From top clockwise: Dhanbad Railway Station, Golchakkar, Bank more (both)
|Nickname(s): 'The Coal Capital of India & The Millennium City'|
|• Total||2,052 km2 (792 sq mi)|
|Elevation||222 m (728 ft)|
|• Rank||33rd, No 1 in Jharkhand|
|• Density||1,284/km2 (3,330/sq mi)|
|• Official||Bengali, Hindi, Santali, Kurmali, Khorta|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||JH 10 : BR 17 (Discontinued)|
Dhanbad is famous for coal mining. It has the largest mine in India.Tata Steel, BCCL, ECL and IISCO (Indian Iron And Steel Company) are some of the companies having coal mines in the district. The Indian School of Mines & BIT Sindri is located in Dhanbad. Among the rail divisions of Indian Railway, Dhanbad Rail Division is the second largest in terms of revenue generation after Mumbai division.
There are records of settlements in the area from the 7th century. In the modern era, Dhanbad was originally in a district named Dhanbad before becoming part of Manbhum and then Bihar districts before finally becoming part of Jharkhand District in 2000.
The city has one parliamentary seat and six seats in the Legislative Assembly.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Geography and climate
- 3 History
- 4 Demography
- 5 Civic administration
- 6 Economy
- 7 Language
- 8 Government and PSU organizations
- 9 Education
- 10 Transport
- 11 Politics
- 12 Media and sports
- 13 Tourist attractions
- 14 Rivers
- 15 Shopping centres and malls
- 16 Festivals
- 17 References
- 18 External links
Originally the name of Dhanbad was Dhanbaid which seems to have been derived from the word Dhan (paddy) and baid, i.e., the paddy land. The Dhanbad originated from the district of Manbhum occupied by Mundari or Kolarian races in the wilderness of South undivided Bihar. In the seventh century A.D. some information is available from the account of the travels of Hieun Tsang. These accounts narrate existence of a powerful kingdom which comprised the district and adjoining areas, ruled by Sasanka.
Geography and climate
Dhanbad has an average elevation of 227 m (745 ft). Its geographical length (extending from North to South) is 15 miles (24 km) and the breadth (stretching across East to West) is 10 miles (16 km). It shares its boundaries with West Bengal in the Eastern and southern part, Dumka & Giridih in the North and Bokaro in the west. Dhanbad comes under the Chota Nagpur Plateau.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Dhanbad features climate that is transitional between a humid subtropical climate and a tropical wet and dry climate. Summer starts from last week of March and ends in mid-June. Peak temperature in summer can reach 48 °C. Dhanbad also receives heavy rainfall. In winter, the minimum temperature remains around 10 °C with a maximum of 22 °C. Damodar River is the main river flowing through the district. Katri, Jamunia, Gobai, Khudia and Irji are the other rivers flowing through the district. The red soil is found in the area and is not that much fertile for good agricultural produce. Due to presence of two large dams in the district, many people are involved in pisciculture. Forests present in the district are of northern tropical dry deciduous type. In many of these forests, people are engaged in Sericulture.
|Climate data for Dhanbad|
|Average high °C (°F)||25
|Average low °C (°F)||11
|Precipitation mm (inches)||17
The present district used to be a part of Manbhum. In the Settlement Report for Manbhum (1928) it was stated that no rock inscriptions, copper plates or old coins were discovered and not a single document of copper plate or palm leaf was found, during the Survey and Settlement operations. The oldest authentic documents produced were all on paper and barely even a hundred years old. Dhanbad was in Manbhum district from 1928 up to 1956. However, on 24 October 1956, Dhanbad was declared a District on the Recommendation of the States Reorganization Commission vide notification 1911. And from 1956 to 14 November 2000 it was under Bihar. At present it is in Jharkhand, after the creation of state on 15 November 2000.
Govindpur Block was a historical place before 1908, this was Anumandal office during British Empire.[clarification needed]
As of 2011[update] India provisional census Dhanbad had a population of 1,195,298. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. It has a sex ratio of 908. Dhanbad has an average literacy rate of 75.71%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 85.78% and female literacy is 64.70%. In Dhanbad, 10.57% of the population is under 5 years of age.
Dhanbad is the headquarters of the district and also the headquarters of DMC (Dhanbad Municipal Corporation). DMC was formed as per the State Government Notification dated 1/02/06 with merger of areas Jharia NAC, Sindri, NAC, Chhatandih NAC, Katras NAC. Dhanbad city elects one Member of Parliament. Also some part of the district comes under Giridih seat of Lok Sabha. There are six Legislative Assembly seat; they are Sindri, Baghmara, Dhanbad, Jharia, Nirsa, Tundi.
Dhanbad has District court and Labour Court-Industrial tribunal. Along with Mumbai, Dhanbad is the only city having two Labour Court-Industrial tribunals. Mineral Area Development Authority (MADA) looks after the development of the district.
Dhanbad is a coal mining and industrial city and one of the busiest commercial centres in India. It is the largest city and second largest urban agglomeration in Jharkhand after Jamshedpur.
Dhanbad is famous for its coal mines and industrial establishments; it has 112 coal mines with a total produce of 27.5 million tonnes and an annual income of 7000 million Rupees through coal business. There are also number of coal washeries present there. The city is also known for its power generation plants. Hydro Power is being generated at Maithon and Panchet. Tata Power and Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC) are setting up a 1050 MW thermal power plant at Maithon. This project is already in operation with one unit running successfully. ONGC is using CBM (Coal beded methane) for power generation at some of the coal mines.
Hindi is the predominant language of Dhanbad. Hindi, Bengali, Khortha, kurmali, Santali, Bhojpuri, Maithili, Magahi are also widely spoken. English serves as the connecting language in business and tourist function. Additionally, Urdu, Telugu, Tamil, and Punjabi speaking people are present in significant numbers. Several tribal languages are also spoken in the city, including Kurukh and Ho.
Government and PSU organizations
- Bharat Coking Coal Limited- BCCL is a Public Sector Undertaking(Subsidiary of Coal India Ltd.) engaged in mining of coal and allied activities.BCCL meets almost 50% of the total prime coking coal requirement of the integrated steel sector. BCCL was incorporated in January, 1972 to operate coking coal mines operating in the Jharia & Raniganj Coalfields, taken over by the Govt. of India on 16 October 1971 to ensure planned development of the scarce coking coal resources in the country.
- DGMS- Directorate General of Mines Safety, DGMS in short, is the Indian government regulatory agency for safety in mines and oil-fields.
- CIMFR, Barwa Road Campus- Erstwhile CMRI, the Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research (CIMFR) Dhanbad, is a constituent laboratory of Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR) was aimed to provide R&D inputs for the entire coal-energy chain from mining to Consumption through integration of the Core Competencies of the two (CFRI & CMRI) premier Coal institution of the country.
- CIMFR, Digwadih Campus. Erstwhile CFRI.
- CCWO- Central Coal Washery organization, unit of BCCL is situated at Saraidhela. which looks after the works of all coal washeries of Bharat Coking Coal Limited.
- CCSO- Central Coal Supply Organization (CCSO), a unit of SAIL, is situated in Saraidhela, Dhanbad District of Jharkhand and has branch offices at Kolkata, Asansol, Adra and Bilaspur.
Central Coal Supply Organization looks after the daily movement of indigenous washed coking coal and boiler coal to SAIL steel plants; BSP, RSP, DSP, BSL and ISP.
- BEML- BEML Limited (formerly Bharat Earth Movers Limited) was established in May 1964 as a Public Sector Undertaking for manufacture of Rail Coaches & Spare Parts and Mining Equipment. At Dhanbad it has its marketing unit near Kola Kusma, Saraidhela.
Universities and colleges
The Indian School of Mines, was started by Britishers in 1926 is located in Dhanbad. ISM is one of the leading technical institute of India. In ISM, students get admission through IIT-JEE which is supposed to be one of the toughest exams of world. The earth science branches such as mining, geology, geophysics, petroleum, mineral and environmental engineering are world famous. ISM also have other core engineering branches such as mechanical, electrical, electronics, computer science, civil and chemical engineering which are also famous, having very good placement records.
Patliputra Medical College and Hospital is located in the city as are many other colleges.
Law College Dhanbad was established way back in 1976 and is situated at Hirapur - Damodarpur Road which is about 2.5 km from the Dhanbad Collectorate.
There are a large number of day schools most of them having smart classes.
- Government Polytechnic, Nirsa, Dhanbad (Mining Institute Dhanbad)
- Bhuli Middle & High school Dhanbad
- Government Polytechnic, Dhanbad
- De Nobili School, CFRI/CMRI/Maithon/Mugma/Bhuli/Sijua/Sindri/Chandrapura(CTPS)
- Guru Gobind Singh Public School Dhanbad
- DAV Public School, Koyla Nagar /Moonidih/Alkusa/Putki/ Mahuda/Baniahir (Lodna)/Barora/Dari Muhalla/CFRI (Digwadih)/Lodna/Moonidih/Purana/Sijua/Kusunda
- Delhi Public School, Dhanbad
- Carmel School Digwadih
- Dhanbad Public School
- Kendriya Vidyalaya, Station Road/Steel Gate/Maithon Dam
- Indian School of Learning, ISM/Jharia, JodaPhatak, Saraidhela,
- Kids Garden School Dhanbad
- St. Xavier's International School, Hirak Ring Road
- Rajkamal Saraswati Vidya Mandir, (RSVM), Ashok Nagar/Bhuli
- K.K. College of Engineering & Management(www.kkcemdhanbad.com) and K.K. Polytechnic (www.kkpolytechnic.com)
- Carmel School Dhanbad
- Jawaharlal Nehru Senior Secondary School (Digwadih)
- Koylanchal Public School, Telipara, Dhanbad
- Dhanbad City School
Private and State buses are available for inter-city traveling. Pre-Paid taxi services from dhanbad junction will be soon in work, National Highway 2 and National Highway 32 are the major highways passing through Dhanbad. NH 2 has now been converted into Golden Quadrilateral (GQ). Golden Quadrilateral starts from Kolkata and ends at Delhi. From Dhanbad to Kolkata, Golden Quadrilateral will be converted into six lane expressway; NH 32 connects Govindpur to Bokaro-Jamshedpur.- Barbil.
Dhanbad has a very good rail connectivity with the other major parts of the country such as Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, Kochi, Indore, Bhopal, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Nagpur, Pune, Guwahati etc. Dhanbad Rail Division comes under East Central Railway zone. Grand Chord rail-line passes through Dhanbad junction, it connects Howrah and New Delhi. CIC rail line starts from Dhanbad and ends at Singrauli in Madhya Pradesh. There is one more rail line passing through the district, it starts at Kharagpur and ends at Gomoh, this rail line comes under South Eastern Railway. Dhanbad is connected with almost all states through rail network. Each and every train through this has a stop at Dhanbad, other than the Sealdah New Delhi & Howrah New Delhi Duronto Exp, which also has a Technical Halt, but not to be used for Commercial Purposes.
On 1 October 2011, India's first AC double-decker train was flagged off to connect Howrah and Dhanbad. With this India joins the league of Europe and North America that run multi-deck trains. As on October 2011, the train runs daily except Sunday, departing from Howrah at 8:30 am to arrive at Dhanbad at 12:45 pm, and on return trip it departs Dhanbad at 6:30 pm to arrive at Howrah at 10:40 pm. It has a maximum permissible speed of 110 kilometres (68 mi)/hr with stops at Bardhaman, Durgapur, Asansol, Barakar and Kumardhubi on both legs of the route. This new AC design has several features namely stainless steel body, high-speed Eurofima design bogies with air springs and other safety-features. The coaches have a control discharge toilet system.
Dhanbad used to have air-connectivity with Calcutta and Patna in the eighties. Presently the airstrip at Barwadda, lies barren. Currently there is no air-link at Dhanbad. The nearest airports to Dhanbad are
- Birsa Munda Airport, Ranchi 140 kilometres (87 mi)
- Gaya Airport 207 kilometres (129 mi)
- Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport, Kolkata 269 kilometres (167 mi)
- Lok Nayak Jayaprakash Airport, Patna 271 kilometres (168 mi)
Mannan Mallick of Congress won in the 40 Dhanbad assembly constituency defeating Raj Kumar Sinha of BJP in 2009. Pashupati Nath Singh of BJP defeated Mannan Mallik of Congress in 2005, Prasadi Sao of RJD in 2000, and Ramadhar Yadav of JD in 1995. Surendra Prasad Roy of Congress defeated S.K. Shriva of JD in 1990 and Ram Chander Singh of Janata Party in 1985. Yogeshwar Prasad Yogesh of Congress defeated Gopi Kant Bakshi of CPI(M) in 1980 and Kalawati Devi of Janata Party.
There are number of Student Union is positively participating like ISU (Indian Student Union), NSUI, ABVP, CYJM (Chhatra Yuva Jagran Manch), AJSU, etc.
Media and sports
Hindi newspapers are mainly published from the city, among them Hindustan Dainik is the most popular, followed by Prabhat Khabar, Dainik Jagran and Dainik Bhaskar. "Dhanbad Bokaro Live" is published from Dhanbad.
Doordarshan relay station is present in Dhanbad near Koyla Nagar. There are some local news channels in the city such as, Antarkatha which are creative media houses which broadcast on local cable on Dhanbad, Bokaro, Chatra, Hazaribag, Kodrma, Ramgarh. This News Channel makes some artists which popular in all India and makes some short film documentaries and other programs which are popular. And other some creative youth is active in this channel. In addition there is Naxatra News Hindi a regional channel of Jharkhand and Bihar that carries the local news.
FM radio is available as Vividh Bharti Service of All India Radio at 101.8 MHz. producer& director Daljit Singh (Dillu) short movie Hindustan Hamara,& its the realty are successful movies.
Cricket is the most popular sport in Dhanbad, followed by Football. Dhanbad is one of the centres where 34th National Games was organized. Cricket Stadiums at present are at Tata Steel Stadium Digwadih, Nehru Stadium Jealgora and Railway Stadium where Ranji Trophy matches are organised. Women's International Cricket were also played at Railway Stadium Football matches of national level were played at Railway Stadium (but now it is converted into Cricket Stadium by the Railway management)and Sijua Stadium.
From 12 to 26 Feb 2011 during 34th National Games, Netball, Traithlon and Squash was played at ISM Campus and Officers Club, Sepak Takraw in Indoor Stadium, Rowing, Kayaking & Canoeing at Maithon Dam.
- Maithon – The Lake at Maithon is spread across an area of 65 km2. Boating is available here. A Bird Sanctuary and Deer park is also present near this place. From Dhanbad Railway Station, the distance is 45 km. This is the most popular picnic spot. During 15 December to 20 January lacs of people come for picnic.
- Topchanchi Lake – This lake is a very famous Picnic spot. Situated at Golden quadrilateral, 37 km from Dhanbad railway station. This lake is surrounded by green hills of Parasnath and forest.Photos of Topchanchi Lake
- Bhatinda Falls – The Waterfall is near Moonidih, 14 km from Dhanbad railway station. Surrounded by greenery, this place draws lot of crowd specially in winter.Photos of Bhatinda fall
- Pandra – Pandra is near Nirsa. This place has derived its name from Pandavas. According to the locals, pandavas spent some time here during their exile. A temple of Pandeshwar mahadev is also present.
- Shakti Mandir – This is one of the most famous Hindu Temple in Dhanbad. It is situated in the main city. Temple of Goddess Durga draws large crowd throughout the year.
- Shyam Mandir – This is one of the most famous Hindu Temple in Jharia. It is situated Lal Bazar, Jharia. Temple of Shri Shyam Prabhu Khatu Wale large crowd throughout the year.
- Lillori Sthan Mandir – An ancient temple of Goddess Kali is present here. Situated on the bank of river katri. This Place is 19 km from Dhanbad Railway station.
- Chark- khurd – This place is known for its hot water spring. It is in Tundi.
- Gopalpur – Situated in Nirsa. This place contains ancient structures built during the period of emperor Ashoka. A large stone image of emperor Ashok is also present here.
- Panchet Dam – Around 54 km from Dhanbad Railway station is a popular picnic spot.
- Birsa Munda Park – Around 8 km from Dhanbad Railway station is a Park in around 25 acre land and prime picnic spot for the people.
- Jagannath Temple, Dhansar – One of the most famous Hindu temple in the city, about 1 km from Bank More on the left side of the road connecting Jharia, opposite of reliance fresh. Temple of Lord Jagannath, famous for the car festival.
- The Shiva Temple of Jhinjhipahari – Temple is extracted from the mining grounds of a small village called Jhinjhipahari. This village is situated near to city and takes half an hour to reach.
- Bhuiphor Mandir – 6 km away on NH-32 from Railway station towards Govindpur.
- Sir Dorabji Tata Park- Jamadoba
- Pahari ground-Baniahir
- Dhangi Parvat - A small hill near Dhanbad Public School, Govindpur. It provides fun trecking of an hour and a mesmerizing view of Dhanbad from top.
The Damodar is the most important river of the Chotanagpur plateau. It rises in Palamu and flows eastward between the plateaus of Ranchi and Hazaribag. It is joined by the Bokaro, the Konar and the Barakar rivers. The Damodar enters Dhanbad district at its confluence with the Jamuria, a stream which marks the western boundary of Dhanbad with Hazaribagh District. Further east, the Damodar is joined by the Katri River which rises in the foot hills below Parasnath and traverses through the Coal-field Area. The Damodar flows for about 77 km. through the district being joined by the Barakar at its eastern border near Chirkunda. The Panchet dam extending to roughly 6 km is built on river Damodar. The hydal station there generates 40,000 K.W. per hour (sicsic).
The Barakar, which forms the northern boundary of the district, traverses about 77 km. In the district. It flows in south westerly direction up to Durgapur and then south till it joins the Damodar near Chirkuda. The Maithon dam is located on this river about 13 km off its confluence with the Damodar. Attached to it is the Maithan Power Station with a generating capacity of 60,000 K.W.H.
Among other small rivers in the district are Gobai, the Ijri, and the Khudia besides the river Katri.
Shopping centres and malls
Bank More being the central hub for Shopping, now the city has malls and shopping centers spreading across length and breadth of Dhanbad city namely City Centre Bartand, City Style-Dutta Tower(Hirapur), Ozone Galleria (with Big Bazaar, Pantaloons, INOX, Reliance Trends, Reliance Digital, Reliance Footprints, Reebok, Raymond's, Samsung, Fastrack and many more. stores), Ozone Plaza (having Tanishq, Reliance Super, Blackberrys and Domino's), Sri Ram Plaza, AMWAY, Urmila Tower, The family Store, New Market, Park Market (Hirapur), etc. These are the places where one can shop.
Many more upcoming, namely Prabhatam Grand, Shristi Plaza (First Green Project of Jharkhand) creating shopping paradises and housing major brands for people of Dhanbad.
Dhanbad will soon have its first full fledged shopping mall "Center-Point Mall"(With Bank, Retail Shops, Food Court containing Restaurants, PVR Cinemas Multiplex) as construction is in full swing and it is set to change people's lifestyle and shopping experience.
Presently Fame(Now INOX) is the biggest Multiplex in Jharkhand state situated in the Ozone Galleria Mall, Saraidhela. Fame Dhanbad, the multiplex has 4 screens with a seating capacity of 996 people.PVR cinemas will be in functioning soon in Center Point mall Shastri Nagar, Bank More.
Gyan Bharati situated at Joraphatak Road, Dhanbad is one of the oldest and largest bookshop in Jharkhand for Educational Books and School Uniforms.
Dhanbad is home to people from all across India. Charak Puja, Karma, Sarhul, Vishwakarma Puja, Saraswati Puja, Durga Puja, Chhath, Deepawali, Holi, Guru Purnima, Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha, Muharram and Christmas are among the long list of festivals celebrated in Dhanbad.
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- BIHAR REORGANISATION ACT,2000
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- 34th National Games website
- Shristi Realcon. Shristi Realcon. Retrieved on 2012-04-14.
- Website: Gyan Bharati, Dhanbad
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dhanbad.|
- [www.facebook.com/coalcity/ Facebook page of Dhanbad]
- IFSC & MICR Code Dhanbad
- Website of the city of Dhanbad
- Dhanbad City
- Dhanbad Portal
- Dhanbad travel guide
- Photos of Dhanbad
- Dhanbad travel guide from Wikivoyage