Dhammazedi

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Dhammazedi
ဓမ္မစေတီ
King of Hanthawaddy
Reign 1471–1492
Predecessor Shin Sawbu
Successor Binnya Ran II
Consort Mi Pakahtaw
Issue Binnya Ran II
Born November/December 1409
Monday, 771 ME[1]
Died 1492
Pegu
Religion Theravada Buddhism

Dhammazedi (Burmese: ဓမ္မစေတီ, pronounced: [dəma̰zèdì]; c. 1409–1492) was king of Hanthawaddy from 1471 to 1492, and is considered one of the most enlightened rulers in Burmese history, and by some accounts "the greatest" of all Hanthawaddy kings.[2] The former Buddhist monk, educated in the rival kingdom of Ava in his youth, was a trusted adviser and son-in-law of Queen Shin Sawbu. At age 48, he left the monkhood after he was selected by Shin Sawbu as the heir apparent, and was married to one of the queen's daughters. He immediately became the de facto ruler of the kingdom as Shin Sawbu handed over all administrative duties to him.

During Dhammazedi's long reign, the Mon-speaking kingdom reached the peak of its golden age. Under his wise rule, the kingdom, unlike the rival Ava Kingdom, was peaceful, and profited greatly from foreign commerce. His reign was a time of peace and he himself was a mild ruler, famous for his wisdom.[2] A collection of his rulings, Dhammazedi Pyatton, survives.[3] The kingdom also became a famous center of Theravada Buddhism, with strong ties to Ceylon, and resumed the practice of sending missions to Buddhagaya. His religious reforms later spread throughout the country.[4] He maintained friendly relations with Yunnan.

According to DGE Hall, "He was a Buddhist ruler of the best type, deeply solicitous for the purification of religion. Under him civilization flourished, and the condition of the Mon country stands out in sharp contrast with the disorder and savagery which characterized the Ava kingdom."[2]

He died in 1492. He was honored as a saint and a pagoda was erected over his bones. He was succeeded by his eldest son Binnya Ran II.

Brief[edit]

Various Burmese chronicles report slightly different dates for the key events of his life.

Chronicles Birth–Death Age Reign Length of reign
Slapat Rajawan[note 1] c. November 1409[note 2] 81 1470–1491[5] 21[note 3]
Maha Yazawin and Hmannan Yazawin not reported not reported 1471–1492[6][7] 21

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Slapat provides wildly divergent and inconsistent dates for the early Hanthawaddy history, including the reign of this king. The birth-death and regnal dates use the regnal years given in the Slapat chronicle with 888 ME (1526/27), the death year of King Binnya Ran II, which is in agreement with standard Burmese chronicles, as the anchor reference point.
  2. ^ (Slapat 1922: 96): He was born in 771 ME in the season of Byeissa (ဗြိစ္ဆာ), which corresponds to Scorpio. It means he was probably born around November/December of 1409.
  3. ^ The reign period calculated from the reign start date of Binnya Ran II (1491) and the reign end date of Shin Sawbu (1470) as given in (Slapat 1922: 69 and 104) respectively. (Slapat 1922: 96) says he reigned for 27 years, and died at age 74 (75th year) in 1483/84, which contradicts its own reporting elsewhere.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Slapat 1922: 96
  2. ^ a b c Hall 1960: 36–37
  3. ^ Harvey 1925: 117–120
  4. ^ Myint-U 2006: 64–65
  5. ^ Slapat 1922: 69, 104
  6. ^ Maha Vol. 2 2006: 140
  7. ^ Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 185

Bibliography[edit]

  • Athwa, Sayadaw (1785). Mon Yazawin (Slapat Rajawan) (in Burmese) (1922 ed.). Yangon: Burma Publishing Workers Association Press. 
  • Hall, D.G.E. (1960). Burma (3rd ed.). Hutchinson University Library. ISBN 978-1-4067-3503-1. 
  • Harvey, G. E. (1925). History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. 
  • Kala, U (1724). Maha Yazawin (in Burmese) 1–3 (2006, 4th printing ed.). Yangon: Ya-Pyei Publishing. 
  • Myint-U, Thant (2006). The River of Lost Footsteps—Histories of Burma. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0-374-16342-6. 
  • Royal Historical Commission of Burma (1832). Hmannan Yazawin (in Burmese) 1–3 (2003 ed.). Yangon: Ministry of Information, Myanmar. 
Dhammazedi
Born: 1409 Died: 1492
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Shin Sawbu
King of Hanthawaddy
1471–1492
Succeeded by
Binnya Ran II
Royal titles
Preceded by
Binnya Waru
Heir to the Hanthawaddy Throne
1457–1471
Succeeded by
Binnya Ran II