John Spata

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John Spata
Titles and styles
  • despot
Noble family Spata family
Born First half of the 14th century
Died 29 October, 1399
Occupation Vassal of Simeon Uroš (1359–71)
Vassal of Thomas Preljubović (1375–79)

John Spata (fl. 1358 – d. 29 October, 1399), known in Albanian as Gjin Bua Spata, was an Albanian magnate with the title of despot, who ruled Aetolia (1360s–?), Angelokastron (?–1399), Naupactus (1378–99) and Arta (1370s–99). Together with Peter Losha, he led raids into Epirus, Acarnania and Aetolia in 1358. He was recognized as despot by titular Serbian Emperor Simeon Uroš in the early 1360s.

Life[edit]

Origin[edit]

It is believed that "Spata" derived from the Albanian word for "sword" (shpatë),[1] thus, he was called "John the Sword".[2] Karl Hopf's genealogy of the Spata family is "altogether inaccurate".[3] According to it, his father was Pietro, the lord of Angelokastron and Delvina (1354)[4] during the reign of Emperor Dušan. It is known that Spata had a brother, Sgouros Spata.

1358–71[edit]

In the first half of the 14th century, mercenaries, raiders and migrants flooded into Greece (1325 and 1334 raids into Thessaly). These were known in Greek as Albanians, from their area of origin, but they also included Vlachs.[5] In 1358, Albanians and Vlachs overran Epirus, Acarnania and Aetolia, and subsequently established two principalities under their leaders, John Spata and Peter Losha.[1]

Nikephoros II Orsini launched a campaign against the invading Albanians,[6] and also faced with the threat of Radoslav Hlapen to the north, he negotiated with Simeon Uroš, presumably to prevent Simeon's Albanian allies from supporting the Albanians in Epirus.[6] The negotiations were thwarted by Nikephoros' death fighting the Albanians at Acheloos (1359).[7]

Simeon Uroš, the titular Serbian Emperor, recognized John Spata as Despot and ruler of Aetolia in the early 1360s.[8]

1371–80[edit]

The despot of Ioannina, Thomas Preljubović, had bethroted his daughter to Losha's son in 1370, satisfying the Albanians and ending conflicts.[9] In 1374, Peter Losha died of the plague in Arta, after which John Spata took the city.[9] At this time he was not bound by agreement to Thomas; he laid siege to Ioannina and ravaged the country-side.[9] Thomas brought peace when he bethroted his sister Helena to John Spata the following year.[9] Attacks on Ioannina continued, however, by the Malakasioi, who were defeated twice by Thomas (1377 and 1379).[9]

In 1376 or 1377, Spata conquered Nafpaktos; by this time he controlled Arta and much of southern Epirus and Acarnania.[10] The Achaean Knights Hospitallers of Juan Fernandez de Heredia began their invasion of Epirus, moving onto John Spata, capturing Nafpaktos, and then Vonitsa in Acarnania (April 1378).[10] However, Spata managed to capture John Fernandez, ending their campaign; he was again master of Nafpaktos by 1380.[10] In May 1379, John Spata devastated the country-side of Ioannina.[11]

In 1380, Thomas made an offensive with the help of Turks reaching into Upper Kalamas, where however, the Albanians and particularly the Vlach Mazarakii held firm.[1]

1381–99[edit]

In 1385 Thomas Preljubović was killed by some of his bodyguards.[1] John attacked Ioannina, but was unsuccessful in cracking the defense set up by Esau de' Buondelmonti.[12] The two made peace, but soon returned to conflict.[12] In 1386, Esau gained Ottoman military help.[12] The Ottomans were, after the Battle of Kosovo (1389), unable to assist Esau, thus, the Albanians seized the opportunity and raided the environs of Ioannina in the summer.[12] The Malakasi then raided into the territory, after which they concluded alliance with Spata.[12] Esau then allied himself with the caesar of Thessaly (either Alexios Angelos or Manuel), who defeated the Albanians, presumably Spata and the Malakasi, later that year.[12]

In 1396, Esau married John Spata's daughter, Irene.[12]

Spata died on 29 October 1399, under the continuous pressure of Preljubović and Tocco, whose son would become the next despot of Epirus.

Today[edit]

Today John Spata is a important hero of epic songs in Balkan and among the Arbëreshë in Italy. First the scholar Richard Hutchinson have distinguished that John Spata and the Albanians of the 14th century may have inspired the Greek epic hero Drakokardhos (dragonheart), lord of Patras.[13] After the Albanian scholar Gjergji Shuka has distinguished the origin of some Albanian and South-Slavian legends and epic songs - such as "Zuku Bayraktar", "Jovan i divski staresina", "Marco i Demo Brdianin", "Jana i Detelin voyvoda", "Dedalia dhe Katallani", "Çika e plakut Emin agë vret në duel Baloze Delinë", etc., - in a medieval poem created for John Spata and the battle of Arta in 1378.[14] The two enemies of John,- Juan Fernández de Heredia and queen Giovanna d'Anjou of Naples, are remembered in Balkan collective memory, respectively as: Dedalia, Baloze Delia, Bajloz Sedelia, Rade Qirixhija, Detelin Vojvoda and Jana or Jana krcmarica.[15]

Possessions[edit]

Possessions of Spata.

Family[edit]

Further information: Spata family

His genealogical tree is not well documented. It was first outlined by Karl Hopf in his Chroniques Greco-Romanes (p. 531) and by K. Sathas in the 19th century but a newer study finds that those works have many mistakes and gaps.[16] Hopf's genealogy of the Spata family is "altogether inaccurate".[3]

G. Schiró studied the genealogy of Spata based on the original sources, i.e. the "Chronicle of Ioannina" and the "Chronicle of Tocco", but also on the Venetian archives. He proposed that Pietro Bua had not only three sons but four and that Gjin had only daughters. His daughter Irene married three times. He believes that the family was extinct with the death of Yaqub in 1416. Other people, mainly condottieri, with the name "Bua" are not blood relatives of this family but this name was used by many as first name since it became famous.[17]

John Spata married Helena Preljubović. It is known that he had the following issue:

Among his grandchildren were brothers Maurice Spata and Yaqub Spata, claimed to have been sons of Eirene.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Hammond 1976, p. 59.
  2. ^ Hammond 1976, p. 62.
  3. ^ a b c Anthony Luttrell (1982). Latin and Greece: The Hospitallers and the Crusades, 1291-1440. Ashgate Publishing, Limited. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-86078-106-6. 
  4. ^ Istituto di studi bizantini e neoellenici, p. 69.
  5. ^ Hammond 1976, pp. 57.
  6. ^ a b Fine 1994, p. 348.
  7. ^ Fine 1994, pp. 348–349.
  8. ^ Nicol 2010, pp. 142, 146–169.
  9. ^ a b c d e Nicol 1984, p. 146.
  10. ^ a b c Fine 1994, p. 401.
  11. ^ Nicol 1984, p. 147.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Fine 1994, p. 355.
  13. ^ Hutchinson R. “The Lord of Patras” in: Cretica Chronica, vol. X: Andreas Kalokerinos Editions, 1956, p. 341-5
  14. ^ Shuka, Gjergji, "Tridhjetë këngë dhe legjenda ballkanike: Studim mbi origjinën historike", Botimet Naimi, Tiranë, 2015, pp. 19-110
  15. ^ Ibid
  16. ^ Schiró Giuseppe, La genealogia degli Spata tra il XIV e XV sec. e due Bua sconosciouti, Rivista di Studi Bizantini e Neoellenici, Universita di Roma, Roma, 1971-1972, pp. 67-85.
  17. ^ Schiró G. p. 81
  18. ^ Nicol 1984, p. 148.

Sources[edit]

Preceded by
Post created
Despot of Angelokastron and Lepanto
1359–1374
Succeeded by
Post abolished
Preceded by
Peter Losha
Despot of Arta
1374–1399
Succeeded by
Sgouros Spata