Deshpande (Marathi: देशपांडे)(Kannada: ದೇಶಪಾಂಡೆ)is one of the most famous Brahmin surnames in the state of Maharashtra and North Karnataka. Deshpande was the revenue post created by the King Krishnadevrai of Devgiri (Daulatabad). One Deshpande used to be appointed superior to about 10 Pandes. More than 96% of Deshpandes belong to the Deshastha Brahmin community. Some Goud Saraswat Brahmin (GSB), Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu (CKP), Smarth Brahmin families also have this surname.
Deshpande derives from the Marathi title dešpande,. Dešpande was formerly a hereditary office, and is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit terms deśa ("country", or "district") and pandita ("learned man"). Deshpande is also said to mean "tax collector" from the historic caste system.
- Baji Prabhu Deshpande, a 17th-century lieutenant of Shivaji
- Murarbaji Deshpande, a 17th-century military general
- Nirmala Deshpande, a Padmashri award winner (2005)
- P. L. Deshpande (known as PuLa); Marathi writer, playwright, actor, and song-writer
- Vasantrao Deshpande - a Hindustani classical and Natya Sangeet singer.
- Gururaj Deshpande, an Indian-American businessman and co-founder and chairman of Sycamore Networks and chairman of A123 Systems
- Rahul Deshpande - Indian vocalist