Detailed logarithmic timeline

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Main article: logarithmic timeline

This timeline shows the whole history of the universe, the Earth, and humanity in one table. Each row is defined in years ago, that is, years before the present date, with the earliest times at the top of the chart. In each table cell on the right, references to events or notable people are given, more or less in chronological order within the cell.

Each row corresponds to a change in log(time before present) of about 0.1 (using log base 10), similar to Renard numbers.

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, Invention or Historical development
13.8 Ga – 12.6 Ga

Big Bang, Stars and galaxies, earliest quasars, habitable epoch[1][2][3]

12.6 Ga – 10 Ga

NGC 6522 star cluster forms, at least 12 Ga ago. Omega Centauri star cluster forms.

10 Ga – 8 Ga

Gliese 876 and its planets form[4]

8 Ga – 6.3 Ga

Delta Eridani forms

6.3 Ga – 5 Ga

Birth of Alpha Centauri

5 Ga – 4 Ga

Formation of Sun, Solar System, Earth

4 Ga – 3.2 Ga

End of Hadean eon,

beginning of Archaean eon

Late Heavy Bombardment. Origin of life. Earliest evidences for life on Earth: unusually high amounts of light isotopes of carbon, a common sign of life, found in mineral deposits aged 4.25 Ga located in the Jack Hills of Western Australia;[5] graphite found to be biogenic in metasedimentary rocks aged 3.7 Ga discovered in Western Greenland[6] and microbial mat fossils found in sandstone aged 3.48 Ga discovered in Western Australia.[7][8] Earliest known acritarchs.

3.2 Ga – 2.5 Ga Archaean eon

Stromatolites, Cyanobacteria (photosynthesis).[9] Stabilisation of cratons. Sterane biomarkers possibly indicate first eukaryotes. Possible largest crater on earth near Maniitsoq, Greenland.[10]

2.5 Ga – 2 Ga Paleoproterozoic era

Oxygen revolution. Huronian glaciation. Grypania fossils. First unambiguous Cyanobacteria fossils, in Belcher Islands.[9] Bolide over 10 km in size creates Vredefort crater. Milky Way perturbed by collision.[11]

2 Ga – 1.6 Ga Paleoproterozoic era

Oxygen levels briefly plummet.[9] 10-km diameter bolide creates Sudbury Basin. Columbia supercontinent. Traces of 24-isopropylcholestane, possibly from sponges. Fossils of filamentous algae.

1.6 Ga – 1.26 Ga Mesoproterozoic era

Erosion of granite introduces copper, zinc, and molybdenum into surface waters.[12]

1.26 Ga – 1 Ga Mesoproterozoic era

Eukaryotes found in lakes.[13] Coming together of Rodinia supercontinent. Appearance of sex (possibly).

1 Ga – 800 Ma Beginning of Neoproterozoic era. Tonian period.

Sturtian-Varangian or Cryogenian glaciation begins. Traces of sponge-like animals.[14][15]

800 Ma – 630 Ma Cryogenian period

Breakup of Rodinia, Sturtian-Varangian or Cryogenian glaciation, possible Snowball Earth, volcanism on Venus practically stops

630 Ma – 500 Ma Ediacaran period, Cambrian period (541–485 Ma)

Pannotia supercontinent forms, then breaks up into Laurentia, Gondwana, Angaraland and Baltica. First non-microscopic life (Ediacaran biota). Rangeomorphs. First fossils of animals. Cambrian explosion. Fish-like Myllokunmingia, Haikouichthys, & Pikaia. First conodonts. All modern mineralized phyla present.[16] Arthropods dominant until arrival of chambered nautili [17] Earth becomes very hot.[18] End-Botomian mass extinction.

500 Ma – 400 Ma

End of Cambrian.

Ordovician (485–443 Ma),

Silurian (443–419 Ma)

Collision of asteroids gives rise to L chondrite group of meteoroids and several craters ca. 470 Ma ago (Ordovician meteor event).[19] Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event. First starfish, sea urchins, oysters, scallops, placoderms, cartilaginous fish (such as sharks) and bony fish. First fossils of plants and fungi on land. First clear evidence of land arthropods. Andean-Saharan glaciation. Ordovician-Silurian extinction events.

400 Ma – 320 Ma

Devonian (416-359 Ma),

Carboniferous (359-299 Ma)

First Labyrinthodontia, the group that now includes reptiles and mammals. Tiktaalik (lungfish) walks on land. Ichthyostega. First amphibians, archaeopteris (tree ferns), seeds, coelacanths. Late Devonian extinctions, culminating in the Hangenberg event and atmospheric oxygen falling to 13%. Few arthropods left on land.[20] Beginning of Karoo Ice Age. Romer's gap in the tetrapod record.

320 Ma – 250 Ma


Permian (299-252 Ma)

Karoo Ice Age. Formation of Pangaea supercontinent. Oxygen levels rise and animals colonize the land a second time.[20] First winged insects and reptiliomorphs such as Solenodonsaurus, synapsids, and reptiles. Oxygen in atmosphere peaks, around 30%.[20] Carboniferous Rainforest Collapse Cycads, seed ferns. Therapsids such as pelycosaurs and cynodonts. End-Capitanian extinction event.[21] Siberian Traps eruption and Permian-Triassic extinction event. Dinosaur tracks[22][23]

250 Ma – 200 Ma Triassic (252–201 Ma)

40 °C sea temperatures during Smithian-Spathian extinction. Turtles. Dominance of archosaurs: crocodile-like Crurotarsi. First pterosaurs, ichthyosaurs. Dinosaurs. Gymnosperms dominant. Dicroidium flora common on land. Manicouagan Crater formed. First lizards. Central Atlantic eruption and Triassic–Jurassic extinction event.

200 Ma – 160 Ma

Late Triassic,

Jurassic (201–145 Ma)

Oxygen in atmosphere hits low of about 12%.[20] Breakup of Pangaea into Gondwana and Laurasia. Mammals. Gymnosperms (especially conifers, Bennettitales and cycads) and ferns common. Sauropods, carnosaurs, stegosaurs. Toarcian turnover (extinction). Juramaia sinensis, first known placental mammal.

160 Ma – 126 Ma Jurassic, Early Cretaceous

Gondwana breaks up. First birds (Archaeopteryx). Flowering plants.

126 Ma – 100 Ma Aptian & Albian stages of the Cretaceous

India breaks from East Gondwana. Ontong Java eruption. First known snakes. Early Aptian anoxic event. Seas cool by 5 °C during 2 million years.[24] Earliest known monotreme fossils. Sinodelphys, earliest known marsupial. Eomaia, earliest known eutherian. Bees.

100 Ma – 80 Ma Late Cretaceous: Cenomanian, Turonian, Coniacian, Santonian

Mammals diversify into many forms.[25] Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event (oceans anoxic for half a million years).[26] Crocodilia.

80 Ma – 63 Ma Campanian & Maastrichtian stages of the Cretaceous

Dominance of angiosperm rosids. Evidence for Grasses in dinosaur dung (coprolites). Madagascar breaks away from India. Bolide creates Chicxulub Crater. Deccan Traps. Possible Shiva crater. Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event.

63 Ma – 50 Ma

Paleocene (66–56 Ma),

Eocene (56–34 Ma)

Mammals dominate. Titanoboa, largest known snake. Eritherium, first known proboscid. Lemurs. Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. First creodonts. First equid, the Eohippus or Hyracotherium. Andes mountains begin to rise.

50 Ma – 40 Ma Eocene

Azolla event. India collides with Asia, giving rise to the Himalayas. First cetaceans (whales) and simians, first elephant-like animal, the Moeritherium.

40 Ma – 32 Ma Eocene, Oligocene

Grasses common. 100-km Popigai crater in Siberia. 2-mile (3.2 km) diameter bolide creates 90-km Chesapeake Bay impact crater in America. Tasmanian Seaway and Drake Passage open, allowing creation of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Baleen whales appear.

32 Ma – 25 Ma Oligocene

Gould Belt of stars created.[27] Alps begin to rise. First indricotheria, "hornless rhinoceros" about 6 metres high. Primates cross Atlantic to South America and become New World monkeys. Explosive eruption of La Garita Caldera in Colorado.

25 Ma – 20 Ma Miocene, Aquitanian age

Pelagornis sandersi, largest known flying bird with a wingspan of 6 or 7 metres. Puijila darwini, early pinniped. Dawn bear - ancestor of bears.

20 Ma – 16 Ma Miocene, Burdigalian age

First Megatherium americanum, a giant sloth. First deinotheres, similar to an elephant but with tusks on lower jaw.

16 Ma – 12.6 Ma Miocene, Langhian age, Serravallian age

Antarctica becomes mostly ice-covered. Africa/Arabia collides with Eurasia, end of Tethys Sea. Columbia River basalts.. Nördlinger Ries impact crater. Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, Middle Miocene disruption. Hominid apes split from gibbons.

12.6 Ma – 10 Ma Miocene, Serravallian age, Tortonian age

Last of the adapiforms. Anoiapithecus, one of first hominids, in Spain.

10 Ma – 8 Ma Miocene, Tortonian age

First Gigantopithecus, an ape almost 10 feet (3.0 m) tall.

8 Ma – 6.3 Ma Miocene, Tortonian age, Messinian age

C4 grasses become common. Crocodiles cross the Atlantic to America.[28] "Toumaï", of species Sahelanthropus tchadensis, shows some human traits. First Thylacosmilus, sabre-toothed marsupial of South America.

6.3 Ma – 5 Ma Miocene, Messinian age

Mediterranean Sea dries up (Messinian Event). 52-km Karakul crater in Tajikistan. Orrorin tugenensis, possible hominin

5 Ma – 4 Ma Pliocene

Ardipithecus ramidus, Australopithecus anamensis. Divergence of polar bears and brown bears.

4 Ma – 3.2 Ma Pliocene

Human Bipedalism. First Australopithecus afarensis. Hominid fossil footprints in Laetoli, Tanzania. Evidence of use of stone tools by A. afarensis.[29][30]

3.2 Ma – 2.5 Ma Pliocene

Isthmus of Panama connects South and Central America, giving rise to the Great American Interchange. Lucy, member of the species Australopithecus afarensis. Oldowan tools used near Gona, Ethiopia

2.5 Ma – 2 Ma Paleolithic begins, Lower Paleolithic

Beginning of the current ice age, known as the Quaternary glaciation. Homo habilis appears. Island Park Caldera in Wyoming and Idaho.

2 Ma – 1.6 Ma Beginning of Pleistocene

Homo erectus appears. Human-like Australopithecus sediba. Homo ergaster in Africa. First signs of Acheulian culture, in Kenya. Dmanisi Man (Homo erectus georgicus) in Dmanisi, Georgia and in Nihewan basin, China. First true hand-axes. Last known terror birds.

1.6 Ma – 1.26 Ma

Homo erectus found in Europe. Giant megalodon shark goes extinct. Henry's Fork Caldera in Idaho erupts.

1.26 Ma – 1 Ma

Stone artifacts on Flores, made by hominins.[31] This required crossing seas at least 19 km wide.[32]

1 Ma – 800 ka

14-km Zhamanshin Crater formed in Kazakhstan. Hominin footprints and tools in England.

800 ka – 630 ka Günz glaciation

Evidence of use of fire (Daughters of Jacob Bridge, Palestine).[33] Brunhes–Matuyama geomagnetic reversal. Yellowstone Caldera supervolcano spreads ash over North America. Homo antecessor in Spain

630 ka – 500 ka Günz-Mindel interglacial

Cut marks on human bones indicate cannibalism.[34] Stone points (possibly for spears) used by Homo heidelbergensis in South Africa.

500 ka – 400 ka Günz-Mindel interglacial Mindel glaciation

Etching on shell at Trinil in East Java, done by Homo erectus.[35] Homo heidelbergensis in Germany, France, and Greece. Oldest known spear, Clacton-on-Sea.[36]

400 ka – 320 ka Mindel glaciation

Homo heidelbergensis footprints in Italy (Ciampate del Diavolo). Venus of Tan-Tan (300 to 500 ka ago) and Venus of B'rekhat Ram (233 to 800 ka ago). First appearance of proto-Neanderthal traits. Estimated time of Y-chromosomal Adam.[37]

320 ka – 250 ka Yarmouthian Stage

Schöningen wooden spears.[38]

Geminga supernova may have begun the creation of the Local Bubble.

250 ka – 200 ka Yarmouthian Stage

Strait of Dover formed. Apparent date of stone tools at the Hueyatlaco site in Mexico.

200 ka – 160 ka Illinoian Stage (Riß glaciation)

First traces of Homo sapiens (Omo remains). Use of ochre, fine stone blades, and seafood at Pinnacle Point, SA (164±12ka ago).[39] Evidence for use of fire to pre-treat stone for making blades.[40]

160 ka – 126 ka Ca. 158 000 – ca. 124 000 BCE Illinoian Stage (Riß glaciation)

Appearance of full-blown Neanderthal traits. Stone tools in Crete (40 km from nearest neighboring land).

126 ka – 100 ka Ca. 124 000 – ca. 98 000 BCE Beginning of Middle Paleolithic, Eemian Stage

Estimated time of Mitochondrial Eve. Temperatures generally higher than today during the Eemian interglacial. Late Eemian Aridity Pulse. Shells with holes, probably used as beads, at the Es Skhul cave on Mount Carmel. Paint made at Blombos Cave.[41]

100 ka – 80 ka Ca. 98 000 – ca. 78 000 BCE Beginning of Würm glaciation

First evidence of metre-high Flores Man on the island of Flores (Indonesia). Human burial at Qafzeh in Israel. Remains of string in France.[42] Shell beads in Taforalt Caves, Morocco.

80 ka – 63 ka Ca. 78 000 – ca. 61 000 BCE

Tools made in Kota Tampan, Malaysia, probably by Homo sapiens. Abstract designs engraved on ochre, and pressure flaking, at Blombos Cave in South Africa. Use of glue, arrowhead-like projectile points, and insecticidal Cape Laurel for bedding at Sibudu Cave in South Africa. Supervolcano Toba in Indonesia erupts, covering India and Pakistan with ash and starting a 1000-year ice age. Humans begin to use clothing. Humans on Luzon, Philippines.[43]

63 ka – 50 ka Ca. 61 000 – ca. 48 000 BCE

Sewing needle-like implement used at Sibudu Cave, South Africa. Engraved ostrich eggs at Diepkloof Rock Shelter. Humans enter Tibetan plateau. Mousterian culture. Last evidence of Homo erectus[44]

50 ka – 40 ka Ca. 48 000 – ca. 38 000 BCE

Neandertal Divje Babe flute - prehistoric music. Mining of hematite at the Lion Cave in Swaziland. Mungo Man in Australia. Deep sea fishing.[45] Brief geomagnetic Laschamp Excursion. 50-metre diameter asteroid creates 1.2-km Meteor Crater in Arizona. Homo sapiens in Peștera cu Oase, Romania and in Tianyuan Cave, China. Oldest dated cave decoration (red ochre dot, in Caves of Monte Castillo, Spain). Neanderthals disappear.

40 ka – 32 ka Ca. 38 000 – ca. 30 000 BCE Beginning of Upper Paleolithic

Needles and sewing. Shoes. Beginnings of Aurignacian culture. Paleolithic flutes and Venus of Hohler Fels, First Cro Magnon people. Human presence in Japan. Oldest known skull of a dog (Siberia), with wolf-like teeth.[46] Lion man ivory sculpture.

32 ka – 25 ka Ca. 30 000 – ca. 23 000 BCE

Stone mortar and pestle used to grind fern and cattail tubers.[47][48] Chauvet Cave paintings. Avian figurine in ivory and stone phallus of Hohler Fels.[49] Venus of Dolní Věstonice (first known ceramic). End of Aurignacian culture, beginning of Gravettian. Imprint of woven cloth in clay (Czech Republic). Venus of Lespugue (ivory sculpture). First known spear thrower or atlatl. Oruanui eruption in New Zealand.

25 ka – 20 ka Ca. 23 000 – ca. 18 000 BCE

Venus of Brassempouy (carving of face). Lapedo child with mixture of Neanderthal and sapiens features at Lagar Velho Portugal. End of Gravettian culture, beginning of Solutrean. Ishango Bone, thought by some to be a tally stick which may show a prime number sequence. 1.9-km Tenoumer crater in Mauritania. Claimed presence of Australian aborigine-type people in Brazil.[50][51] First clear evidence of building (homes).[52]

20 ka – 16 ka Ca. 18 000 – ca. 14 000 BCE

Pottery sherds at Xianren Cave. Reported date of artefacts found on Cactus Hill in Virginia.[53] Disappearance of Solutrean. Beginning of Magdalenian culture. Clay figurines of animals[54] Lascaux cave paintings and 7mm diameter rope.

16 ka – 12.6 ka Ca. 14 000 – ca. 10 600 BCE.

Red Deer Cave people, a possible separate species of Homo in China. Stone tools at the Buttermilk Creek Complex in Texas. Evidence of massacre at Cemetery 117. Older Dryas cold spell. Most recent glaciation gradually ends. Sea level rises 30 metres in a few hundred years (Meltwater Pulse 1A). Clovis culture in America. Beginning of Natufian culture in Levant. Outburst of water from Lake Agassiz or Younger Dryas impact event bring about the Younger Dryas cold spell. Extinction of many species of large animals.

12.6 ka – 10 ka Ca. 10 600 – ca. 8000 BCE. End of Pleistocene, beginning of Holocene. Transition from Mesolithic to Neolithic.

Natufian Shaman burial[55] and earliest known banquet.[56] Vela Supernova only 800 ly away. Island of Spartel flooded (possible site of Atlantis). Arrow-shaft straighteners used by Natufian culture in the Levant. Neolithic revolution (agriculture begins, domestication of animals). Göbekli Tepe (temple-like monuments and art). Lime. Earliest layers of Jericho – first known monumental building (stone tower 8 m high). Copper pendant in Iraq. Toothpicks and birch-bark chewing gum. Sea rises about 20 m in 9th millennium BCE. Possible lunar time reckoner at Warren Field in Aberdeenshire.[57]

10 ka – 8 ka Pre-Pottery Neolithic B in Mideast, 8th millennium BCE, 7th millennium BCE

Kennewick Man in Washington, whose skull was different from modern American Indians. Oldest cloth yet found (Çayönü). Dentistry. Trepanation. Lake Agassiz largely empties into the Hudson Bay. Finse event, a 300-year cold spell. Storegga tsunami. Mount Etna causes tsunami, possibly ending Atlit Yam settlement (Israel). Smelted lead, pottery & finger rings at Çatal Höyük. Opium

8 ka – 6.3 ka Ubaid period. 6th millennium BCE, 5th millennium BCE

Wine and beer. Cheesemaking (Poland). Sea rises 15–20 m in 6th millennium BCE, flooding Doggerland and cutting off Britain. Holocene thermal maximum brings temperatures warmer than today. Older Peron "transgression" (high sea level). Sahara region not a desert (Neolithic Subpluvial). Megaliths. Domestication of the horse. Pottery revolutionized by the potter's wheel. Earliest known smelting of copper (Serbia). Oldest wrought gold known, in Varna necropolis. Last mastodons.

6.3 ka – 5 ka Chalcolithic. 4th millennium BCE

Copper Age. Continuation of Holocene thermal maximum. 5.9 kiloyear event – redesertification of Sahara begins. Sweet Track roadway. Large city of Hamoukar, destroyed in war, probably by Uruk in Sumer. Silver mining. Invention of wheel. Ötzi the Iceman. Phonetic writing begins in Sumer (Cuneiform) and Elam. Invention of toilet and sewerage systems (Indus civilization and Skara Brae).

5 ka – 4 ka 3rd millennium BCE

Wire. Cannabis in use. Gilgamesh epic, pyramids of Ancient Egypt, Indus civilization, Ur, Stonehenge. Sargon, Use of bronze, surgery. Law code of Ur-Nammu.

4 ka – 3.2 ka 2nd millennium BCE Bronze Age

Minoan Crete. Hammurabi. Avellino eruption of Vesuvius. Calculation of the square root of 2 in Babylon.[58] Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, implying an approximation of pi. Last mammoths. Thera eruption. Egyptian medical papyri. Akhenaten. Rigveda.

3.2 ka – 2.5 ka ca. 1200 BCE – ca. 500 BCE Iron Age

Olmec civilization. Trojan war, Bronze Age collapse. Hekla 3 eruption. Beginning of Zhou Dynasty. David and Solomon. Apiculture. Zarathustra, Homer, Hesiod. Fall of Kingdom of Israel and Kingdom of Judah. First coins. Solon's reforms in Athens. Cyrus, Kǒng Fūzǐ (Confucius) Buddha (date uncertain), Pythagoras, Democracy in Athens.

2.5 ka – 2 ka ca. 500 BCE – ca. 10 AD

Greco-Persian Wars, Etruscan civilization, Socrates, Hippocrates, Plato, Aristotle. Helike sinks beneath the waves. Alexander, Euclid. Gallic invasion of the Balkans. Library of Alexandria. Ashoka. Punic Wars end with razing of Carthage. Qin Dynasty & beginning of Han Dynasty. Julius Caesar

2 ka – 1.6 ka ca. 10 AD – ca. 400 AD

Roman Empire, Yeshua (Jesus). Antonine Plague, Plague of Cyprian. Christianity, Gnosticism, Mithraism, Manichaeism, Constantine. 365 Crete earthquake.

1.6 ka – 1.26 ka ca. 400 – ca. 750

Tiwanaku. Classic Maya civilization. Byzantine Empire, Augustine, Attila, Saint Patrick, King Arthur. Teotihuacán. Nika riots. Climate changes of 535-536. Plague of Justinian. First half of Tang dynasty. Sasanids temporarily conquer Egypt. Muhammad. Muslims capture Ctesiphon, largest city in world. Alexandria falls to the Muslims. Battle of Poitiers. Donation of Pepin.

1.26 ka – 1 ka ca. 750 – ca. 1010

774–775 carbon-14 spike.[59] Charlemagne. Saeculum obscurum. Vikings. Beowulf written. Chinese invent gunpowder. Bjarni Herjólfsson sights North America. Leifr Eiriksson goes there (Vinland).

1000 y – 800 y ca. 1010 – ca. 1210

Medieval Warm Period. Song Dynasty. Ibn Sina. East-West Schism. William the Conqueror. First three Crusades. Bombard.

800 y – 630 y ca. 1210 – ca. 1380

Genghis Khan. Magna Carta. Francis of Assisi. Mount Rinjani on Lombok erupts causing global cooling and failed harvests. Siege of Baghdad (1258) by the Mongols. Mamluks defeat Mongol army of Hulagu Khan (under Kitbuqa) in the Battle of Ain Jalut. Thomas Aquinas. Cannon. Yuan Dynasty. Marco Polo. Great Famine of 1315–1317. Beginning of Hundred Years' War. Black Death.

630 y – 500 y ca. 1380 – ca. 1510

The Renaissance. Chaucer. Beginning of Ming Dynasty. Hwacha multiple rocket launcher. Zheng He. Battle of Grunwald. Battle of Agincourt. Joan of Arc. Kuwae eruption. Fall of Constantinople. Gutenberg. Wars of the Roses. Columbus rediscovers the New World. Start of Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars (1492 to 1537). Vasco da Gama reaches India by sea.

500 y – 400 y 16th century

Da Vinci, Michelangelo. Luther & the Reformation. Siege of Vienna. Copernicus, Scientific Revolution. 1556 Shaanxi earthquake. Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. First of about 11 Russo-Turkish Wars (1568 to 1878). Battle of Lepanto. Spanish Armada. Microscope. Rise of the Moghul Empire. Russian Time of Troubles and Russian famine of 1601–1603, probably connected to eruption of Huaynaputina. Beginning of Little Ice Age (ca. 1550 to 1850). Beginning of Northern Wars (1554 to 1721). William Shakespeare. King James Bible.

400 y – 320 y 17th century

Thirty Years' War. Galileo. English Civil War. Descartes. Fermat. Pascal. Louis XIV. Great Fire of London. Franco-Dutch War. Battle of Vienna and Great Turkish War. Isaac Newton. Glorious Revolution of 1688. Nine Years' War.

320 y – 250 y 1696 – 1765

War of the Spanish Succession. Great Northern War. Battle of Poltava in Ukraine – beginning of decline of Swedish power. South Sea Bubble. Defoe, Swift, Bach, Voltaire. Age of Enlightenment. Lisbon destroyed by earthquake, tsunami, and fire. Seven Years' War. Rousseau.

250 y – 200 y 1765 – 1815

American Revolution, Watt engine. Dismantlement of Lithuania. Eruption of Laki. Mozart, French Revolution. First locomotive. Beethoven. Napoleon. New Madrid earthquakes. War of 1812.

200 y – 160 y 1815 – 1855

Eruption of Mount Tambora. Battle of Waterloo. Year Without a Summer. Photography, electric motor. Babbage. Telegraph. First Opium War Mexican–American War. Revolutions of 1848. Crimean War.

160 y – 126 y 1855 – 1889

Taiping Civil War kills at least 20 million. John Snow. Beginning of Third Plague Pandemic. Second Opium War. Darwin. Solar storm of 1859. American Civil War. Austro-Prussian War. Joseph Lister. Marx. Telephone. Pasteur. War of the Pacific. Invention of automobile. Krakatoa. 1887 Yellow River flood. Mark Twain.

126 y – 100 y 1889 – 1915

Edison, Dreyfus. First Sino-Japanese War. Radio. Spanish–American War. Boxer Rebellion. Philippine–American War. Wright Brothers. Russo-Japanese War. Einstein's papers on special relativity and quantization of light (photons). 1906 San Francisco earthquake. US Panic of 1907. Tunguska event. First Model T. Freud, Cubism, Republic of China, RMS Titanic,

100 y – 80 y 1915 – 1935

World War I. Prohibition. General relativity, Russian Revolution. Irish War of Independence. Russian famine of 1921. Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922). Stalin. Crash of 1929. 1931 Yellow River flood. Soviet famine of 1932–1933. Great Depression.

80 y – 63 y 1935 – 1952

Hitler. FDR, New Deal. Gödel. Gandhi. Second Sino-Japanese War. LSD invented. World War II. Pearl Harbor. Penicillin. Atom bomb. UN. Cold War begins. ENIAC Birth of Israel and 1948 Arab–Israeli War. NATO, Mao Zedong. Korean War.

63 y – 50 y 1952 – 1965

Structure of DNA found. McCarthyism, Elvis Presley. Suez War. Beginning of Vietnam War. Sputnik. ARPA. Castro comes to power. Invention of laser. 1960 Valdivia earthquake, most powerful recorded earthquake. Ca. 20-30 million die in Great Chinese Famine. Berlin Wall. John F. Kennedy. Cuban missile crisis,

50 y – 40 y 1965 – 1975

American Civil Rights Movement. Indonesian killings of 1965–66. Cultural Revolution (1966–76). Six-Day War. 2001 (film). Vietnam War, Counterculture. Unix, Moon landing, Woodstock. Bhola cyclone kills 500,000 Bangladesh Liberation War. Yom Kippur War. Richard Nixon resigns.

40 y – 32 y 1975 – 1983

Banqiao Dam and 61 other dams break in China. Khmer Rouge. Tangshan earthquake. Downfall of Gang of Four. Microcomputers. Three Mile Island, Jimmy Carter, Margaret Thatcher becomes PM, Usenet. Eruption of Mount St. Helens. Pac-man. CNN, MTV. AIDS discovered. First IBM PC. Beginning of presidency of Ronald Reagan. Falklands War.

32 y – 25 y 1983 – 1990

Black July pogrom against Tamils in Sri Lanka. Macintosh, Bhopal disaster, Soviet-Afghan War. Discovery of ozone hole. Challenger Disaster. Chernobyl, First 80386, Iran-Contra scandal . BSE, Perestroika, Black Monday on Wall Street. 1988 Burmese uprising. End of Iran–Iraq War March 1989 geomagnetic storm cuts power in Quebec. US invades Panama, Tiananmen protests, Fall of Berlin Wall.

25 y – 20 y 1990 – 1995

Launch of Hubble Space Telescope George H. W. Bush presidency. First Gulf War, AOL. Eruption of Mount Pinatubo. 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt,. End of USSR. Black Wednesday attack on British pound. Beginning of Clinton presidency. First Pentium. Oslo accords. Bosnian War. End of apartheid. 1994 Los Angeles earthquake. Rwandan massacre. Israeli-Jordanian Peace Treaty. Rising use of the Internet and the World Wide Web.

20 y – 16 y 1995 – 1999

Start of WTO. Kobe earthquake. Windows 95, Java programming language. Tony Blair becomes PM of the UK. Asian financial crisis. Good Friday agreement. Discovery of the acceleration of the universe.

16 y – 12.6 y 1999 – 2002

Kosovo War, 1999 Izmit, Turkey Earthquake, Vladimir Putin president of Russia, Y2K scare Human genome sequenced. Start of al-Aqsa Intifada. George W. Bush president of US, 2001 Gujarat Earthquake, September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks

12.6 y – 10 y 2002 – 2005

U.S. invasion of Afghanistan. Columbia disaster Darfur conflict begins 2003 Iraq War, European heat wave of 2003. Bam Earthquake. Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity land on Mars. Yassir Arafat dies (Nov. 11, 2004). Boxing Day Tsunami.

10–8 y 2005 – 2007

John Paul II dies. Gaza pullout by Israel, Great Flood of New Orleans, Kashmir earthquake. 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict, 2006 North Korean nuclear test.

Last 8 years

Nicolas Sarkozy president of France. Battle of Gaza (2007). iPhone. Gordon Brown becomes PM of UK. World population becomes more than 50% urban. Northwest Passage opens for first time in history of modern record keeping. Cyclone Sidr (Nov. '07).

Cyclone Nargis (May '08). 2008 Sichuan Earthquake. 2008 Russo-Georgian War. 2008 economic crisis. 2008 Mumbai attacks. 2008-2009 Israel-Gaza conflict.

Barack Obama president of US. 2009 swine flu outbreak.

2010 Haiti earthquake. 2010 Chile earthquake. iPad. Polish presidential airplane disaster. 2010 Yushu earthquake. 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull. Deepwater Horizon oil spill. 2010 European sovereign debt crisis. 2010 UK general election brings David Cameron to power. 2010 Gaza flotilla clash. 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer heat wave. 2010 Pakistan floods. WikiLeaks publishes US diplomatic cables.

2010–2011 Queensland floods. 2010–2011 Tunisian revolution. Egyptian Revolution of 2011. February 2011 Christchurch earthquake. 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. Fukushima nuclear accident. Beginnings of Syrian Civil War. Assassination of Osama bin Laden. Last Space Shuttle flight. South Sudan becomes an independent country. 2011 North American heat wave Utøya massacre. United States debt-ceiling crisis. 2011 England riots. 2011 Libyan civil war ends rule of Mu`ammar al-Qaddhafi 2011 Thailand floods.

Largest strike-slip earthquake ever recorded.[60] François Hollande becomes president of France. Discovery of the Higgs boson. Curiosity rover lands on Mars. Hurricane Sandy. Operation Pillar of Defense.

France intervenes in the Northern Mali conflict. Chelyabinsk meteor. Hugo Chavez dies. Benedict XVI resigns, Jorge Mario Bergoglio becomes Pope Francis. Cyprus bailout. 2013 Korean crisis. 2013 protests in Turkey. 2013 protests in Brazil. 2013 Egyptian coup d'état. Edward Snowden brings about the 2013 NSA surveillance scandal. Ghouta chemical attack. Westgate shopping mall attack. Record heat in Australia leads to 2013 New South Wales bushfires. Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda), most powerful on record. War in Central African Republic. Beginning of South Sudanese Civil War.

2013–14 North American cold wave. 2014 Ukrainian revolution. 2014 Crimean crisis. End of 2013–14 Israeli–Palestinian peace talks. 2013–14 Thai political crisis. Narendra Modi Prime Minister of India. ISIL launches 2014 Northern Iraq offensive 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict. 2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak. Rosetta mission arrives at Comet 67P. 2014 Peshawar school massacre. Sony Pictures Entertainment hack.

A logarithmic timeline can also be devised for events which should occur in the future, barring unforeseen circumstances and assuming that we can extrapolate into the future based on our science.

Time interval Event
1 – 10 years (2015–2025)
10 – 100 years (2025–2115) Global warming
100 – 1000 years (2115-3015)
1000 – 10 ka (3015-12 015 CE) Summer and winter constellations switch, north celestial pole moves far from present North Star
10 ka – 100 ka (12 015 - 102 015CE) Presently used Computus will give Paschal Full Moon at new moon.

Present constellations become unrecognizable.

Hebrew Calendar out of sync with seasons.

100 ka – 1 Ma Gregorian Calendar out of sync with seasons.

Several supervolcanoes erupt. Strait of Gibraltar closes, Mediterranean Sea dries up.

1 Ma – 10 Ma Technetium-99 produced today ceases to be dangerous

Several kilometre-size asteroids or comets on collision course with Earth.

Gliese 710 comes within about a lightyear of the sun.

The Afar Depression and the East African Rift become a new sea, splitting Africa.

10 Ma – 100 Ma Mediterranean basin closes.

Iodine-129 and Neptunium-237 in nuclear waste decay.

100 Ma – 1 Ga Different continents from today due to splitting and coalescence.

Sun completes several orbits around the Milky Way

1 Ga – 10 Ga Hotter sun makes land too hot for life.

Oceans evaporate.

Possible Andromeda–Milky Way collision.

Sun becomes a red giant

10 Ga – 100 Ga

Sun becomes a white dwarf

Uranium decays away. Rhenium-187 decays away.

100 Ga – 1 Ta White dwarf Sun fades away.

Local Group coalesces.

Thorium decays away.

1 Ta – 10 Ta

Galaxies outside Local Supercluster no longer visible (if dark energy prevails). Proxima Centauri ceases to be a main-sequence star.

10 Ta – 100 Ta Star formation ends.
100 Ta – 1 Pa Nuclear fusion ceases (if not sooner).

Sun becomes black dwarf.

1 Pa – 10 Pa Planets fall or are flung away from their stars.
10 Pa – 100 Pa
100 Pa – 1 exaannus
1 Ea – 10 Ea
10 Ea – 100 Ea Bismuth decays into lead and mercury.
100 Ea – 1 zettaannus

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Loeb, Abraham (October 2014). "The Habitable Epoch of the Early Universe". International Journal of Astrobiology 13 (04): 337–339. doi:10.1017/S1473550414000196. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  2. ^ Loeb, Abraham (2 December 2013). "The Habitable Epoch of the Early Universe" (PDF). Arxiv. arXiv:1312.0613v3. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  3. ^ Dreifus, Claudia (2 December 2014). "Much-Discussed Views That Go Way Back - Avi Loeb Ponders the Early Universe, Nature and Life". New York Times. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  4. ^ Saffe, C.; Gómez, M.; Chavero, C. (November 2005). "On the Ages of Exoplanet Host Stars". Astronomy and Astrophysics 443 (2): 609–626. arXiv:astro-ph/0510092. Bibcode:2005A&A...443..609S. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20053452. 
  5. ^ Courtland, Rachel (July 2, 2008). "Did newborn Earth harbour life?". New Scientist. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  6. ^ Yoko Ohtomo, Takeshi Kakegawa, Akizumi Ishida, Toshiro Nagase, Minik T. Rosing (8 December 2013). "Evidence for biogenic graphite in early Archaean Isua metasedimentary rocks". Nature Geoscience. doi:10.1038/ngeo2025. Retrieved 9 Dec 2013. 
  7. ^ Borenstein, Seth (13 November 2013). "Oldest fossil found: Meet your microbial mom". AP News. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  8. ^ Noffke, Nora; Christian, Daniel; Wacey, David; Hazen, Robert M. (8 November 2013). "Microbially Induced Sedimentary Structures Recording an Ancient Ecosystem in the ca. 3.48 Billion-Year-Old Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia". Astrobiology (journal) 13 (12): 1103–24. doi:10.1089/ast.2013.1030. PMC 3870916. PMID 24205812. Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  9. ^ a b c "First breath: Earth's billion-year struggle for oxygen" by Nick Lane, New Scientist, 6 Feb. 2010, pp.36-9. See accompanying graph as well.
  10. ^ "Earth's oldest impact crater found in Greenland" by Andy Coghlan, New Scientist, 29 June 2012.
  11. ^ "Milky Way still reeling from ancient smash", New Scientist, Feb. 21, 2009.
  12. ^ "Sex born from hard rock and heavy metal" by Will Ferguson, New Scientist, 23 June 2012, pp. 10-11.
  13. ^ "Ancient lakes show when eukaryotic life left the sea" by Colin Barras, New Scientist, April 16, 2011, p. 20. "Earth’s earliest non-marine eukaryotes" by Paul Strother et al., Nature, 13 April 2011.
  14. ^ "Earliest animal traces solve timegap mystery", New Scientist, 11 May 2009, p. 12.
  15. ^ "Dawn of the animals: Solving Darwin's dilemma" by Douglas Fox and Michael Le Page, New Scientist, 8 July 2009, pp. 38-41
  16. ^ Landing, E.; English, A.; Keppie, J. D. (2010). "Cambrian origin of all skeletalized metazoan phyla--Discovery of Earth's oldest bryozoans (Upper Cambrian, southern Mexico)". Geology 38 (6): 547. doi:10.1130/G30870.1.  edit
  17. ^ "Nautilus: Chambers of secret life" by Peter Ward, New Scientist, 5 April 2008.
  18. ^ Catherine Brahic (Jan 18, 2014). "Volcanic mayhem drove major burst of evolution". New Scientist: 6–7. 
  19. ^ "Mystery fossil rock may be chip off life-inspiring block". New Scientist: 15. Jul 5, 2014. 
  20. ^ a b c d Peter Ward (April 28, 2007). "Oxygen – the breath of life". New Scientist: 38–41.  See also accompanying graph.
  21. ^ Jeff Hecht (Oct 25, 2014). "'Missing' disaster led to all-time worst extinction". New Scientist: 6–7. 
  22. ^ "Meet the oldest dino ancestor yet", New Scientist, 6 Oct. 2010.
  23. ^ "Footprints pull origin and diversification of dinosaur stem lineage deep into Early Triassic" by Stephen L. Brusatte1, Grzegorz Niedźwiedzki and Richard J. Butler, Proc. Roy. Soc. B, 2010.
  24. ^ McAnena, A. et al. (June 16, 2013). "Atlantic cooling associated with a marine biotic crisis during the mid-Cretaceous period". Nature Geoscience. Bibcode:2013NatGe...6..558M. doi:10.1038/ngeo1850. 
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^ "Orion's dark secret: Violence shaped the night sky", New Scientist, 21 Nov. 2009, pp. 42-5.
  28. ^ "Crocodiles swam the Atlantic to reach America", by Michael Marshall, New Scientist, May 14, 2011, p. 16.
  29. ^ McPherron, Shannon P.; Zeresenay Alemseged; Curtis W. Marean; Jonathan G. Wynn; Denne Reed; Denis Geraads; Rene Bobe; Hamdallah A. Bearat (2010). "Evidence for stone-tool-assisted consumption of animal tissues before 3.39 million years ago at Dikika, Ethiopia". Nature 466 (7308): 857–860. Bibcode:2010Natur.466..857M. doi:10.1038/nature09248. PMID 20703305. 
  30. ^ Nic Fleming (Aug 11, 2010). "Early humans were butchers 3.4 million years ago". New Scientist. 
  31. ^ "Hominins on Flores, Indonesia, by one million years ago", Nature 464, pp. 748-752 (1 April 2010), doi:10.1038/nature08844
  32. ^ Tim Thwaites (March 14, 1998). "Ancient mariners - Early humans were much smarter than we suspected". New Scientist: 6. 
  33. ^ "Charred remains may be earliest human fires", New Scientist, April 29, 2004.
  34. ^ Richard Hollingham (Jul 10, 2004). "Natural born cannibals". New Scientist: 30. 
  35. ^ Catherine Brahic (Dec 6, 2014). "Shell 'art' made 300,000 years before humans evolved". New Scientist: 6–7. 
  36. ^ Shaoni Bhattacharya (Feb 12, 2014). "Britain's earliest humanity in epic exhibition". New Scientist. 
  37. ^ Barras, Colin (6 March 2013). "The father of all men is 340,000 years old". New Scientist. Retrieved 13 March 2013. 
  38. ^ "Stuff: The first things humans owned". New Scientist. Mar 26, 2014. 
  39. ^
  40. ^ "Earliest fired knives improved stone age tool kit" by Ewen Callaway, New Scientist, 13 Aug. 2009.
  41. ^ "Oldest artists workshop in the world discovered", by Andy Coghlan, New Scientist, 22 Oct. 2011, p. 20
  42. ^ Colin Barras (Nov 16, 2013). "World's oldest string found at French Neanderthal site". New Scientist: 9. 
  43. ^ "Mystery seafaring ancestor found in the Philippines" by Jeff Hecht, New Scientist, 12 June 2010, p. 16.
  44. ^ "Gigantic volcano did not decimate humans", New Scientist, 14 July 2007, p. 19
  45. ^ "Deep sea fishing for tuna began 42000 years ago" by Wendy Zukerman, New Scientist, 3 Dec. 2011, p. 16
  46. ^ Christine Dell'Amore (Aug 19, 2011). "Ancient Dog Skull Shows Early Pet Domestication". National Geographic. 
  47. ^ "Stone Age humans liked their burgers in a bun", Sonia Van Gilder Cooke, New Scientist, 23 Oct. 2010, p. 18.
  48. ^ "Thirty thousand-year-old evidence of plant food processing" by Anna Revedin et al., PNAS, published online Oct. 18, 2010.
  49. ^ Amos, Jonathan (25 July 2005). "Ancient phallus unearthed in cave". BBC News. 
  50. ^ "First Americans were Australian". BBC. Aug 26, 1999. 
  51. ^ Michael Marshall (April 27, 2013). "Brazilian twist to tale of the first Americans". New Scientist: 12. 
  52. ^ Rob Dunn (Aug 23, 2014). "Meet the lodgers: Wildlife in the great indoors". New Scientist: 34–37. 
  53. ^ "Were the First Americans European?" Scientific American Frontiers on PBS.
  54. ^ See picture in Christopher Kemp (Dec 21, 2013). "Kalahari trackers who read ice-age life in footprints". New Scientist: 64–66. 
  55. ^ "Ancient remains are of earliest known shaman" New Scientist, 8 Nov. 2008, p. 16.
  56. ^ "Tortoise banquet: Remains of the oldest feast found" by Michael Marshall, New Scientist, Aug. 30, 2010.
  57. ^ Colin Barras (Oct 25, 2014). "Transformers: 10 revolutions that made us human". New Scientist: 32–36. 
  58. ^ "Babylon and the square root of 2" by John Carlos Baez and Richard Elwes.
  59. ^ Stuart Clark (Aug 10, 2013). "Solar superflares: A new danger from the sun". New Scientist: 46–49. 
  60. ^ Colin Barras (Sep 29, 2012). "Earth cracking up under Indian Ocean". New Scientist: 10. 

External links[edit]