Dichlorosilane

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Dichlorosilane
Stereo, skeletal formula of dichlorosilane with some explicit hydrogens added
Ball and stick model of dichlorosilane Spacefill model of dichlorosilane
Identifiers
Abbreviations DCS[citation needed]
CAS number 4109-96-0 YesY
PubChem 61330
ChemSpider 55266 YesY
EC number 223-888-3
UN number 2189
MeSH dichlorosilane
RTECS number VV3050000
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula SiH
2
Cl
2
Molar mass 101.007 g mol−1
Appearance Colourless gas
Density 1.22 g cm−3
Melting point −122 °C (−188 °F; 151 K)
Boiling point 8 °C; 46 °F; 281 K at 101 kPa
Solubility in water Reacts
Vapor pressure 167.2 kPa (at 20 °C)
Thermochemistry
286.72 J K−1 mol−1
−320.49 kJ mol−1
Hazards
MSDS inchem.org
GHS pictograms The flame pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)The corrosion pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)The skull-and-crossbones pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
GHS signal word DANGER
H220, H250, H280, H314, H330
P210, P261, P305+351+338, P310, P410+403
EU classification Extremely Flammable F+ Very Toxic T+
R-phrases R12, R14, R26, R35
S-phrases S26, S36/37/39, S45, S53, S60
NFPA 704
Flammability code 4: Will rapidly or completely vaporize at normal atmospheric pressure and temperature, or is readily dispersed in air and will burn readily. Flash point below 23 °C (73 °F). E.g., propane Health code 4: Very short exposure could cause death or major residual injury. E.g., VX gas Reactivity code 2: Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, reacts violently with water, or may form explosive mixtures with water. E.g., phosphorus Special hazard W: Reacts with water in an unusual or dangerous manner. E.g., cesium, sodiumNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point −37 °C (−35 °F; 236 K)
Autoignition temperature 55 °C (131 °F; 328 K)[2]
Explosive limits 4.1–99%
Related compounds
Related dichlorosilanes Trichlorosilane

Silicon tetrachloride

Related compounds Dichloromethane
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

Dichlorosilane, or DCS as it is commonly known, is a chemical compound with the formula H2SiCl2. In its major use, it is mixed with ammonia (NH3) in LPCVD chambers to grow silicon nitride in semiconductor processing. A higher concentration of DCS:NH3 (i.e. 16:1), usually results in lower stress nitride films.

It is an intermediate between silane and silicon tetrachloride.

Physical properties[edit]

Graphs obtained show different properties of dichlorosilane. The vapor pressure vs. temperature graphs shows that as temperature increases, vapor pressure also increases. The gas vs. heat capacity graph shows that as temperature increases, gas heat capacity increases until it hits .24 Cal/GRx°C. The enthalpy of vaporization decreases as temperature decreases, until it reaches 0 at its critical point at 180 °C. Liquid heat capacity increases as temperature increases, until the critical point is reached. Liquid density decreases as temperature increases, until the critical point is reached. Surface tension decreases steadily as temperature increases, until the surface tension is at 0 when the critical point is reached. Liquid viscosity decreases as temperature increases, until the critical point is reached. Gas thermal conductivity increases as temperature increases. Liquid thermal conductivity decreases as temperature increases, until the critical point is reached. Enthalpy of formation decreases at first as temperature increases, but then it begins to increase around 750 °C. Gibbs energy of formation increases linearly as temperature increases.[3]

History[edit]

Dichlorosilane was originally prepared in 1919 by the gas-phase reaction of monosilane, SiH4, with hydrogen chloride, HCl, and then reported by Stock and Somieski.[4] It was found that in the gas phase, dichlorosilane will react with water vapor to give a gaseous monomeric prosiloxane, H2SiO. Prosiloxane polymerizes rapidly in the liquid phase and slowly in the gas phase, which results in liquid and solid polysiloxanes [H2SiO]n. The liquid portion of the product, which is collected via vacuum distillation, becomes viscous and gelled at room temperature. Hydrolysis was done on a solution of H2SiCl2 in benzene by brief contact with water, and the molecular weight was determined to be consistent with an average composition of [H2SiO]6. Through analytical and molecular weight determinations, n was decided to be between 6 and 7. Then, through more experimentation with the product, it was determined that n increases as time increases. After being in contact with the aqueous hydrolysis medium for a longer period of time, a polymer, [HSi(OH)O]n, was produced. There was limited availability of dichlorosilane until the silicone industry grew.

Reactions and formation[edit]

2 SiHCl3 ⇔ SiCl4 + SiH2Cl2
  • The waste gas that is formed from silicon production by the use of silicon tetrachloride or trichlorosilane, HSiCl3, can be reduced with oxygen to form dichlorosilane.[5]

Hydrolysis[edit]

Stock and Somieski completed the hydrolysis of dichlorosilane by putting the solution of H2SiCl2 in benzene in brief contact with a large excess of water.[4][6] A large-scale hydrolysis was done in a mixed ether/alkane solvent system at 0 °C, which gave a mixture of volatile and nonvolatile [H2SiO]n. Fischer and Kiegsmann attempted the hydrolysis of dichlorosilane in hexane, using NiCl2⋅6H2O as the water source, but the system failed.[4] They did, however, complete the hydrolysis using dilute Et2O/CCl4 at -10 °C. The purpose of completing the hydrolysis of dichlorosilane is to collect the concentrated hydrolysis products, distill the solution, and retrieve a solution of [H2SiO]n oligomers in dichloromethane.[4] These methods were used to obtain cyclic polysiloxanes.

Another purpose for hydrolyzing dichlorosilane is to obtain linear polysiloxanes, and can be done by many different complex methods.[6] The hydrolysis of dichlorosilane in diethyl ether, dichloromethane, or pentane gives cyclic and linear polysiloxanes.[6]

Decomposition[edit]

Su and Schlegal studied the decomposition of dichlorosilane using transition state theory (TST) using calculations at the G2 level. Wittbrodt and Schlegel worked with these calculations and improved them using the QCISD(T) method.[7] The primary decomposition products were determined by this method to be SiCl2 and SiClH.[7]

Ultrapurification[edit]

Dichlorosilane must be ultrapurified and concentrated in order to be used for the manufacturing of semiconducting[5] epitaxial silicon layers, which are used for microelectronics. The buildup of the silicon layers produces thick epitaxial layers, which creates a strong structure[5]

Advantage of use[edit]

Dichlorosilane is used as a starting material for semiconducting silicon layers found in microelectronics. It is used because it decomposes at a lower temperature and has a higher growth rate of silicon crystals.[5]

Safety hazards[edit]

It is a chemically active gas, which will readily hydrolyze and self ignite in air. Dichlorosilane is also very toxic, and preventative measures must be used for any experiment involving the use of the chemical.[8] Safety hazards also includes skin and eye irritation, and inhalation.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "nchem.403-comp13 - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 27 March 2005. Identifiers and Related Records. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  2. ^ http://encyclopedia.airliquide.com/Encyclopedia.asp?GasID=23
  3. ^ Cheng, J., Yaws, C., Dickens, L., Hopper, J., Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Dichlorosilane, Department of Chemical Engineering, 23, 48-52
  4. ^ a b c d Seyferth, D., Prud’Homme, C., Wiseman, G., Cyclic Polysiloxanes from the Hydrolysis of Dichlorosilane, Inorganic Chemistry, 22, 2163-2167
  5. ^ a b c d e Vorotyntsev, V., Mochalov, G., Kolotilova, M., Kinetics of Dichlorosilane Separation from a Mixture of Chlorosilanes by Distillation Using a Regular Packing, Theoretical Foundations of Chemical Engineering, 38(4), 355-359
  6. ^ a b c Seyferth D., Prud’Homme C., Linear Polysiloxanes from Dichlorosilane, Inorganic Chemistry, 23, 4412-4417.
  7. ^ a b Walch, S., Dateo, C., Thermal Decomposition Pathways and Rates for Silane, Chlorosilane, Dichlorosilance, and Trichlorosilane, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 105, 2015-2022
  8. ^ Vorotyntsev, V., Mochalov, G., Kolotilova, Volkova, E., Gas-Chromatographic and Mass-Spectrometric Determination of Impurity Hydrocarbons in Organochlorine Compounds and Dichlorosilane, Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 61(9), 883-888.
  9. ^ Praxair Material Safety Data Sheet (2007)

External links[edit]