Dichlorotetrakis(dimethylsulfoxide)ruthenium(II)

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Dichlorotetrakis(dimethyl sulfoxide) ruthenium (II)
RuCl2-dmso4.PNG
Dichlorotetrakis(dimethyl-sulfoxide)-ruthenium(II)-3D-balls.png
Names
Systematic IUPAC name
Ruthenium, dichlorotetrakis(sulfinylbis(methane))- (9CI)
Other names
Tetrakis(dimethylsulfoxide)dichlororuthenium(II), Dichlorotetrakis(methylsulfoxide)ruthenium, Dichlorotetrakis(sulfinylbis(methane))ruthenium
Identifiers
11070-19-2
Properties
C8H24Cl2O4RuS4
Molar mass 484.51 g/mol
Appearance Various shades of yellow crystals
water miscible
Solubility nitromethane, chloroform, dichloromethane
Structure
octahedral coordinate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Dichlorotetrakis(dimethyl sulfoxide) ruthenium(II) describes coordination compounds with the formula RuCl2(dmso)4, where DMSO is dimethylsulfoxide. These complexes illustrate linkage isomerism for the ligand DMSO.[1] In these complexes, two chloride anions and four molecules of dmso are coordinated to a central ruthenium (II) core.

Structure[edit]

RuCl2(dmso)4 has been isolated as two isomers, but each is an octahedral coordination compound. The ruthenium adopts a +2 oxidation state, and the compounds follows the 18 electron rule.

The two isomers are cis, fac-RuCl2(dmso-S)3(dmso-O) and trans, mer-RuCl2(dmso-S)4. The trans, mer configuration is kinetically favored, but thermodynamically unstable with respect to the cis isomer. Cis and trans refer to the relative positions of the chloride ligands. The fac/mer describes the binding of the dmso ligands. The notation dmso-S/O refers to the atom through which the dmso molecule is coordinated to the ruthenium center. Thus, dmso-S means that the dmso ligand coordinates through the sulfur atom, whereas dmso-O coordinates through the oxygen atom.

Cis-fac-dichlorotetrakis(dimethyl-sulfoxide)ruthenium(II)-from-xtal-2008-3D-balls.png
Trans-dichloridotetrakis(dimethyl-sulfoxide)ruthenium(II)-from-xtal-1990-3D-balls.png
cis,fac isomer
trans,mer isomer

Synthesis[edit]

The complexes were first prepared by heating DMSO solutions of ruthenium trichloride under hydrogen atmosphere.[2] An alternative procedure has been developed which avoids hydrogen gas.[3][4]

Applications[edit]

RuCl2(dmso)4 was idenfified as a potential anticancer agent as far back as the early 1980s.[5] Continued research[6][7] has led to the development of several related dmso-containing ruthenium compounds, some of which have undergone early-stage clinical trials.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Enzo Alessio (2004). "Synthesis and reactivity of Ru-, Os-, Rh-, and Ir-halide-sulfoxide compounds". Chem. Rev. 104 (9): 4203–4242. doi:10.1021/cr0307291. 
  2. ^ B. R. James, E. Ochiai, and G.I. Rempel (1971). "Ruthenium (II) halide dimethylsulphoxide complexes from hydrogenation reactions". Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry Letters 7 (8): 781–784. doi:10.1016/0020-1650(71)80091-0. 
  3. ^ I. Bratsos and E. Alessio (2010). "Ruthenium(II) chloro complexes of dimethylsulfoxide". Inorganic Syntheses 35: 148–152. doi:10.1002/9780470651568.ch8. 
  4. ^ Nagy, E. M.; Pettenuzzo, A. (2012). "Ruthenium(II/III)-Based Compounds with Encouraging Antiproliferative Activity against Non-small-Cell Lung Cancer". Chemistry – A European Journal 18: 14464–14472. doi:10.1002/chem.201202171. 
  5. ^ Sava, Gianni; Giraldi, Tullio; Mestroni, Giovanni; Zassinovich, Grazia (July 1983). "Antitumor effects of rhodium(I), iridium(I) and ruthenium(II) complexes in comparison with cis-dichlorodiammino platinum(II) in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma". Chemico-Biological Interactions 45 (1): 1–6. doi:10.1016/0009-2797(83)90037-6. 
  6. ^ Coluccia, Mauro; Sava, Gianni; Loseto, Francesco; Nassi, Anna; Boccarelli, Angela; Giordano, Domenico; Alessio, Enzo; Mestroni, Giovanni (January 1993). "Anti-leukaemic action of RuCl2(DMSO)4 isomers and prevention of brain involvement on P388 leukaemia and on subline". European Journal of Cancer 29 (13): 1873–1879. doi:10.1016/0959-8049(93)90541-M. 
  7. ^ Bratsos, I; Serli, B; Zangranko, E; Katsaros, N; Alessio, E. (2007). "Replacement of chlorides with dicarboxylate ligands in anticancer active Ru(II)-DMSO compounds: A new strategy that might lead to improved activity". Inorg. Chem. 46 (3): 975–992. doi:10.1021/ic0613964. PMID 17257042. 
  8. ^ Enzo Alessio, Bentham Science Publisher; Giovanni Mestroni, Bentham Science Publisher; Alberta Bergamo, Bentham Science Publisher; Gianni Sava, Bentham Science Publisher (1 November 2004). "Ruthenium Antimetastatic Agents". Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry 4 (15): 1525–1535. doi:10.2174/1568026043387421.