Dharmaśāstra

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Dharmaśāstra (Sanskrit: धर्मशास्त्र) is a genre of Sanskrit texts and refers to the śāstra, or Indic branch of learning, pertaining to Hindu dharma, religious and legal duty. The voluminous textual corpus of Dharmaśāstra is primarily a product of the Brahmanical tradition in India and represents the elaborate scholastic system of an expert tradition.[1] Because of its sophisticated jurisprudence, Dharmaśāstra was taken by early British colonial administrators to be the law of the land for Hindus in India.[2] Ever since, Dharmaśāstra has been linked with Hindu law, despite the fact that its contents deal as much or more with religious life as with law. In fact, a separation of religion and law within Dharmaśāstra is artificial and has been repeatedly questioned.[3] Others have, however, argued for a distinction of religious and secular law within Dharmaśāstra.[4] Dharmaśāstra is important within the Hindu tradition—first, as a source of religious law describing the life of an ideal householder and, second, as symbol of the summation of Hindu knowledge about religion, law and ethics.

Contents of Dharmaśāstra[edit]

A facsimile of an inscription in Oriya script on a copper plate recording a land grant made by Rāja Purushottam Deb, king of Odisha, in the fifth year of his reign (1483). Land grants made by royal decree were protected by law, with deeds often being recorded on metal plates

All Dharmaśāstras derive their authority with reference to the Vedas, though few, if any, of the contents of most Dharmaśāstra texts can be directly linked with extant Vedic texts.[5] Traditionally, Dharmaśāstra has, since the time of the Yājñvalkyasmṛti, been divided into three major topics: 1) ācāra, rules pertaining to daily rituals, life-cycle rites, and other duties of four castes or varṇas, 2) vyavahāra, rules pertaining to the procedures for resolving doubts about dharma and rules of substantive law categorized according the standard eighteen titles of Hindu law, and 3) prāyaścitta, rules about expiations and penances for violations of the rules of dharma.

Combining the categorization given in the Yājñavalkyasmṛti with a more descriptive catalog of the contents in Dharmaśāstra texts found in P.V. Kane's History of Dharmaśāstra[6] presents the following list of topics:

Ācāra[edit]

The category of ācāra comprised rules governing obligations and proper conduct for all the vaṛṇas and āśramas, closely related to Mīmāṃsā laws of proper ritual conduct. It also had the broader meaning of conventions of practice, though still carrying the moral connotation of "right practice", i.e. the authorized practices of good people passed down over generations.

  • Sources of dharma
  • Varṇa – the rules of the class-based social system, such as the specific duties given to each class and the rules for intermarriage.
  • Consecratory, or life-cycle, rites – rituals that mark important occasions in a persons life such as birth, marriage, and the tying of the yajñopavītam or sacred thread.
  • Āśramas – the four stages of life (the student, the householder, the forest dweller, and the renouncer) and the duties expected during each.
  • Five great sacrifices – daily sacrifices by Brahmin householders to the Vedas (through teaching), the ancestors (through libations), the gods (through fire offerings), beings (through Bali offerings), and guests (through hospitality).[7]
  • Rules for food – class-based regulations on what to eat and how to obtain food.
  • Religious gifts (dāna) – the caste breakdown of who is to accept and who is to give gifts. The Vedas are followed when performing sacrifices or giving gifts, since consequences for improper gift giving and receiving can be severe.
  • Funerary and ancestral rites – Under this topic would fall rules regarding proper rituals surrounding the cremation of the deceased, as well as fulfilling the dvija 's obligations to his deceased ancestors through the performance of the śrāddha ritual.

Vyavahāra[edit]

Vyavahāra is an important concept of Hindu law denoting legal procedure. Kane defines it as follows: "When the ramifications of right conduct, that are together called dharma and that can be established with efforts (of various kinds such as truthful speech, etc.) have been violated, the dispute (in a court between parties) which springs from what is sought to be proved (such as debt), is said to be vyavahāra."[8] The king’s personal dharma is inextricably linked to legal proceedings and his dharma is determined the by the merits and demerits of his subjects, therefore it is crucial he bring about justice to injustice. This is why it is stressed in the dharmaśāstras how important it is for the king to be fair and righteous and to appoint learned Brahmins to counsel and help him in legal matters.

  • Duties of a king – Though this topic covers duties and obligations of the king (rājadharma), and thus would seem to belong under the heading of ācāra, the office of the king was so closely intertwined with punishment and legal procedure that, even from the time of the Āpastamba Dharmasutrā, duties of the king are described along with rules of legal procedure.[9]
  • Legal procedure, (Vyavahāra) – according to the dharmaśāstras includes: court, listening to and assessing witnesses and their testimony, deciding and enforcing punishment, and the pursuit of Justice in the face of Injustice.
  • Eighteen Hindu Titles of Law – make up the grounds for litigation and the performance of the legal process.

Prāyaścitta[edit]

Prāyaścittas are seen as means of removing sin, as they are undertaken to atone for not doing what is ordained or doing something which has been forbidden.[10]

  • Rules for renunciation – This topic deals with who is allowed to renounce as a sannyasin, from which of the āśramas they may renounce, and what implications their status as ritually dead has on their legal and social standing.
  • Categories of sin – the classification of different sins into categories depending on gravity of the sin and means of reducing it
  • Expiations and penances, (Prāyaścitta) – means of reducing sin.
  • Karma – a principle in which “cause and effect are as inseparably linked in the moral sphere as assumed in the physical sphere by science. A good action has its reward and a bad action leads to retribution. If the bad actions do not yield their consequences in this life, the soul begins another existence and in the new environment undergoes suffering for its past deeds”.[11]
  • Pilgrimage – a journey to a holy place in order obtain merit and expiate sins.
  • Vrata – religious vows or rites that can be used to reduce sin
  • Utsavas – festivals and religious celebrations.
  • Śānti – propitiatory rites undertaken in order to appease the gods when omens have revealed their displeasure.

In addition to these topics, Dharmaśāstra makes extensive use of the tradition of textual hermeneutics known as Pūrva-Mīmāṃsā, which describes in great detail how to interpret the ritual texts of the Vedic corpus. The principles of Mīmāṃsā have been borrowed and reapplied to a broader range of religious and legal phenomena in the Dharmaśāstra.[12] Other cognate disciplines important for understanding Dharmaśāstra are grammar and Nyāya.

Principal Root Texts[edit]

Copy of a royal land grant, recorded on copper plate, made by Chalukya King Tribhuvana Malla Deva in 1083

While there are literally hundreds of Dharmaśāstra texts and many more commentaries and digests, the principal Dharmaśāstra texts include:

The Dharmasutras[edit]

The Dharmasutras are the first four texts of the Dharmashastra tradition and they focus on the idea of dharma, the principal guide by which Hindus strive to live their lives. The Dharmasutras are written in concise prose, leaving much up to the educated reader to interpret.The most important of these texts are the sutras of Apastamba, Gautama, Baudhayana, and Vasistha.[13]

The Dharmasutras can be called the guidebooks of dharma as they contain the rules of conduct and rites as practiced in the Vedic schools. They discuss the duties of people at different stages of life like studenthood, householdership, retirement and renunciation. These stages are also called ashramas. They also discuss the rites and duties of kings, judicial matters, and even personal practices like the regulations in diet, offenses and expiations, daily oblations, and funerary practices.[13]

Literary History[edit]

The Dharmasūtras belong to the literary tradition of the Vedas. The primary Vedas are the Ṛig, Yajur, Sāma, and Atharva. Later, these Vedic branches split into various other branches the reasons of which remain unclear.[14]

Each branch of the Vedas is further divided into two categories namely the Saṃhitā which is a collection of the foundational texts of the Vedas and the Brāhmaṇa which is prose text that explains the meaning of the liturgy. The Brāhmaṇa was further divided into Āraṇyakas which contain the esoteric sections of the Brāhmaṇas while the others are called the Upaniṣads. The Vedic basis of Dharma literature is found in the Brahmana texts.[15]

Towards the end of the vedic period after the middle of the 1st millennium BCE the language of the vedic texts grew very archaic to the people of that time since the texts were centuries removed form the time of their composition. This led to the formation of Vedic Supplements called the vedāṇga which literally means ‘limbs of the Veda’ which consisted of ritual expositions of the Veda, grammar, astronomy, etymology, phonetics, metrics (A2.8.11).Although, these expert traditions developed within the vedic branches, they later became independent.[15]

Style of Composition[edit]

The hymns of Ṛgveda are one of the earliest texts composed in verse. The Brāhmaṇa which belongs to the middle vedic period followed by the vedāṇga are composed in prose. The basic texts are composed in an aphoristic style known as the sutra which literally means thread on which each aphorism is strung like a pearl.[16]

The Dharmasūtras are a part of the Kalpasūtras which give a vivid description of the rituals. The Kalpasutras are of three kinds namely the Śrautasūtras which deals with vedic rituals, Gṛhyasūtras which deals with domestic rituals and Dharmasūtras.[17] The Dharmasūtras of Āpastamba, Baudhāyana form a part of larger Kalpasutra.[17]

The sūtra tradition ended around the beginning of the common era and was followed by the simple verse style called the śloka.[18] The period of epics and Purāṇas were composed in this style. The legal texts of Dharmaśāstras are also composed in sloka style of which Manu smṛti is an earliest representation.[18]

The age of Smṛtis that ended around the second half of the first millennium CE was followed by that of commentaries around the 9th century called nibandha. This legal tradition consisted of commentaries on earlier Dharmasūtras and Smritis.[18]

Authorship and Dates[edit]

Although the four Dharmasūtras carry the names of their authors it is still difficult to determine who these real authors were.[19] The Dharmasūtra of Āpastamba and Baudhayana form a part of the Kalpasūtra but it is not easy to establish whether they were historical authors of these texts or whether these texts were composed within certain institutions attributed to their names.[20] Moreover, Gautama and Vasiṣṭha are ancient sages related to specific vedic schools and therefore it is hard to say whether they were historical authors of these texts.[21] The issue of authorship is further complicated by the fact that apart from Āpastamba the other Dharmasūtras have various alterations made at later times.[22]

There is uncertainty regarding the dates of these documents due to lack of evidence concerning these documents. Although Kane has given some approximate dates but they are just guesses. Gautama 600 BCE to 400 BCE, Āpastamba 450 BCE to 350 BCE, Baudhāyana 500 BCE to 200 BCE, and Vasiṣṭha 300 BCE to 100 BCE.[23]

There is confusion regarding the geographical provenance of these documents. According to Bühler and Kane Āpastamba came from South India probably from Andhra.[24] Baudhāyana also came from south although evidence regarding this is weaker than that of Āpastamba.[25] Gautama may have belonged to north-western region to which Pāṇini belonged. This assumption is formed on the basis of certain terms that Gautama used which were also referred to by Pāṇini. Nothing can be said about Vasiṣṭha due to lack of any evidence.[26]

Scholars have varied opinions about the chronology of these documents. Regarding the age of Āpastamba and Gautama there are opposite conclusions. According to Bühler and Lingat Āpastamba is younger than Baudhāyana. Vasiṣṭha is surely a later text.[27]

Literary structure[edit]

The structure of these Dharmasūtras primarily addresses the Brahmins both in subject matter and the audience.[28] The Brahmins are the creators and primary consumers of these texts.[29] The subject matter of Dharmasūtras is dharma. The central focus of these texts is how a Brahmin male should conduct himself during his lifetime.[30] The text of Āpastamba which is best preserved has a total of 1,364 sūtras out of which 1,206 (88 per cent) are devoted to the Brahmin, whereas only 158 (12 per cent) deals with topics of general nature.[31] The structure of the Dharmasūtras begin with the vedic initiation of a young boy followed by entry into adulthood, marriage and responsibilities of adult life that includes adoption, inheritance, death rituals and ancestral offerings. According to Olivelle, the reason for this kind of structure is to prepare an individual towards the performance of dharma at his initiation, which is viewed as his second birth making him a ‘twice born’ man.[32]

The structure of Dharmasūtra of Āpastamba is simple and straightforward it begins with the duties of the student and ends with administration of the king. This forms the early structure of the Dharma texts. However, in the Dharmasūtras of Gautama, Baudhāyana and Vasiṣṭha separate sections are devoted to inheritance and penance. Ollivelle suggests that these changes show chronological development.[33]

The meaning and sources of Dharma[edit]

Dharma is a concept which is central not only in Hinduism but also in Jainism and Buddhism. It therefore has a wide scope of interpretation. The fundamental meaning of Dharma is right behavior within ritual, moral or social spheres.[34] Dharma provides the guidelines for proper and productive living in society.

The source of dharma is in the Vedas. It is believed that like the Vedas, dharma is not of human origin and therefore its existence is intangible. At the same time, dharma operates in practical ways beyond mere meaning. Some dharmas are based in the customs of different social groups for example deśadharma, dharma of different regions, jātidharma, dharma of different social groups, and kuladharma, dharma of different families.[35] The sources of these dharmas are not found in the Vedic texts. This leads to incongruity between theology and nature of dharma and the reality of rules as mentioned in the Dharmasutras.[36]

Āpastamba made an attempt to resolve this issue of dissonance. He placed the importance of Veda second and that of accepted customs of practice first. He also had realistic views about the difficulty of right judgment in dharma due to its indefinable nature. He further gives the theory of the ‘lost Veda’ and says that originally all the rules of dharma were contained in the Vedas, but now parts of those Vedas are lost.[37]

The sources of dharma according to Gautama are smṛti, the tradition, acāra, the practice and those who know the Veda. These three sources are commonly referred to in literature.[38] He also stated that when there is conflict between smṛti, the tradition and the Vedas the rules of the higher authority apply. On the other hand, according to Baudhāyana smṛti is the second source and śiṣṭa which is practice of cultured people the third source.[39]

However, the Brahmanical tradition still maintains the theological ideal that the Dharmasūtras are based on vedic texts irrespective of whether it is clearly expressed or implied.

The nature of Dharmasūtras is normative and this reason makes room for a scholarly debate. Some scholars argue that that these sources are unreliable and worthless for historical purposes instead to use archaeological, inscriptional, and art historical materials. Olivelle argues that the dismissal of normative texts is unwise and betrays the spirit of these documents.[40]

  • Apastamba (450–350 BCE) this Dharmasūtra forms a part of the larger Kalpasūtra of Apastamba.
  • Gautama's Dharmasutra (600–400 BCE) although this Dharmasūtra comes down as an independent treatise it may have once formed a part of the Kalpasūtra.[41]
  • Baudhāyana (500–200 BCE) this Dharmasūtra like that of Apastamba also forms a part of the larger Kalpasūtra.
  • Vāsiṣṭha (300–100 BCE) this Dharmasūtra forms an independent treatise and bears no relationship to the Kalpasūtra.

The Dharmaśāstras[edit]

Written after the Dharmasūtras, these texts use a metered verse and are much more elaborate in their scope. Scholars have postulated that these texts are actually compilations of common gnomic verses of the times, known by the śiṣṭas. Such verses were regularly cited as legitimation for legal judgments and advice. At some point these verses were gathered together into complete texts under the name of particular sages. These texts are said to have been edited and updated with additions of verses which had not previously been included.[42] However, there is an ongoing debate amongst scholars regarding this matter. Other scholars refute the multiple authorship idea, claiming that the major texts were written by a single author at a particular time in history and remained relatively unedited as time went by.[43] Regardless, by attributing their authorship to that of well known sages like Nārada, the text takes on a superior authority. The most influential texts are listed below, along with their approximate dates:

  • The Manusmṛti (200BC-200CE) is the most important and earliest metrical work of the Dharmaśāstra textual tradition of Hinduism.[44]
  • The Yājñavalkya Smṛti (200-500CE) has been called the "best composed" and "most homogeneous"[45] text of the Dharmaśāstra tradition, with its superior vocabulary and level of sophistication.
  • The Nāradasmṛti (100BC-400CE) has been called the “juridical text par excellence” and represents the only Dharmaśāstra text which deals solely with juridical matters and ignoring those of righteous conduct and penance.[46]
  • The Viṣṇusmṛti (700-1000CE) is one of the latest books of the Dharmaśāstra tradition in Hinduism and also the only one which does not deal directly with the means of knowing dharma, focusing instead on the bhakti tradition.[47]
  • The Bṛhaspatismṛti (200-400CE) is a modern reconstruction of a text that has not yet been found and may never have been recorded in written form. The attempt to author this lost Dharmaśāstra has been made based on a gathering of all verses attributed to the sage Bṛhaspati but pays full tribute to Manu as the ultimate authority on dharma.[48]
  • The Kātyāyanasmṛti (300-600CE) is another modern reconstruction similar to that of Bṛhaspatismṛti, specializing in vyavahāra.[49]

Commentaries and Digests[edit]

The commentaries (Bhashya) on the Dharmaśāstras were generally devoted to one particular text, or smṛti. The commentators saw themselves as interpreters of the texts, concerning themselves with explaining the meaning of the texts they were commenting on.[50] The digests (nibandhas) were arranged by topic, more or less, and drew upon many different smṛtis for their source material. For example, an author of a digest might focus on the topic of inheritance, and then discuss how several different smṛtis address the issue. In many cases it is difficult to tell the difference between a commentary and a digest because many commentaries draw upon several outside sources to legitimate the claims they make about a specific smṛti and to attempt to reconcile any disagreements between the texts.

Principal Commentaries[edit]

Commentaries on the Manu-Smṛti[edit]

  • Bhāruci (600CE-1050CE) is the oldest known commentator on the Manu Smṛti and talks mostly about the duties of the king.
  • Medhātithi (820CE-1050CE) is the most extensive commentary on Manu that we have today.
  • Manvartha-muktavali by Kullūka (1200CE-1300CE) is the most famous commentary on Manu and is very concise and to the point.
  • Govindarāja
  • Nārāyaṇa
  • Raghavananda
  • Nandana

Commentaries on the Yājñavalkya-Smṛti[edit]

  • Bālakrīḍā by Viśvarupa (750CE-1000CE) is very voluminous and compares to the Mitākṣarā, and the author quotes profusely from Vedic works.
  • Mitākṣarā by Vijñāneśvara (1050CE-1126CE) is a legal commentary best known for its discussion of "inheritance by birth", and for its popularity within the British Law courts in all of India with the exception of Bengal and Assam.
  • Aparārka's (1100CE-1200CE) commentary is really in the nature of a digest and is much more voluminous than the Mitākṣarā.
  • Dīpakalikā by Śūlapāṇi (1365CE-1460CE)
  • Vīramitrodaya by Mitramiśra

Commentaries on the Nārada-Smṛti[edit]

  • Asahāya (500CE-750CE) commented on the Nārada-Smṛti, but much of his commentary was added to or revised by Kalyāṇbhaṭṭa.

Commentaries on the Viṣṇu-Smṛti[edit]

  • Vaijayantī by Nandapaṇḍita

Principal Digests[edit]

Early Digests[edit]

  • Krtyakalpatara by Lakṣmīdhara (1104–1154 A.D.) had significant influence until the 16th century. One of the largest digests, second only to the Vīramitrodaya.
  • Smṛticandrikā by Devaṇṇa-bhaṭṭan (1200 A.D.) gained large influence throughout North and South India. It is composed of three kāṇḍas, or divisions, entitled āhnika, vyavahāra and śrāddhu. The text includes numerous citations and quotations which are critiqued by Devaṇṇa-bhaṭṭan.

Digests on Inheritance[edit]

Digests on Religious Rites and Rituals[edit]

  • Caturvagacintāmani (The Philosophers' Stone for the Four Classes) by Hemādri
  • Nirnaya-sindhu by Kamalākara-bhatta (1612)

Digests on the Role of the King[edit]

  • Rāja-nīti-ratnākara by Caṇḍeśvara
  • Ṭoḍarāndanda by Ṭoḍar Mal (16th century) translates to The Joy of Ṭoḍar, and covers the duties of the king as a judge, as well as the timing of marriage and gifts.

Digests on Litigation and Judicial Procedure[edit]

  • Vivāda-ratnākara by Caṇḍeśvara (Early 14th century) describes the 18 titles of litigation.
  • Vivāda-cintāmani by Caṇḍeśvara (Early 14th century) involved the 18 titles of litigation.
  • Vivāda-tāṇḍava by Kamalākara-bhatta (1612)
  • Vyavahāra-mayūkha by Nīlakaṇṭha (Early 17th century) is the most known part of his text, Bhagavanta-bhāskara. In 1827, the work was translated into English and later translated by Kāne.[51]
  • Vīramitrodaya by Mitra-miśra (Early 17th century) is a digest covering every aspect of dharma The text was written for Vīrasiṃha, the king of Orccha from 1605–1627. Considered to be the most extended text on the topic of judicial procedure.
  • Vyavahāra-cintāmani by Caṇḍeśvara

Digests on Dharma[edit]

  • Sarasvati-vilāsa by Pratāparuda-deva (Early 16th century) was intended to cover every aspect of Dharma in order to save future commentators argument and make all future commentaries unnecessary. The work was ordered by Pratāparudra-deva, a king of Odisha of the Gajapati dynasty.[52]
  • Bhagavanta-bhāskara by Nīlakaṇṭha (1600–1650)
  • Nṛsiṃha-prasáda by Dalpati (Early 16th century) is divided into 12 sāras which cover dharma in its entirety.

°"Dharma Sindhu", an exhaustive treatise penned by Mahapandit Kashinatha Upadhyaya in 1790 AD. The Pandit himself stated that while the doyens of Dharma Shastra should readily appreciate the nuances of his Treatise on Dharma, the commoners and students would have an opportunity to acquire the rudimentary know-how on the Subject. [53]

Digests on Adoption[edit]

  • Dattaka-mīmāmsā by Nanda-paṇḍita (Late 16th – Early 17th Century) was mistakenly assumed to be a classical work on the topic of adoption and subsequently used by the British authorities as Hindu law. The digest was translated by Sutherland in 1821.[54]

Major English Translations[edit]

1. Best for beginners[edit]

  • Olivelle, Patrick. 2004. The Law Code of Manu. New York: Oxford UP.
  • Olivelle, Patrick. 1999. Dharmasūtras: The Law Codes of Āpastamba, Gautama, Baudhāyana, and Vāsiṣṭha. New York: Oxford UP.

2. Other major translations[edit]

  • Kane, P.V. (ed. and trans.) 1933. Kātyāyanasmṛti on Vyavahāra (Law and Procedure). Poona: Oriental Book Agency.
  • Lariviere, Richard W. 2003. The Nāradasmṛti. 2nd rev. ed. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
  • Rocher, Ludo. 1956. Vyavahāracintāmani: a digest on Hindu legal procedure. Gent.

3. Early translations with full-text online[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Patrick Olivelle, Manu's Code of Law: A Critical Edition and Translation of the Mānava-Dharmaśāstra (New York: Oxford UP, 2005), 64.
  2. ^ For a good overview of the British attitudes toward and administration of Hindu law, see J. Duncan M. Derrett, "The Administration of Hindu Law by the British," Comparative Studies in Society and History 4:1 (1961), pp.10–52.
  3. ^ See, for example, Ludo Rocher, "Hindu Law and Religion: Where to draw the line?" in Malik Ram Felicitation Volume, ed. S.A.J. Zaidi. (New Delhi, 1972), pp.167–194 and Richard W. Lariviere, "Law and Religion in India" in Law, Morality, and Religion: Global Perspectives, ed. Alan Watson (Berkeley: University of California Press), pp.75–94.
  4. ^ On this distinction in relation to punishment, see Timothy Lubin, "Punishment and Expiation: Overlapping Domains in Brahmanical Law," Indologica Taurinensia 33 (2007): 93–122.
  5. ^ Robert Lingat, The Classical Law of India. trans. J.D.M. Derrett (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973), 7–8.
  6. ^ P.V. Kane, History of Dharmaśāstra: (ancient and mediaeval, religious and civil law). (Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 1962 – 1975).
  7. ^ Manu 3.69–70
  8. ^ P.V. Kane, History of Dharmaśāstra, Vol. 3, p. 247
  9. ^ On this topic, see Olivelle, Patrick. Language, Tests, and Society: Explorations in Ancient Indian Culture and Religion. p. 174
  10. ^ Kane, P.V. History of the Dharmaśāstras Vol. 4 p. 58
  11. ^ Kane, P.V. History of the Dharmaśāstras Vol. 4 p. 38
  12. ^ Kisori Lal Sarkar, The Mimansa Rules of Interpretation as applied to Hindu Law. Tagore Law Lectures of 1905 (Calcutta: Thacker, Spink, 1909).
  13. ^ a b Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasutras: The Law Codes of Ancient India, (Oxford World Classics, 1999), p.xxi
  14. ^ Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasūtras: The Law Codes of Ancient India, (Oxford World Classics, 1999), p.xxii
  15. ^ a b Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasūtras: The Law Codes of Ancient India, (Oxford World Classics, 1999), p.xxiii
  16. ^ Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasūtras: The Law Codes of Ancient India, (Oxford World Classics, 1999), p.xxiv
  17. ^ a b Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasūtras: The Law Codes of Ancient India, (Oxford World Classics, 1999), p xxiv
  18. ^ a b c Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasūtras: The Law Codes of Ancient India, (Oxford World Classics, 1999), p.xxv
  19. ^ Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasutras: The Law Codes of Ancient India, (Oxford World Classics, 1999), p.xxv
  20. ^ Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasutras: The Law Codes of Ancient India, (Oxford World Classics, 1999), p.xxv
  21. ^ Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasutras: The Law Codes of Ancient India, (Oxford World Classics, 1999), p.xxvi
  22. ^ Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasūtras: The Law Codes of Ancient India, (Oxford World Classics, 1999), p.xxvi
  23. ^ Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasūtras: The Law Codes of Ancient India, (Oxford World Classics, 1999), p.xxxi
  24. ^ Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasūtras: The Law Codes of Ancient India, (Oxford World Classics, 1999), p.xxvii
  25. ^ Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasūtras: The Law Codes of Ancient India, (Oxford World Classics, 1999), p.xxvii
  26. ^ Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasūtras: The Law Codes of Ancient India, (Oxford World Classics, 1999), p.xxviii
  27. ^ Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasūtras: The Law Codes of Ancient India, (Oxford World Classics, 1999), p.xxviii
  28. ^ Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasūtras: The Law Codes of Ancient India, (Oxford World Classics, 1999), p.xxxiv
  29. ^ Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasūtras: The Law Codes of Ancient India, (Oxford World Classics, 1999), p.xxxiv
  30. ^ Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasūtras: The Law Codes of Ancient India, (Oxford World Classics, 1999), p.xxxiv
  31. ^ Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasūtras: The Law Codes of Ancient India, (Oxford World Classics, 1999), p.xxxv
  32. ^ Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasūtras: The Law Codes of Ancient India, (Oxford World Classics, 1999), p.xxxv
  33. ^ Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasūtras: The Law Codes of Ancient India, (Oxford World Classics, 1999), p.xxxvi
  34. ^ Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasūtras: The Law Codes of Ancient India, (Oxford World Classics, 1999), p.xxxviii
  35. ^ Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasūtras: The Law Codes of Ancient India, (Oxford World Classics, 1999), p.xxxix
  36. ^ Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasūtras: The Law Codes of Ancient India, (Oxford World Classics, 1999), p.xxxix
  37. ^ Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasūtras: The Law Codes of Ancient India, (Oxford World Classics, 1999), p.x1i
  38. ^ Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasūtras: The Law Codes of Ancient India, (Oxford World Classics, 1999), p.x1i
  39. ^ Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasūtras: The Law Codes of Ancient India, (Oxford World Classics, 1999), p.x1i
  40. ^ Patrick Olivelle, Dharmasūtras: The Law Codes of Ancient India, (Oxford World Classics, 1999), p.x1ii
  41. ^ Robert Lingat, The Classical Law of India, (Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ltd, 1993), p.19
  42. ^ Lariviere 1989: xi
  43. ^ Olivelle, “Literary History”: 25
  44. ^ See Flood 1996: 56 and Olivelle 2005.
  45. ^ Lingat 1973: 98
  46. ^ Lariviere 1989: ix
  47. ^ Olivelle 2007: 149–150.
  48. ^ Olivelle, "Literary History": 20, 26
  49. ^ Olivelle, "Literary History": 27
  50. ^ Robert Lingat, The Classical Law of India, (New York: Oxford UP, 1973), 107.
  51. ^ Robert Lingat, The Classical Law of India, (New York: Oxford UP, 1973), 118.
  52. ^ Robert Lingat, The Classical Law of India, (New York: Oxford UP, 1973), 116.
  53. ^ http://www.kamakoti.org/kamakoti/dharmasindhu/bookindex.php
  54. ^ Robert Lingat, The Classical Law of India, (New York: Oxford UP, 1973), 117.

References[edit]

  • Translation by Richard W. Lariviere (1989). The Nāradasmr̥ti. University of Philadelphia. 
  • Flood, Gavin (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43878-0. 
  • Olivelle, Patrick. "Dharmasastra: A Literary History"
  • Olivelle, Patrick (2005). Manu's Code of Law: A Critical Edition and Translation of the Mānava-Dharmaśāstra. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517146-2. 
  • Lingat, Robert (1973). The Classical law of India. New York: Oxford UP Publ. 
  • Kane, P.V. (1973). History of DharmaŚãstra. Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental research Institute. 

External links[edit]