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The designated marksman (DM) or squad designated marksman (SDM) is a military marksman role in an infantry squad. The term sniper was used in Soviet doctrine although the soldiers using the Dragunov SVD were the first to use a specifically designed designated marksman's rifle. The analogous role in the Israeli army is sharpshooter.
The DM's role is to supply rapid accurate fire on enemy targets at ranges up to 500 meters (550 yd) with a rifle capable of semi-automatic fire called a designated marksman rifle equipped with a telescopic sight. Like snipers, DMs are trained in quick and precise shooting, but unlike the more specialized "true" sniper, they are also attached to an infantry fireteam and intended to lay down accurate rapid fire at valuable targets as needed, thus extending the reach of the Fireteam.
- 1 DM / sniper differences
- 2 Equipment
- 3 Worldwide use
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
DM / sniper differences
The DM role differs significantly from that of a specially trained sniper. A sniper is a specialist highly trained in fieldcraft, who carries out a range of ISTAR-specific missions independent of others, and more specialized than standard infantry tasks. In contrast, a DM is a soldier who has received some additional marksmanship training. Within a fireteam, the DM's role is to provide an additional capability to the infantry platoon, which is the ability to engage targets at greater ranges than the other members of the squad or section.
The DM operates as an integral member of the infantry platoon, providing a niche capability contributing to the overall firepower of the platoon in the same way as a grenadier with a rifle-mounted grenade launcher, allowing the team to have a better chance against groups of enemies and armored vehicles; or the automatic rifleman who employs the squad/section machine gun to lay down suppressing fire for an amount of area denial to the enemy. The DM weapon provides a capability to the infantry platoon in the shape of increased precision at a greater range than that provided by the standard infantry rifle, by virtue of its sighting system and/or larger caliber. By comparison, the sniper role is much more specialized with very comprehensive selection, training and equipment.
Snipers are ordinarily equipped with specialized, purpose-built bolt-action or semi-automatic sniper rifles or anti-materiel rifles; while DMs are often equipped with accurized battle rifles or assault rifles fitted with optical sights and heavy barrels.
Snipers are mainly employed for targets at ranges from 500 metres (550 yd) up to more than 2,000 metres (2,190 yd) using rifles with larger caliber ammunition. DMs are utilized for targets at ranges between 250 and 500 metres (270 and 550 yd) using a rifle chambered with standard-issue rifle ammunition. In addition, snipers often take a fixed strategic position and camouflage themselves (e.g. with a Ghillie suit), while a DM will tactically move with his unit and is otherwise equipped in the same way as other members of the infantry platoon.
The designated marksman is intended to fill the gap between the typical infantry rifle and longer-range sniper rifles. The typical service rifle is intended for use at ranges up to 500 meters while sniper rifles are generally used at ranges of 1,000 meters and greater. Designated marksman rifles are designed to fill this gap, typically being employed at ranges of 250 to 500 metres (270 to 550 yd).
In some cases, the designated marksman rifle is simply an accurized version of the standard service rifle (e.g. Mk 12 SPR) while in other cases, the rifle is a larger caliber rifle design.
Regardless of which of the three categories a designated marksman rifle fits into, it retains semi-automatic firing capability and a magazine capacity of 10–30 rounds depending on the firearm in question.
A typical Australian Army fireteam of four soldiers will include a scout employing a F88S Austeyr (5.56 NATO) fitted with an enhanced optic device, usually either an ACOG or ELCAN C79. Additionally, 7.62 mm marksman rifles (SR-25s) are employed by the maneuver support teams in the platoon. However HK417 rifles have been procured by the Army as a substitute for the F88S during operations in Afghanistan and possibly thereafter. The SASR also uses the Mk 14 EBR amongst its four-man infantry sections.
Recently, the role of the L86A2 Light Support Weapon has been in the designated marksman role due to its increased range of up to 1000m while also capable of giving accurate automatic fire, now usually delivered by the Minimi. The Royal Marines and United Kingdom Special Forces also use the HK417 rifle in the designated marksman role.
On 28 December 2009 the UK Ministry of Defence announced the adoption of the L129A1 rifle made by Lewis Machine & tool of the US for use as a semi automatic DM rifle, firing the 7.62mm NATO round, providing accurate fire of up to 900m as an urgent operational requirement in Afghanistan.
The Indian Army uses a locally manufactured licensed variant of the SVD Dragunov in the Designated Marksman role. The Dragunov is used in conjunction with the INSAS family of weapons to give flexibility and striking power at short to mid range firefights, to Indian Army infantry units engaged with opposing forces.
Israel Defense Forces (IDF)
The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) implemented significant changes to sharpshooting doctrine in the 1990s. Doctrine, training program, and courseware were completely rewritten and snipers were issued the bolt-action M24 SWS instead of the M14 rifle. A major change was the introduction of a new battle profession – the designated marksman (קלע סער, "kala sa'ar" in Hebrew) – intended to improve the accuracy and firepower of an infantry platoon and compromise between the role of a sniper and an assault rifleman. These soldiers were generally called "squad snipers" to describe their role. They are armed with SR-25 rifle and sharpshooter variations of the IMI Tavor TAR-21 (STAR-21), M16A2E3 and M4 carbine.
United States Marine Corps
The U.S. Marines uses M14s which are rebuilt at Marine Corps Base Quantico and designated as Designated Marksman Rifles, which are being replaced by M39 Enhanced Marksman Rifle. The Corps also utilizes two different adaptations of the M16 assault rifle: the Squad Advanced Marksman Rifle (SAM-R), and the Mk 12 Mod 1 SPR.
United States Army
The 101st ABN (Air Assault) Division recognized the need for a Squad Designated Marksman, when they encountered fires beyond the 300-500m range. The 82nd ABN DIV deployed with designated marksmen, trained on the M-4 using ACOG's with great success out to 600m, some 82nd ABN units were issued M14s The U.S. Army 3rd Infantry Division saw limited use of a modified M16 which was accurized in a manner similar to the SAM-R, unofficially designated the AMU Squad Designated Marksman Rifle (SDM-R) This rifle was designed for engagements up to 1000m.
The U.S. Army DM also uses the predecessor of the M16 rifle, the M14, in certain infantry line units. These are commonly equipped with Leupold optics, a Sage stock and are designated the M14SE Crazy Horse.
The United States Navy SEAL Teams employs SDM rifles in roughly the same manner as the Marine Corps and Army, although there is no specific "Designated Marksman" role in a SEAL platoon. Known used weapons include, but are not limited to, the Mk 14 Mod 0 Enhanced Battle Rifle, M110 Semi-Automatic Sniper System, MK11/SR-25, the MK12 Mod X, the much elusive "SEAL Recon Rifle" and in some cases even regular M14 Rifles fitted with optical scopes.
Although referred to as "snipers", the Soviet Union and its allies have since World War II employed specially-equipped and trained "sharpshooting" soldiers at a section ("squad") level to increase the range of their section to 1,000 meters (1,100 yd). This is commonly accepted as the first example of what came to be known as a designated marksman as opposed to a true sniper.
Since 1963 these soldiers have been equipped with the Dragunov SVD rifle that shares all the characteristics typical of a designated marksman rifle (Semi-automatic fire, telescopic sight, chambered for standard military rifle cartridge).
- Related military roles
- Soviet sniper, the Soviet equivalent of a Designated Marksman.
- Sniper, more specialized military marksmen.
- Dragunov Sniper Rifle
- M21, the scoped and accurized version of the M14.
- United States Army Squad Designated Marksman Rifle
- U.S. Marine Corps Designated Marksman Rifle
- U.S. Marine Corps Squad Advanced Marksman Rifle
- United States Navy Mark 12 Mod X Special Purpose Rifle
- SR-25, designed by Knight's Armament Company
- Stirling, Robert (18 December 2012). Special Forces Sniper Skills. Osprey Publishing. pp. 163–165. ISBN 978-1-78200-765-4.
- Dougherty, Martin J. Sniper: SAS and Elite Forces Guide: Sniping skills from the world's elite forces. Amber Books Ltd. pp. 54–56. ISBN 978-1-909160-38-5.
- Halberstadt, Hans (18 March 2008). Trigger Men: Shadow Team, Spider-Man, the Magnificent Bastards, and the American Combat Sniper. St. Martin's Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-1-4299-7181-2.
- Australia Defense Force news – February 2010
- "UK selects 7.62 mm Sharpshooter weapon for Afghan ops". www.janes.com. 2009-12-28. Retrieved 2009-01-25.
- Pushies, Fred (15 November 2011). MARSOC: U.S. Marine Corps Special Operations Command. MBI Publishing Company. pp. 113–115. ISBN 978-1-61059-750-0.
- Kokalis, Peter (2005). "M14 reborn: Crazy Horse and the Romanian Option". Shotgun News 50 (12): 20–22, 24, 26.
- Cutshaw, Charles Q. (2011). Tactical Small Arms of the 21st Century: A Complete Guide to Small Arms From Around the World. Iola, Wisconsin: Gun Digest Books. p. 259. ISBN 1-4402-2482-X.
- Field Manual 3–22.9; Rifle Marksmanship – See Chapter 7, Section VII – Squad Designated Marksman Training