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The term design science was introduced in 1963 by R. Buckminster Fuller (Fuller and McHale 1963) who defined it as a systematic form of designing. The concept of design science was taken up in S. A. Gregory's 1966 book of the 1965 Design Methods Conference (Gregory 1966) where he drew the distinction between scientific method and design method. Gregory was clear in his view that design was not a science and that design science referred to the scientific study of design. Herbert Simon in his 1968 Karl Taylor Compton lectures (Simon 1996) used and popularized these terms in his argument for the scientific study of the artificial (as opposed to the natural). Over the intervening period the two terms have co-mingled to the point where design science has come to have both meanings, with the meaning of scientific study of design now predominating.
Science of design 
The first edition of Simon's The Sciences of the Artificial, published in 1969 (third edition available as: Simon 1996), built on previous developments and motivated the development of systematic and formalized design methodologies relevant to many design disciplines, for example architecture, engineering, urban planning, medicine, computer science, and management studies (e.g. Baldwin and Clark 2000; Banathy 1996; Cross 1984; Long and Dowell 1989; Romme 2003; Van Aken 2004; Warfield 1990). Simon's ideas about the science of design also motivated the development of design research and the scientific study of designing (Gero 2008). In his book Simon also used the idea of a theory of design alluding to design science as a science of design. For example, the axiomatic theory of design described in (Suh, 1990) presents a domain independent theory that can explain or prescribe the design process. Developing from the idea of a 'design science' there has been recurrent concern to differentiate design from science (Gregory, 1966; Cross, Naughton, and Walker, 1981; Willem, 1990). Cross (2001) differentiated between scientific design, design science and a science of design. The scientific study of design does not require or assume that the acts of designing are themselves scientific and an increasing number of research programs take this view (Gero 2004). Cross (2006) uses the term 'designerly' to distinguish designing from other kinds of human activity.
Design as science 
There is growing pressure on architects, engineers, lawyers, managers and other design-oriented professionals to act and decide on the basis of a systematic body of evidence (cf. Van Aken and Romme 2009). Hevner and Chatterjee (2010) provide a reference on Design Science Research (DSR) in Information Systems, including a selection of papers from the DESRIST conferences, a look at key principles of DSR, and the integration of action research with design research. In 2010, 122 professors promoted design science in information system research by signing a memorandum (cf Österle et al. 2010).
Design as science in information systems 
Hevner et al. (2004) provide a set of seven guidelines which help information systems researchers conduct, evaluate and present design-science research. The seven guidelines address design as an artifact, problem relevance, design evaluation, research contributions, research rigor, design as a search process, and research communication (Hevner et al. 2004).
Later extensions of the Design Science framework detail how design and research problems can be rationally decomposed by means of nested problem solving (Wieringa, 2009). It is also explained how the regulative cycle (problem investigation, solution design, design validation, solution implementation, and implementation evaluation) fits in the framework.
See also 
- Baldwin, C. Y. and K. B. Clark (2000). Design Rules, Vol. 1: The Power of Modularity. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. ISBN 0-262-02466-7
- Österle, H., Becker, J., Frank, U., Hess, T., Karagiannis, D., Krcmar, H., Loos, P., Mertens, P., Oberweis, A., Sinz, E. J., Memorandum on design-oriented information systems research, in: European Journal of Information Systems, 20, Nr. 1, pp. 7–10
- Banathy, B.H. (1996). Designing Social Systems in a Changing World. Plenum, New York/London, U.K. ISBN 0-306-45251-0
- Brown, H., Cook, R., and Gabel, M. (1975). Environmental Design Science Primer. Advocate Press, New Haven, CT
- Cross, N., Naughton, J., and Walker, D. (1981). "Design method and scientific method", Design Studies, 2 (4), 195-201.
- Cross, N. (ed.) (1984). Developments in Design Methodology. Wiley, New York. ISBN 0-471-10248-2
- Cross, N. (2001). "Designerly Ways of Knowing: Design Discipline versus Design Science", Design Issues, 17 (3), 49-55.
- Cross, N. (2006). Designerly Ways of Knowing, Birkhauser (2007). ISBN 978-3-7643-8484-5
- Fuller, R. Buckminster and McHale, J. (1963). World Design Science Decade, 1965-1975, Southern Illinois University. (6 vols.)
- Gero, J. S. (2004).The PhD Program in Design Science at the University of Sydney, Development and Prospects of PhD Programme in Design Science Education, Chaoyang University of Technology, Taiwan, pp. 17–22.
- Gero, J. S. (ed) (2008). Design Computing and Cognition'08, Springer. ISBN 1-4020-8727-6
- Gregory, S. A. (1966). The Design Method, Butterworths.
- Hevner, A.R., S.T. March, J Park, and S. Ram (2004), "Design science in information systems research". MIS Quarterly, 28, 75-105.
- Hevner, A.R. & Chatterjee, S (2010) Design Research in Information Systems, Integrated Series in Information Systems, Volume 22, Springer. ISBN 1-4419-5652-2
- Long, J. and J. Dowell (1989). "Conceptions of the discipline of HCI: Craft, applied science, and engineering". In: A. Sutcliffe and L. Macaulay (eds.), People and Computers, V. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 9–32.
- March, S.T. and G.F. Smith (1995). "Design and natural science research on information technology". Decision Support Systems, 15, 251-266.
- Romme, A.G.L. (2003). "Making a difference: Organization as design". Organization Science, 14, 558–573.
- Simon, H.A. (1996). The Sciences of the Artificial, third edition. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. ISBN 0-262-69191-4
- Suh, N. (1990). The Principles of Design, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-504345-6
- Willem, R. (1990). "Design and Science", Design Studies, 11 (1), 43-47.
- Van Aken, J.E. (2004). "Management research based on the paradigm of the design sciences: The quest for field-tested and grounded technological Rules". Journal of Management Studies, 41, 219-246.
- Van Aken, J.E. and A.G.L. Romme (2009). "Reinventing the future: adding design science to the repertoire of organization and management studies". Organization Management Journal, 6, 5-12.
- Warfield, J. (1990). A Science of Generic Design. Intersystems Publishers, Salinas, CA.
- Wieringa, R. (2009). "Design Science as nested problem solving". 4th International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ACM, 1-12.