Desoxypipradrol

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Desoxypipradrol
Desoxypipradrol.svg
Desoxypipradrol 3D.gif
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(RS)-2-benzhydrylpiperidine
Clinical data
Legal status ?
Routes oral, nasal and sublingual
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability >90%
Metabolism Hepatic
Half-life 16-20 hours
Identifiers
CAS number 519-74-4 YesY 5807-81-8 (HCl)
ATC code None
PubChem CID 160506
ChemSpider 141045 YesY
Chemical data
Formula C18H21N 
Mol. mass 251.368 g/mol
 YesY (what is this?)  (verify)

Desoxypipradrol, also known as 2-diphenylmethylpiperidine (2-DPMP), acts as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI)[1] developed by Ciba in the 1950s.[2]

Chemistry[edit]

Desoxypipradrol is closely related on a structural level to the compounds methylphenidate and pipradrol, all three of which share a similar pharmacological action.[1] Of these three piperidines, desoxypipradrol has the longest elimination half-life, as it is a highly lipophilic molecule lacking polar functional groups that are typically targeted by metabolic enzymes, giving it an extremely long duration of action when compared to most psychostimulants. Methylphenidate, on the other hand, is a short-acting compound, as it possesses a methyl-ester moiety that is easily cleaved, forming a highly polar acid group, while pipradrol is intermediate in duration, possessing a hydroxyl group which can be conjugated (e.g. with glucuronide) to increase its hydrophilicity and facilitate excretion, but no easily metabolized groups.

History[edit]

Desoxypipradrol was developed by the pharmaceutical company CIBA (now called Novartis) in the 1950s,[3] and researched for applications such as the treatment of narcolepsy and ADHD; however, it was dropped from development after the related drug methylphenidate was developed by the same company. Methylphenidate was felt to be the superior drug for treating ADHD due to its shorter duration of action and more predictable pharmacokinetics, and while desoxypipradrol was researched for other applications (such as facilitation of rapid recovery from anaesthesia[4]), its development was not continued. The hydroxylated derivative pipradrol was, however, introduced as a clinical drug indicated for depression, narcolepsy and cognitive enhancement in organic dementia.

Legal status[edit]

Desoxypipradrol's structural similarity to pipradrol makes it possible that it would be considered a controlled substance analogue in several countries such as Australia and New Zealand.

United Kingdom[edit]

As of the 4th November 2010, the UK Home Office announced a ban on the importation of 2-DPMP, following a recommendation from the ACMD.[5]

Prior to the import ban, desoxypipradrol was sold as a 'legal high' in several products, most notably "Ivory wave". Its use lead to several Emergency Department visits which prompted the UK government to commission a review from the ACMD. One man had ingested nearly 1 gram of the drug which may have been fatal without sedation with an anaesthetic dose of a benzodiazepine administered in accident and emergency.[citation needed]

The Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs stated in their report[6] that:

"there are serious harms associated with 2-DPMP... typically prolonged agitation (lasting up to 5 days after drug use which is sometimes severe, requiring physical restraint), paranoia, hallucinations and myoclonus (muscle spasms/twitches)."

2-DPMP was due to become a class B drug[7] on the 28th March 2012,[8] but the bill was scrapped as two steroids deemed not to be abusable were included in the bill but were later recommended to remain uncontrolled.[9] There was a new discussion about its fate on April 23, 2012, where it was decided that the bill would be rewritten and 2-DPMP would still be banned. It was also decided that the bill would be a blanket ban of related chemicals.[10]

Desoxypipradrol was eventually made a class B drug and placed in Schedule I on the 13th June 2012.[11] There were no recorded deaths from the drug between the banning of its import and the banning of its possession. "Esters and ethers of pipradrol" were controlled with the same amendment as class C drugs.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Ferris, RM; Tang, FL (1979). "Comparison of the effects of the isomers of amphetamine, methylphenidate and deoxypipradrol on the uptake of l-3Hnorepinephrine and 3Hdopamine by synaptic vesicles from rat whole brain, striatum and hypothalamus". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 210 (3): 422–8. PMID 39160. 
  2. ^ US Patent 2820038 - 2-Diphenyl-Methyl-Piperidine
  3. ^ Tripod J, Sury E, Hoffmann K. (1954). "Zentralerregende Wirkung eines neuen Piperidinderivates. (German)". Experientia 10 (6): 261–262. doi:10.1007/BF02157398. PMID 13183068. 
  4. ^ Bellucci, G (1955). "(2-Diphenylmethyl-piperidine hydrochloride and the methyl ester of 2-chloro-2-phenyl-2-(2-piperidyl)-acetic acid), drugs with waking effect in anesthesia.". Minerva anestesiologica 21 (6): 125–8. PMID 13244387. 
  5. ^ Import ban on psychoactive drug UK Home Office
  6. ^ "ACMD advice on 'Ivory Wave'" (PDF). UK Home Office. 2012-01-27. Retrieved 2012-03-11. 
  7. ^ "The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2012" (PDF). UK Home Office. 2012-01-27. Retrieved 2012-03-11. 
  8. ^ "Government accepts ACMD's advice to schedule D2PM, 2-DPMP and phenzepam" (PDF). UK Home Office. 2012-01-27. Retrieved 2012-03-11. 
  9. ^ "ACMD letter on further advice on the classification of two steroidal substances - February 2012" (PDF). UK Home Office. 2012-02-14. Retrieved 2012-03-18. 
  10. ^ "Draft Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2012". UK Home Office. 2012-04-23. Retrieved 2012-05-04. 
  11. ^ a b "A Change to the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971: control of pipradrol-related compounds and phenazepam". UK Home Office. 7 Jun 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-30.