Dhulbahante

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Dhulbahante
البهانتة
Regions with significant populations
Languages
Somali and Arabic
Religion
Islam
Related ethnic groups
Majeerteen, Warsangali and other Harti and Darod groups.

The Dhulbahante (Somali: Duulbaahaante, Arabic: البهانتة‎) is a Somali clan, part of the larger Harti Darod clan. Members primarily inhabit the Sool, Nugal, Sanaag and Ayn regions, the Haud, as well as the port city of Kismayo.

Dhulbahante is a Somali clan, and a part of the larger Harti Darod clan. According to the UN,AU,IGAD and Dhulbahante chief Elders today they are Approximately 1090,000 members, The clan primarily inhabit the Sool, Nugaal, Sanaag and Ayn (a new province carved out of Togdheer) regions, the Haud, and lower jubba states of Somalia as well as other areas such as North Eastern province of Kenya, and Eastern Ethiopia.However, They are the majority in Sool, Sanaag, and Cayn, and minorities in all other. Dhulbahante is one of the major Somali tribes .their family tree belongs to the Harti Koombe who was the grandson of King Darod . Dhulbahante is a nickname, but His real name was Said Harti, Dhulbahante had six brothers and 13 sisters . Most of his well-known brothers are 1) Majeerteen 2) Warsangali 3) Dishiishe 4) liibaangashle and more.Currently, there are 15 active Garaads and Ugaases (clan chiefs). The most senior Garaad of the traditional Dhulbahante leaders is Garad Jama Garad Ali. Politically, all clan chiefs strongly oppose the existence of Somaliland (see the Boocame Declaration by Dulbahante Traditional clan chiefs for reference). Historically, under the leadership of Sayid Mohammed Abdullah Hassan (Their Daughter-son) and Other Dhulbahante Dervish Officials, such a Ismail Mireh (a man who is referred to as a Warrior and Hero by them and other Somali Historians) the Dhulbahante waged war against Britain and Ethiopia for over twenty years, which ended with the British Royal Air Force bombing their command centre in Taleex in 1920. The Dulbahante clan lost nearly half of its population in this struggle for the sake for Somali freedom and as result; its constituents naturally support Greater Somalia. Traditionally, Harti has a kingdom but after Said Harti fled from it, the kingdom remained only for the Majeerteen, so Majeerteen became the King of the other Eastern Harti Nation and Dhulbahante announced his own Kingdom “Ugaas” which is another form of leadership title. However, when Garaad (king) Shirshoore was born as an Ugaas, he changed the name to a “Garaad.” (Another title of Kingship) due to Cultural believed basis and became the everlasting Kingdom of the Western harti nation of today also known as Dhulbahante.

Dhulbahante around 1700 AD they start residing areas that are less diverse compared to the other Harti members or generally to the Somali clans. However, this helped the Dhulbahante people to be safe during next 380 years till the Europeans came to divide the land, around 1900 dhulbhante were the first tribes to start waging wars against the European colonizers of the 1900 AD.

dhulbahante clan had just established their own regional government called Khaatumo State of Somalia. Dhulbahante are only people who were fought for Somali indepedence. They waged a war against British. They are known for Somali Unity and they never accepted Somali division . khatumo State of Somalia controls Sool,Sanaag, and Cayn according to historians.Khatumo State (Somali: Khaatumo, Arabic: ولاية خاتمة), officially the Khatumo State of Somalia (Somali: Dowlad Goboleedka Khaatumo ee Soomaaliya), is a region in northern Somalia. Centered on the Sool, Sanaag and Cayn or SSC provinces, its leaders declared the territory an autonomous state in 2012.[

Clan tree[edit]

Main Dhulbahante area of inhabitation.

There is no clear agreement on the clan and sub-clan structures and many lineages are omitted. Within the Dhulbahante clan, according to the researches of I.M. Lewis, the Dhulbahante are divided into 50 groups which pay diyya (or blood money for their members. These are gathered into four lineages of unequal size: the Muuse Si'iid, who made up the majority of the clan circa 1960, and in turn is highly segmented into numerous lineages; the Ahmad Si'iid, (also known as the Hayaag), which Lewis estimated to number 1,000 male members at the time but now estimated at 7,500 male members; and the Malbammad Si'iid, and the Yuunis Si'iid, which he described as "small, insignificant, and incapable of independent political action."[1] The following listing is taken from the World Bank's Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics from 2005 and the United Kingdom's Home Office publication, Somalia Assessment 2001.[2][3]

Dulbahante traditional clan chiefs declaration[edit]

Khaatumo State of Somalia

An historic summit was convened in Boocame from November 15 – November 23 of 2007, by the traditional leaders of the Dulbahante (Dhulbahante) sub-clan of the Darod clan in Somalia. The Dulbahante traditional chiefs issued an official communiqué on October 15, 2007 regarding the secessionist Somaliland region's militias’ aggression and occupation of Laascaanood (LasAnod), the regional capital of Sool, Sanaag and Cayn regions of Somalia.[4][5][6]

All 14 major traditional chiefs of the Dulbahante clan attended this summit. In addition to the traditional chiefs, there were many intellectuals (women & men), students and civic organizations from outside and inside of the country attending the summit. All chiefs unanimously signed declaration communiqué on November 22, 2007.

The communiqué states that the Dulbahante clan is not part of (and was never part of) and does not recognize the administration that calls itself "Somaliland" and that there are no agreements between Dulbahante clan and "Somaliland", in the past or the present. The communiqué also calls for an immediate end of hostility, return of customary peaceful co-existences among clans and an unconditional removal of the Somaliland militia from their territory. Finally, chiefs declared that the Dulbahante clan stands for the Somali unity.

In the anniversary of their historic summit in Boocame in November 2007, the Dulbahante Traditional Chiefs (SSC Traditional Leaders Council) reiterated their previous declaration (above) that they are not part of the Somaliland separatist movement. The council sent its pronouncement to the European Union, United Nations Agencies and all NGOs that operate within Somalia.

Notable Dhulbahante people[edit]

  • Abdi Bile, a former middle distance runner from Somalia and 1500m world champion in 1987.
  • Abdisamad Ali Shire, former Vice President of Puntland.
  • Ahmed Elmi Osman, Minister of Interior of Puntland and former President of Khatumo State.
  • Ali Garad Jama, member of the United Somali Party, Somali Minister of Education during the 1960s, and ostensible king of the Dhulbahante clan.[7]
  • Ali Khalif Galaydh, former Prime Minister under the Transitional National Government.
  • Amina Mohamed, former Chairman of the International Organization for Migration and the World Trade Organisation's General Council, and current Secretary for Foreign Affairs of Kenya.
  • Garad Abdulghani Garad Jama, senior Garaad 1985-2006[8]
  • Jama Garad Ali, the most senior Dhulbahante Garaad[9]
  • Mohamed Abdi Hashi, Second President of Puntland, October 2004 - January 2005.
  • Saado Ali Warsame, singer-songwriter and former MP in the Federal Parliament of Somalia

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lewis, "Force and Fission in Northern Somali Lineage Structure", American Anthropologist, New Series, 63 (1961), p. 100
  2. ^ Worldbank, Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics, January 2005, Appendix 2, Lineage Charts, p.55
  3. ^ Country Information and Policy Unit, Home Office, Great Britain, Somalia Assessment 2001, Annex B: Somali Clan Structure, p. 43
  4. ^ "The Declaration of Clan Elders from Sool, Sanaag and Cayn Regions (North Somalia)." (Press release). Declaration of Dulbahante Traditional clan chiefs. November 23, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-23. 
  5. ^ "SSC TRADITIONAL LEADERS COUNCIL (Sool, Sanaag and Cayn Regions of Northern Somalia Tribal chiefs)" (PDF) (Press release). Declaration of Dulbahante Traditional clan chiefs. November 28, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-28. 
  6. ^ "Declaration of the Consultative Conference of the Dhulbahante in the Diaspora -- Guiding Principles" (Press release). Declaration of the Consultative Conference of the Dhulbahante in the Diaspora. April 24, 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-24. 
  7. ^ Lewis, I.M. 1988. A Modern History of Somalia. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Cited (no page reference) by Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, "Somalia: Information on Ali Garad Jama, a king of the Dhulbante clan, and on any positions held by him in the Somali government before or after Barre's 1969 coup", 1 January 1996, SOM22804.E, available at: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3ae6ab9d58.html. Accessed 5 January 2011.
  8. ^ "The Legacy of Garaad Cabdiqani Garaad Jaamac". 
  9. ^ "Somalia: 50,000 flee conflict in North". Garowe Online. Norwegian Council for Africa. 2007-11-13. Retrieved 2012-06-14. ...Garad Jama Garad Ali, the highest-ranking traditional elder of the Dhulbahante clan.