Dharmasraya is the capital and also the name of the 11th century Malay Buddhist kingdom based on the Batanghari river system in modern day Jambi and West Sumatra, on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia. The kingdom itself could be identified by the name of its capital Dharmasraya or by the name Bhumi Malayu or Suvarnnabhumi according to Padang Roco inscription. The reference to the name Malayu signify that the kingdom is located on previously older Malayu kingdom area prior being absorbed into Srivijayan mandala circa late 7th century, thus suggesting that Dharmasraya was the successor of Malayu. Dharmasraya became an independent kingdom after the downfall of Srivijaya in 1025.
After the invasion by Rajendra the king of Chola from Koromandel, authority of Sailendra dynasty over the islands of Sumatera and the Malay Peninsula weakened. Some time later came a new dynasty that took over the role of Sailendra Dynasty, called by the name of Mauli dynasty. The Dharmasraya can be considered as the successor of Srivijaya.
The oldest inscription bearing the name of Maharaja Mauli is the Grahi inscription dated 1183 discovered in Chaiya (Grahi) Malay Peninsula, Southern Thailand. The inscription bears the order of Maharaja Srimat Trailokyaraja Maulibhusana Warmadewa to the bhupati (regent) of Grahi named Mahasenapati Galanai to make a statue of Buddha weight 1 bhara 2 tula with the value of 10 gold tamlin. The artist name that responsible to create the statue is Mraten Sri Nano.
The second inscription from Mauli dynasty appear approimately a hundred years later in 1286. The inscription in which the name Dharmasraya and the name of king is Srimat Tribhuwanaraja Mauli Warmadewa appears dates from the 13th century, namely the Padang Roco inscription discovered around the headwaters of Batanghari river (now Dharmasraya Regency in West Sumatera), dated 1286.
The List of Rulers
The Maharajas of Dharmasraya:
|Date||King's of name||Capital||Stone inscription or embassies to China and events|
|1183||Srimat Trailokyaraja Maulibhusana Warmadewa||Dharmasraya||Grahi inscription 1183 at Chaiya, South of Thailand, the order to regent Grahi, namely Mahasenapati Galanai to make a Buddha stone.|
|1286||Srimat Tribhuwanaraja Mauli Warmadewa||Dharmasraya||Padang Roco inscription 1286 at Siguntur, (now Dharmasraya regency), Pamalayu expedition.|
|1347||Srimat Sri Udayadityawarman Pratapaparakrama Rajendra Mauli Warmadewa||Pagaruyung||Moved to Pagaruyung|
- J.L.A. Brandes, 1902, Nāgarakrětāgama; Lofdicht van Prapanjtja op koning Radjasanagara, Hajam Wuruk, van Madjapahit, naar het eenige daarvan bekende handschrift, aangetroffen in de puri te Tjakranagara op Lombok
- Muljana, Slamet (2006), Sriwijaya, Yogyakarta: LKiS, ISBN 979-8451-62-7.