes (and, indeed, reticence to speak of this practice) may well indicate a plant similarly toxic and difficult to use and causing a comparably unpleasant experience and after-effects.[13]

D. spinosa var. hookeri has been reported as a narcotic utilised by the Mapuche people of Chile by Dr. Carlos Mariani Ramirez, who also likened the bitterness of the plant to that of Gentian and mentioned its use as a yellow dye.[14]

The greenish-yellow, baccate fruit of D. Spinosa is reputedly even more intoxicating than the foliage of the plant and is reported occasionally to have been brewed into a potently psychoactive type of chicha (see also Saliva-fermented beverages).[15]

Names for desfontainia in the Mapuche language add to our knowledge of its appearance and folk uses in Chile: Taique means 'shiny', in reference to the plant's glossy leaves; Chapico means 'chilli water', alluding to the plant's hot and bitter taste; Michay Blanco means 'white kind of yellow tree', i.e. white shrub furnishing a yellow dye' (Michay can also designate several species of Berberis which not only yield yellow dyes but also have bright yellow wood and also somewhat resemble desfontainia in appearance); Latuy is also a name for Latua pubiflora,the single species of the monotypic genus Latua (Solanaceae) endemic to central Chile and used by the Machi of the Mapuche people as a hallucinogen and poison to cause insanity (sometimes permanent) in a victim - which accords well with its Brugmansia-like content of tropane alkaloids.[16]

A test for alkaloids with Dragendorff's reagent (see Johann Georg Noel Dragendorff) on samples of Desfontainia from herbarium specimens collected in Argentina,Chile and Ecuador did not, however, indicate the presence of alkaloids, tropane or otherwise;[17] and, while the chemistry of Desfontainia is at last becoming better-known, none of the compounds isolated from it thus far can yet account for the plant's undoubted hallucinogenic effects.[18]

Chemistry[edit]

Chemotaxonomically (Chemotaxonomy),the tendency has often been to place Desfontainia in the Loganiaceae.,[19][20] although it is currently assigned to the Columelliaceae.

D. spinosa has been found to contain, among other compounds[21] the cucurbitacins spinoside A[22] and B.[23][24] These bitter steroids, while not hallucinogenic, could contribute to the relative toxicity of the plant for human subjects, given that cucurbitacins exhibit cytotoxicity and that certain kinds have been held responsible for cases of poisoning, some fatal, by dangerously irritant/cathartic plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae such as Ecballium elaterium and Citrullus colocynthis.

A commoner and more benign constituent of Desfontainia, present in considerable quantity, is the pentacyclic triterpene acid ursolic acid,in which apple peel is particularly rich. Ursolic acid has anti-cancer and anti-obesity properties.

Loganin and secoxyloganin, compounds related to secologanin a molecule involved in the Mevalonate pathway leading to, inter alia, terpenoid and steroid biosynthesis.

Sweroside an iridoid glycoside,found also in the fruits of Cornus officinalis and plant material of Gentiana lutea, with anti-osteoporosis and wound-healing properties.[25][26]

Liriodendrin a lignan diglucoside also found in Liriodendron tulipifera (Magnoliaceae) and Acanthopanax senticosus (Araliaceae) and having anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects.[27] Liriodendrin is transformed in vivo to syringaresinol.

Syringaresinol, a lignan and the hydrolysate of liriodendrin, occurring also in Castela emoryi, Prunus mume and Magnolia thailandica, has been shown to inhibit the motility of peptic ulcer-causing bacterium Helicobacter pylori. This would go some way to explaining the use of a decoction of Desfontainia leaves for stomach disorders in Chilean folk medicine.[3]

Experiences[edit]

The available literature on Desfontainia furnishes no first-hand accounts by Colombian or Chilean shamans of their experiences of intoxication by their traditional preparations of this entheogenic plant - nor indeed are there any testimonies from ethnobotanists who have witnessed at first-hand or been told in any detail by indigenous informants of the methods by which such preparations are made - all of which has rendered the (relatively few) attempts made by members of the drug subculture to utilise the plant fraught with a measure of danger. To date,only one account of such a bold/foolhardy attempt has become easily available and this is not without interest.[28]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Leeuwenberg,A.J.M.1969.Notes on American Loganiaceae IV. Revision of Desfontainia Ruiz et Pav. Acta Bot. Neerl. 18: 669-79.
  2. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. London: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1-4053-3296-4. 
  3. ^ a b http://www.psychotropia.co/?p=1141[full citation needed][self-published source?]
  4. ^ "Desfontainia spinosa 'Harold Comber'". The Royal Horticultural Society. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. Retrieved March 6, 2008. 
  5. ^ "Desfontainia spinosa AGM". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 23 July 2013. 
  6. ^ http://www.florachilena.cl/Niv_tax/Angiospermas/Ordenes/Dipsacales/Desfontainiaceae/Taique.htm[full citation needed]
  7. ^ Clement,Joel P.,Moffett,Mark W.,Shaw,David C.,Lara,Antonio,Alarçon,Diego and Larrain,Oscar L. Selbyana Vol. 22,No.1 (2001),pp.76-88. Crown Structure and Biodiversity in Fitzroya Cupressoides,the Giant Conifers of Alerce Andino National Park,Chile. Pub. Marie Selby Botanical Gardens,Inc.
  8. ^ Amico,Guillermo C.,Rodríguez-Cabal,Mariano C.,Aizen,Marcelo A. Laboratorío Ecotono-CRUB,Univeridad Nacional del Comahue,Quintral 1250,Bariloche,Rio Negro 8400,Argentina. Published online September 4, 2008 The potential key seed-dispersing role of the arboreal marsupial Dromiciops gliroides.
  9. ^ Myers,P.,Espinosa,R.,Parr,C.S.,Jones T.,Hammond,G.S. and Dewey T.A. 2013. The Animal Diversity Web (online) Accessed at http://www.animaldiversity.org
  10. ^ http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/~gdk/stabg_new/poms/2002/aug02pom.htm
  11. ^ Martínez-Harms,J.,Palacios,A.G.,Márquez,N.,Estay,P.,Arroyo,M.T.K. and Mpodozis. The Journal of Experimental Biology 213 564-571 Pub.2010 by The Company of Biologists Ltd. doi:10.1242 /jeb.037622 Can red flowers be conspicuous to bees? Bombus dahlbomii and South American temperate forest flowers as a case in point
  12. ^ Goulson,D. Argentinian Invasion! Buzzword 21 pp.17-18
  13. ^ Schultes, Richard Evans; Hofmann, Albert (1979). The Botany and Chemistry of Hallucinogens (2nd ed.). Springfield Illinois: Charles C. Thomas. [page needed]
  14. ^ Bello, Andrés, ed. (1965). Témas de Hipnosis pps. 262-263. Santiago, Chile. 
  15. ^ Rätsch,Christian, The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants: Ethnopharmacology and its Applications. Rochester: Park Street Press, 1998
  16. ^ Plowman,T.,Gyllenhaal,L.O.,& Lindgren J.E.,1971.Latua pubiflora,magic plant from southern Chile. Botanical Museum Leaflets,23:61-92.
  17. ^ Schultes,Richard Evans.1977.De Plantis Toxicariis e Mundo Novo Tropicale Commentationes XV:Desfontainia a new Andean hallucinogen.Botanical Museum Leaflets 25 (3):99-104.
  18. ^ Schultes,R.E. De speciebus varietatibusque Desfontainia - colombianae notae. Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. 17 (65): 313-319,1989. ISSN 0370-3908.
  19. ^ Hegnauer,R.,Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen 4 1966 p.414
  20. ^ Gibbs,R.D.,Chemotaxonomy of Flowering Plants 3 (1974) p.1332
  21. ^ Houghton, Peter J.; Lian, Lu Ming (1986). "Iridoids, iridoid-triterpenoid congeners and lignans from Desfontainia spinosa". Phytochemistry 25 (8): 1907–12. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)81172-3. 
  22. ^ http://www.sci-toys.com/scichem/jqp030/5281325.html[full citation needed]
  23. ^ http://www.plant-expert.com/plant-2130.html[full citation needed]
  24. ^ Houghton, Peter J.; Lian, Lu Ming (1986). "Triterpenoids from Desfontainia spinosa". Phytochemistry 25 (8): 1939–44. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)81179-6. 
  25. ^ Sun, Hui; Li, Lijing; Zhang, Aihua; Zhang, Ning; Lv, Haitao; Sun, Wenjun; Wang, Xijun (2013). "Protective effects of sweroside on human MG-63 cells and rat osteoblasts". Fitoterapia 84: 174–9. doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2012.11.010. PMID 23201331. 
  26. ^ Öztürk, Nilgün; Korkmaz, Seval; Öztürk, Yusuf; Başer, K. Hüsnü Can (2006). "Effects of Gentiopicroside, Sweroside and Swertiamarine, Secoiridoids from Gentian (Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra), on Cultured Chicken Embryonic Fibroblasts". Planta Medica 72 (4): 289–94. doi:10.1055/s-2005-916198. PMID 16557467. 
  27. ^ Jung, Hyun-Ju; Park, Hee-Juhn; Kim, Ryung-Gue; Shin, Kyoung-Min; Ha, Joohun; Choi, Jong-Won; Kim, Hyoung Ja; Lee, Yong Sup; Lee, Kyung-Tae (2003). "In vivo Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Effects of Liriodendrin Isolated from the Stem Bark of Acanthopanax senticosus". Planta Medica 69 (7): 610–6. doi:10.1055/s-2003-41127. PMID 12898415. 
  28. ^ http://www.entheogen-network.com/forums/viewtopic.php?f=10&t=23192[full citation needed][self-published source?]

External links[edit]