|This article is outdated. (August 2011)|
|Key people||Rüdiger Grube|
|Products||Rail transport, Cargo transport, Services|
|Revenue||€34.4 billion (2010)|
|Operating income||€1.9 billion (2010)|
|Net income||€1.0 billion (2010)|
|Owner(s)||Federal Republic of Germany (100%)|
Deutsche Bahn AG (DB AG, DBAG or DB) is the German national railway company, a private joint-stock company (AG) with the federal government being its majority shareholder with its headquarters in Berlin. It came into existence in 1994 as the successor to the former state railways of Germany, the Deutsche Bundesbahn of West Germany and the Deutsche Reichsbahn of East Germany. It also gained ownership of former railway assets in West Berlin held by the Verwaltung des ehemaligen Reichsbahnvermögens. Its name means "German Railway" in German.
Deutsche Bahn describes itself as the second-largest transport company in the world, after Deutsche Post AG, and is the largest railway operator and infrastructure owner in Europe. It carries about two billion passengers each year.
At its creation, DBAG took over the abbreviation and logo DB from the West German state railway Deutsche Bundesbahn, although it has since modernised the logo. Erik Spiekermann designed the new corporate font DB type.
Originally, DBAG had its headquarters in Frankfurt am Main but moved to Potsdamer Platz in central Berlin in 1996, where it occupies a 26-story office tower designed by Helmut Jahn at the eastern end of the Sony Center and named BahnTower. As the lease was to expire in 2010, DB had announced plans to relocate to Berlin Hauptbahnhof, and in 2007 a proposal for a new headquarters by 3XN Architects won an architectural competition which also included Foster + Partners, Dominique Perrault and Auer + Weber. However, these plans have been put on hold, and the BahnTower leased for at least three more years.
While the railway network in Germany dates back to 1835 when the first tracks were laid on a 6 km (3.7 mi) route between Nuremberg and Fürth, Deutsche Bahn has been a relatively recent development in German railway history. Founded in January 1994 as a joint stock-company, Deutsche Bahn was designed to operate the railways of both the former East and West Germany after unification in November 1989 as a single, uniform, and private company. There are three main periods of development in this unified German railway: its formation, its early years (1994–1999), and the period from 1999 to the present.
1999 to present 
The second step of the Bahnreform (Railway reform) was carried out in 1999. All rolling stock, track, personnel, and real assets were divided between the holding company and the five principal subsidiaries of DBAG: DB Reise & Touristik AG (long distance passenger service, later renamed DB Fernverkehr AG), DB Regio AG (regional passenger services, in the course of the reform under charge of the federal states), DB Cargo AG (freight services, later changed to Railion AG), DB Netz AG (operating the railway system), and DB Station & Service AG (operating the stations). This new organisational scheme was introduced not least to implement European Community directive 91/440/EEC that demands access to railway systems free of discrimination.
The DB is at present owned 100% by the Federal Republic. By the Constitution, the Federal Republic is required to retain (directly or indirectly) a majority of the infrastructure (the present DB Netze) stocks.
Corporate subdivisions 
The DB group (Deutsche Bahn AG) is divided into five main operations groups: Arriva, DB Bahn, DB Dienstleistungen, DB Netze, and DB Schenker. These subsidiaries are companies in their own right, although most of them are 100% owned by DBAG.
Deutsche Bahn placed a bid in May 2010 for the UK-based transport company Arriva. Arriva runs bus and rail companies in 12 European countries. The merger was approved by the European Commission in August 2010, subject to DB divesting Arriva services in Germany (these are now run as Netinera). The merger became effective on 27 August 2010.
Services in the UK formerly run as DB Regio are now operated by a new subdivision of the company, Arriva UK Trains.
DB Bahn 
DB Bahn is the group that manages passenger travel within Germany. Originally called Reise & Touristik, this group is responsible for the managing, ticketing, servicing and running of all German Intercity-Express, EuroCity, Intercity and Regionalbahn trains, and many commuter-oriented urban Stadtschnellbahn (generally abbreviated as S-Bahn) networks within Germany. The group also handles the information and customer service side of the operation.
DB Fernverkehr 
DB Fernverkehr AG is a semi-independent division of Deutsche Bahn that operates long-distance passenger trains in Germany. It was founded in 1999 in the second stage of the privatisation of German Federal Railways under the name of DB Reise&Touristik and renamed in 2003.
DB Fernverkehr operates all InterCityExpress and InterCity trains in Germany as well as several EuroCity trains throughout Europe. Unlike its sister companies DB Regio and Railion (formerly DB Cargo), DB Fernverkehr still holds a de facto monopoly in its segment of the market as it operates hundreds of trains per day, while all competitors' long-distance services (Veolia Verkehr most notably) combined amount to no more than 10-15 trains per day.
DB Regio 
DB Regio AG is the subsidiary of Deutsche Bahn that operates passenger trains on short and medium distances in Germany. Unlike its long-distance counterpart, DB Fernverkehr, it does not operate trains on its own account. Traffic is ordered and paid for by the Bundesländer or their Landkreise. Competition for those state-sponsored services is somewhat more fierce than for long-distance services. Consequently, DB Regio has lost a considerable number of routes to its competitors. Some states have awarded long-term contracts to DB Regio (usually 10 to 15 years), which has sparked harsh criticism from antitrust groups.
DB Stadtverkehr 
DB Stadtverkehr was responsible for commuter services of the Berlin and Hamburg S-Bahns and numerous bus companies (see Bahnbus). The subsidiary was integrated into DB Regio on 31 December 2010. The two S-Bahn networks handle over 500 million passengers annually.
DB Netze 
Since the end of 2007 DB Netze has been responsible for infrastructure and operations, taking over from DB Netz AG. Its business areas including DB Netze Fahrweg, DB Netze Energie, DB Netze Personenbahnhöfe, DB ProjektBau and DB Station&Service. A further business area known as DB Dienstleistungen covers six different areas of operations: DB Fahrzeuginstandhaltung, DB Systel, DB Services, DB Fuhrpark, DB Kommunikationstechnik, and DB Sicherheit.
DB Schenker 
Its two business areas are DB Schenker Rail (formerly Railion.) and DB Schenker Logistics. Other subsidiaries include Bax Global, Transfesa, and the former EWS, now DB Schenker Rail (UK) Ltd. DB Schenker Rail has its head office in Mainz, and is the holding company for the five (at 1 January 2009) national subsidiaries: Railion Deutschland, Railion Nederland, Railion Danmark, Railion Italy, and Railion Schweiz.
Foreign firms 
DB also has interests abroad, owning rail freight company EWS in the UK, which also operates the British Royal Train and also has interests in Eastern Europe. It is possible to obtain train times for any journey in Europe from Deutsche Bahn's website.
Members of the board 
As of 2010 Rüdiger Grube is the director of the supervisory board. Other members of the board include:
- Richard Lutz (Finance & Controlling)
- Gert Becht (Compliance, Data security, Legal matters)
- Volker Kefer (Technics, Railway interconnection, Services and Infrastructure)
- Ulrich Weber (Human resources)
Additional supervisory members for the sub-division DB Mobility Logistics AG include:
- Ulrich Homburg (Passenger transport)
- Karl-Friedrich Rausch (Transportation and Logistics Passenger traffic)
In conjunction with Emirates Airline, China Airlines, TAM Airlines, and Lufthansa, Deutsche Bahn operates the AiRail Service between Frankfurt International Airport and Cologne / Bonn, Düsseldorf, Freiburg, Hamburg, Hanover, Mannheim, Munich, Nuremberg, and Stuttgart. DB has the IATA designator 2A.
The Social-Democrat Minister Wolfgang Tiefensee was to present a bill before the council of ministers which envisaged selling 25% of DB, beginning in 2008. At term, the state should retain control by owning a 51% stake. The project has been postponed due to the market situation: Deutsche Bahn AG is valued at €45 billion. However, the railways are valued at €200 billion.
Rolling stock 
See also 
- Bahn TV
- DB Fernverkehr
- DB NachtZug
- DB Regio
- Rail transport in Germany
- Railway electrification system
- Transport in Germany
- Deutsche Bahn AG. "Daten und Fakten zum Geschäftsbericht 2010". Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- "Members to the Supervisory Board of Deutsche Bahn AG".
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- Lutz, Friedrich; Lange, Bernd and Müller, Matthias (2003). "DB launches new locomotive strategy". International Railway Journal 43 (11): 42. – via Gale (subscription required)
- "Competition win for 3XN". World Architecture News. 21 December 2007. Retrieved 2009-10-33.
- "The foundation of Deutsche Bahn AG" company website
- "Deutsche Bahn räumt bei Tochtergesellschaften auf (German Rail to clean up its subsidiaries)". 21 July 2011. Archived from eurailpress.de the original on 30 July 2012.
- "EC approves DB's takeover of Arriva". Railway Gazette International (London). 11 August 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-19.
- Deutsche Bahn AG: Kennzahlen 2005 – DB AG mit bestem Geschäftsjahr ihrer Geschichte, 23 September 2006
- "Transportation and logistics in the DB schenker group - Profile", www.dbschenker.com, archived from the original on 28 August 2008
- Macalister, Terry (28 June 2007). "Deutsche Bahn to run Queen's train". guardian.co.uk (web only).
- Tickets - Timetable
- "L'Allemagne s'apprête à vendre 25 % de la Deutsche Bahn". Le Monde (in French) (Paris). 24 July 2007.
- Deutscher Bundestag Drucksache 16/3801
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