Dick Smith (make-up artist)
|Born||Richard Emerson Smith
June 26, 1922
Larchmont, New York, U.S.
|Died||July 30, 2014
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
|Occupation||Special make-up effects artist|
|Spouse(s)||Jocelyn De Rosa (m. January 10, 1944)|
Richard Emerson "Dick" Smith (June 26, 1922 – July 30, 2014) was an American special make-up effects artist, (nicknamed "The Godfather of Make-Up") known for his work on such films as Little Big Man, The Godfather, The Exorcist, Taxi Driver, and Scanners. He won a 1985 Academy Award for Best Makeup and Hairstyling for his work on Amadeus and received a 2012 Academy Honorary Award for his career's work.
Smith was born in Larchmont, New York, the son of Coral (née Brown) and Richard Roy Smith. He attended the Wooster School in Danbury, Connecticut and Yale University, the latter where he studied pre-med, with the intention of entering dentistry, although he majored in zoology. After reading a book on theatrical make-up techniques titled Paint, Paste and Makeup, he began applying make-up for the Yale drama group. After graduation, Smith served in the United States Army during World War II.
Early career in television
Smith entered the field full-time after the war, and was entirely self-taught. He sent photographs of his work to the film industry, but his work was rejected until his father suggested he might try the emerging new medium of television. He was appointed as the first make-up director of WNBC (NBC's station in New York City), working there for fourteen years, often under producer David Susskind. Smith pioneered the development of prosthetic makeup, now better known as special make-up effects, from the basement of his home in Larchmont, New York, a district in which he mostly lived through his life. His colleagues though, he commented in a 2008 interview, "tended to be secretive. There was not at all that much make-up work in New York – and Hollywood might as well have been on another planet. They weren’t eager to share anything; and the union did its best to discourage whatever inclination there might have been."
Prosthetic face masks were then normally made in one piece, but Smith made them in three foam latex pieces. Smith's technique allowed the actor to use their full range of facial expressions. Despite initial criticism from many professional make-up artists at the time, Smith's make-up techniques proved to be superior. The now standard methods of applying prosthetics to faces are those that Smith invented, according to Smith's protégé Rick Baker in a 2007 interview.
For a television adaptation of The Moon and Sixpence (1959), Smith was required to turn Laurence Olivier into a leprosy victim: "When I finished the make-up, he looked in the mirror and said, 'Dick, it does the acting for me.' I've never forgotten his words." Other early work by Smith was seen on Way Out (1961), a short-lived supernatural syndicated clone of Twilight Zone, produced by Susskind in New York City, and hosted by Roald Dahl. Most memorable was a make-up of a man (Barry Morse) who had half of his face suddenly erased by a spilled vial of photo retouching fluid that affected real people when merely applied to their photos. In another Way Out episode, a Hunchback of Notre-Dame make-up created by Smith becomes permanently affixed to an evil actor who then became his character and could never remove his make-up. Smith contributed to all 14 Way Out episodes, and other 1960's television shows as well.
In 1967, Smith provided special make-up for two episodes of the vampire soap opera Dark Shadows; in the storyline, vampire Barnabas Collins (then played by Jonathan Frid) was undergoing medical treatment to change him into a living human being. The experiment goes drastically wrong, and Barnabas ages rapidly, to the appearance of a man over 175 years old. Smith said that designing the make-up appliances for Dark Shadows "turned out to be valuable preparation for Little Big Man."
Work in films (late 1960s-1975)
In the film Little Big Man (1970), the 30-something Dustin Hoffman played an Indian man, in extreme old age at several points in the film.[n 1] "In the original book, Dustin's character is 110," Smith observed "but the director Arthur Penn just said out of the blue one day: 'Lets make him 121 instead'. I worked six weeks on the old age make-up, using photographic references for every wrinkle.” Smith also consulted the Australian make-up artist, Roy Ashton, having seen his work on the film The Man Who Could Cheat Death in which Anton Diffring was made to appear of extreme old age.
He had to use other methods, as an alternative to prosthetics, to create an aged Don Corleone in The Godfather (1972) because Marlon Brando was unwilling to have such appliances applied because of time considerations. Instead, Smith used stipple effects moving across the face from the actor's eyes. A dental device called a "plumper" caused Brando's jowls to droop. To depict the bleeding of characters after they had been shot, Smith said he "created the first ever bleeding special effects in this movie by creating bladders that were hidden under a foam latex forehead, with a squib that detonated the bladder, allowing blood to pour through a pre-arranged hole in the middle of the forehead."
Director Mike Nichols originally cast actress Karen Black to play the role of the voluptuous Bobbie in Carnal Knowledge (1971). When Nichols decided on a nude scene, he had Smith, who had been hired to create aging effects for the male characters that were never used, to fashion artificial breasts for Black. Disappointed by the way the artificial breasts moved, Nichols replaced Black with Ann-Margret, who had large, natural breasts. Smith later recycled the foam rubber breasts in The Stepford Wives (1975) for the scene in which Katharine Ross played her robotic replacement in a nightgown.
Smith was also one of the early pioneers of combining make-up with on-set "practical" special effects, starting with The Exorcist (1973). Smith's expertise gained prominence and acclaim through the variety and ingenuity of his many effects for The Exorcist. "The Exorcist was really a turning point for make-up special effects," Rick Baker told The Washington Post in 2007. "Dick showed that makeup wasn't just about making people look scary or old, but had many applications. He figured out a way to make the welts swell up on Linda [Blair]'s stomach, to make her head spin around, and he created the vomit scenes." For the head spinning effect, Smith created a mechanical dummy.
Film work (1975–1989)
With Paul LeBlanc, he won an Academy Award for Best Make-up for his work on Amadeus (1984). Once again, he had to age a leading actor in the film. For the film he transformed the 44 year old F. Murray Abraham, as Antonio Salieri, into an elderly man. "Once I looked into a mirror, at my face, I felt like it was completely convincing," Murray Abraham once commented. "Actors have to feel like they are the person they are portraying. I think my work has helped many to achieve that," Smith once said.
Later life (1990–2014)
He later worked on films such as Death Becomes Her (1992), Forever Young (1992) and House on Haunted Hill (1999), his last credit. In later life though, Smith concentrated on teaching his methods to up-and-coming make-up artists. Smith was awarded a 2011 Academy Honorary Award for his life's work in November 2011, the first ever make-up artist to be so honored.
Notes and references
- Smith had worked previously with Hoffman developing his Ratso Rizzo character's make-up for Midnight Cowboy, 1969.
- Fowler, Brandi; Marquina, Sierra (November 13, 2011). "Oprah Winfrey, James Earl Jones, & Dick Smith Receive Honorary Academy Awards" E! Online.
- Doug Tomlinson "Dick Smith Biography (1922–)". Film Reference. Retrieved October 2, 2012.
- "Dick Smith – Honorary Award", Oscars.org, 2011
- Rodney Appleyard "Dick Smith – The Godfather of make-up", Inside Film, 28 August 2008
- William Yardley "Dick Smith Dies at 92; Makeup Artist of Vast Reach",New York Times, 1 August 2014
- Nick Thomas (November 25, 2007). "Dick Smith, the Guy Who Changed the Face of Film". The Washington Post.
- Valerie J. Nelson "Dick Smith dies at 92; 'Exorcist' makeup man won Oscar for 'Amadeus'", Los Angeles Times, 31 July 2014
- Mike Barnes "Dick Smith, The 'Godfather of Makeup,' Dies at 92", Hollywood Reporter, 31 July 2014
- Hillel Italie "'Godfather of Makeup' Dick Smith Dead at 92", ABC News (Associated Press, NYC), 31 July 2014
- Smith, Dick. "Dark Shadows, Television Series – 1967". Dick Smith: Special Makeup Effects Training. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- Sachs, Bruce; Wall, Russell (1999). Greasepaint and Gore: The Hammer Monsters of Roy Ashton. Tomahawk Press. ISBN 9780953192601. p. 50
- Harlan Lebo The Godfather Legacy: The Untold Story of the Making of the Classic Godfather Trilogy, New York: Fireside, 2005, p.85
- Lee Gamblin: A Personal Tribute to Make-up Legend Dick Smith, Fangoria, 16 January 2015
- "'Godfather Of Makeup' Dick Smith Dies Aged 92". News.sky.com. Retrieved July 31, 2014.
- Bouzereau, Laurent (1999). Making 'Taxi Driver' (Video). Los Angeles: Columbia TriStar Home Video.
- "The 57th Academy Awards (1985) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- "Dick Smith, 'godfather of make-up', dies aged 92", BBC News, 31 July 2014
- Kory Grow "Dick Smith, 'Exorcist' and 'Godfather' Makeup Artist, Dead at 92" Rolling Stone, 31 July 2014
- "Dick Smith Dead: ‘Godfather of Makeup’ Dies at 92", Variety, 31 July 2014
- Dick Smith at the Internet Movie Database
- Dick Smith's website
- Dick Smith Legends of Makeup Scholarship at Cinema Makeup School
- Dick Smith interview video at the Archive of American Television