Dexrazoxane has been used to protect the heart against the cardiotoxic side effects of anthracyclines, such as daunorubicin or doxorubicin. However, in July 2011 the US Food and Drug Administration released a statement restricting use only in adult patients with breast cancer who have received > 300 mg/m2 doxorubicin (an anthracycline) or > 540 mg/m2 epirubicin (another chemotherapeutic agent) and general approval for use for cardioprotection was withdrawn. This was based on a decision made by the European Medicines Agency to also withdraw the drug based on two main clinical trials that showed a possibly higher rate of secondary malignancies and acute myelogenous leukemia in pediatric patients treated for different cancers with both DRZ and other chemotherapeutic agents that are associated with secondary malignancies.
As a derivative of EDTA, dexrazoxane chelatesiron and thus reduces the number of metal ions complexed with anthracycline and, consequently, decrease the formation of superoxide radicals. It was speculated that dexrazoxane could be used for further investigation to synthesize new antimalarial drugs.
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