Dialect card

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A dialect card (Japanese: 方言札 Hepburn: hōgen fuda?) was a system of punishment used in Japanese schools in Okinawa Prefecture, designating the student as having erred by speaking the Okinawan language. The card was voluntarily adopted by Okinawan students at the start of the 20th century, but became mandatory as assimilation policies increased following 1917. A student who spoke Okinawan would be forced to wear the card, until another student also spoke in Okinawan, and then it would pass to the new transgressor, with the student wearing it at the end of the school day punished by the teachers.[1][2]

See also[edit]

  • Welsh Not, a similar punishment for Welsh-speaking students
  • Symbole, a similar punishment for Breton-speaking students


  1. ^ Mary Goebel Noguchi; Sandra Fotos (2001). Studies in Japanese Bilingualism. Multilingual Matters. pp. 72–. ISBN 978-1-85359-490-8. Retrieved 9 June 2012. 
  2. ^ Elise K. Tipton (2 October 1997). Society and the State in Interwar Japan. Psychology Press. pp. 204–. ISBN 978-0-415-15069-9. Retrieved 9 June 2012.