Dice towers have been used since at least the fourth century. The Vettweiss-Froitzheim Dice Tower is a surviving example, used by Romans in Germany and has essentially the same design as modern examples with internal baffles to force the dice to rotate more randomly.
The main elements of a dice tower include:
- the tower itself, a hollow, vertical rectangular prism with projections along the side (often called 'bafflers') to sufficiently tumble the dice in order to achieve a random result
- a ramp at the bottom which spills the dice from the inside of the tower
- a small tray, into which the dice come to rest, usually bordered by a short lip to prevent the dice from exiting and disrupting the game or going astray
The dice are dropped in the top of the tower and gravity effectively does the rest.