Dicynodon

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Dicynodon
Temporal range: Changhsingian, 253.8–251Ma
Dicynodon lacerticeps.jpg
Skull of Dicynodon lacerticeps
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Synapsida
Order: Therapsida
Infraorder: Dicynodontia
Family: Dicynodontidae
Owen, 1859
Genus: Dicynodon
Owen, 1845
Species

D. lacerticeps Owen, 1845 (type)
D. huenei Haughton, 1932

Synonyms

See below

Dicynodon ("Two Dog-teeth") is a type of dicynodont therapsid that flourished during the Late Permian period. Like all dicynodonts, it was herbivorous. This animal was toothless, except for prominent tusks, hence the name. It probably cropped vegetation with a horny beak, much like a tortoise, while the tusks may have been used for digging up roots and tubers.

Many species of Dicynodon have been named, and the genus is considered a wastebasket taxon. A 2011 study of the genus found most of the species to represent a paraphyletic grouping, with the only valid members of Dicynodon being D. lacerticeps and D. huenei.[1]

Description[edit]

Restoration of D. lacerticeps

Dicynodon was a medium sized and advanced member of the Dicynodont group. It had an average length of 1.2 metres (3.9 ft), although size differed among species. Its fossil remains have been found in sediments of latest Permian age in South Africa and Tanzania.

The type species is Dicynodon lacerticeps Owen, 1845. A large number of species have since been placed in this genus, some of which turned out to be synonyms of other species, others have been moved to different genera.

Species[edit]

Two species of Dicynodon are currently recognized: the type species D. lacerticeps from South Africa and the species D. huenei from Tanzania. Since the genus was first named, over 160 species have been assigned to Dicynodon. A 2011 study of the genus found 11 of these species to be valid, although most are now assigned to other dicynodont genera.[1] Below is a list of all species that have ever been assigned to Dicynodon. Since their naming, most have been considered as synonymous with other dicynodont species. Names in bold are still referable to Dicynodon.

Species Authority Age Location Unit Status
Dicynodon acutirostris Broom, 1935 Late Permian  South Africa Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Tropidostoma dubium
Dicynodon aetorhamphus Broom, 1948 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Dicynodon lacerticeps
Dicynodon alfredi (Owen, 1862) Early Triassic  South Africa Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Lystrosaurus declivis
Dicynodon allani Broom, 1940 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon alticeps Broom and Haughton, 1913 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Valid as Sintocephalus alticeps
Dicynodon amalitzkii Sushkin, 1926 Late Permian  Russia Upper Vyatkian Valid as Peramodon amalitzkii
Dicynodon andrewsi Broom, 1921 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon annae Sushkin, 1926 Late Permian  Russia Upper Vyatkian Junior synonym of Vivaxosaurus trautscholdi
Dicynodon anneae Broom, 1940 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Dinanomodon gilli
Dicynodon antjiesfonteinensis Toerien, 1953 Middle Permian  South Africa Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Diictodon feliceps
Dicynodon bainii Owen, 1845 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Valid as Aulacephalodon bainii
Dicynodon bathyrhynchus von Huene, 1942 Late Permian  Tanzania Upper Usili Formation Valid as Euptychognathus bathyrhynchus
Dicynodon benjamini Broom, 1948 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Valid as Keyseria benjamini
Dicynodon bogdaensis King, 1988 Late Permian  China Guodikeng Formation Valid as Turfanodon bogdaensis
Dicynodon bolorhinoides Watson, 1960 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Aulacephalodon bainii
Dicynodon bolorhinus Broom, 1913 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon brachyrhynchus Broom, 1948 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon breviceps Haughton, 1915 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon brevirostris Broom, 1913 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone or Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon broomi Broili and Schröder, 1937 Middle Permian  South Africa Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Diictodon feliceps
Dicynodon broilii Boonstra, 1948 Middle Permian  South Africa Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Diictodon feliceps
Dicynodon cadlei Broom, 1940 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Dicynodon lacerticeps
Dicynodon calverleyi Broom, 1940 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Basilodon woodwardi
Dicynodon cavifrons Broom and Haughton, 1917 Late Permian  South Africa Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Tropidostoma dubium
Dicynodon clarencei Broom, 1950 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Dicynodontoides recurvidens
Dicynodon copei Seeley, 1889 Early Triassic  South Africa Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Lystrosaurus murrayi
Dicynodon cordylus Lydekker, 1889 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Nomen dubium
Dicynodon corstorphinei Broom and Haughton, 1917 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon curtus Broom, 1921 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon curvatus Owen, 1876 Early Triassic  South Africa Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone Valid as Lystrosaurus curvatus
Dicynodon cyclops Haughton, 1917 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon daptocephaloides Toerien, 1955 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Daptocephalus leoniceps
Dicynodon declivis Owen, 1860 Early Triassic  South Africa Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone Valid as Lystrosaurus declivis
Dicynodon depressus (Owen, 1876) Early Triassic  South Africa Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Lystrosaurus declivis
Dicynodon dubius Owen, 1876 Late Permian  South Africa Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone Valid as Tropidostoma dubium
Dicynodon duffianus von Huene, 1940 Late Permian  Scotland Cutties Hillock Sandstone Formation Junior synonym of Gordonia traquairi
Dicynodon dunnii Seeley, 1889 Late Permian  South Africa Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Tropidostoma dubium
Dicynodon dutoiti Broom and Schepers, 1937 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Dicynodon lacerticeps
Dicynodon duvenhagei Broom, 1948 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Dicynodontoides recurvidens
Dicynodon euryceps Boonstra, 1938 Late Permian  Zambia Upper Madumabisa Mudstone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon feliceps Owen, 1876 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone or Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Valid as Diictodon feliceps
Dicynodon galecephalus Broom and Robinson, 1948 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Dinanomodon gilli
Dicynodon gamkaensis Broom, 1937 Middle Permian  South Africa Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Diictodon feliceps
Dicynodon gilli Broom, 1932 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Valid as Dinanomodon gilli
Dicynodon glaucops Broom, 1948 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon graaffi Broom, 1940 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon gracilis Broom, 1913 Late Permian  South Africa Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Dicynodontoides recurvidens
Dicynodon grahami Broom, 1940 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Nomen dubium
Dicynodon grandis Haughton, 1917 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Incertae sedis
Dicynodon greyii Broom, 1913 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon grimbeeki Broom, 1935 Late Permian  South Africa Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Diictodon feliceps
Dicynodon grossarthi Broili and Schröder, 1937 Late Permian  South Africa Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Diictodon feliceps
Dicynodon halli Watson, 1914 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon hartzenbergi Broom, 1940 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Incertae sedis
Dicynodon haughtonianus von Huene, 1931 Middle Permian  South Africa Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Diictodon feliceps
Dicynodon helenae Boonstra, 1938 Late Permian  Zambia Upper Madumabisa Mudstone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon howardi Broom, 1948 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Dicynodontoides recurvidens
Dicynodon huenei Haughton, 1932 Late Permian  Tanzania Upper Usili Formation Valid
Dicynodon huxleyanus von Huene, 1940 Late Permian  Scotland Cutties Hillock Sandstone Formation Junior synonym of Gordonia traquairi
Dicynodon ictidops Broom, 1913 Late Permian  South Africa Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Diictodon feliceps
Dicynodon ictinops Broom, 1921 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Emydops arctatus
Dicynodon incisivum Repelin, 1923 Late Permian  Laos "Purple beds" Nomen dubium
Dicynodon ingens Broom, 1907 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Nomen dubium
Dicynodon jouberti Broom, 1905 Middle Permian  South Africa Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone or Pristerognathus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Diictodon feliceps
Dicynodon juddianus von Huene, 1940 Late Permian  Scotland Cutties Hillock Sandstone Formation Junior synonym of Gordonia traquairi
Dicynodon kitchingi Broom, 1937 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Dicynodon lacerticeps
Dicynodon kolbei Broom, 1912 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon lacerticeps Owen, 1845 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone or Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Valid
Dicynodon laticeps Broom, 1912 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Aulacephalodon bainii
Dicynodon latifrons Broom, 1899 Middle Triassic  South Africa Cynognathus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Kannemeyeria simocephala
Dicynodon latirostris Owen, 1860 Early Triassic  South Africa Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Lystrosaurus declivis
Dicynodon leoniceps Owen, 1876 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Valid as Daptocephalus leoniceps
Dicynodon leontocephalus Broom, 1950 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Daptocephalus leoniceps
Dicynodon leontops Broom, 1913 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Daptocephalus leoniceps
Dicynodon leptorhinus Broom, 1932 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Nomen dubium
Dicynodon leptoscelus Broom, 1932 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Nomen dubium
Dicynodon limbus Lucas, 1998 Late Permian  China Naobaogou Formation Valid as Daqingshanodon limbus
Dicynodon lissops Broom, 1913 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Daptocephalus leoniceps
Dicynodon locusticeps von Huene, 1942 Late Permian  Tanzania Upper Usili Formation Valid as Geikia locusticeps
Dicynodon luangwanensis Boonstra, 1938 Late Permian  Tanzania Upper Usili Formation Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon luckhoffi Broom, 1937 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Nomen dubium
Dicynodon lutriceps Broom, 1912 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon maccabei Broom, 1940 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon macrodon Broom, 1940 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Dinanomodon gilli
Dicynodon macrorhynchus Broom, 1921 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Diictodon feliceps
Dicynodon magnus Broom, 1913 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Valid as Rhachiocephalus magnus
Dicynodon marlothi von Huene, 1940 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon megalops Broom, 1913 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon megalorhinus Broom, 1913 Middle Permian  South Africa Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone Nomen dubium
Dicynodon microdon Broom, 1936 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Basilodon woodwardi
Dicynodon microrhynchus von Huene, 1931 Late Permian  South Africa Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Pristerodon mackayi
Dicynodon microtrema Seeley, 1889 Late Permian  South Africa Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Tropidostoma dubium
Dicynodon milletti Broom, 1928 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon moschops Broom, 1913 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Valid as Pelanomodon moschops
Dicynodon moutonae Broom, 1948 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon murrayi Huxley, 1859 Early Triassic  South Africa Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone Valid as Lystrosaurus murrayi
Dicynodon mustoi Haughton, 1915 Late Permian  South Africa Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon nanus Broom, 1936 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Diictodon feliceps
Dicynodon nesemanni Broom, 1940 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon njalilus von Huene, 1942 Middle Triassic  South Africa Manda Beds Valid as Tetragonias njalilus
Dicynodon nowacki von Huene, 1942 Late Permian  Zambia Usili Formation Valid as Dicynodontoides nowacki
Dicynodon orientalis Huxley, 1865 Early Triassic  India Panchet Formation Junior synonym of Lystrosaurus murrayi
Dicynodon osborni Broom, 1921 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Daptocephalus leoniceps
Dicynodon oweni Lydekker, 1889 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Nomen dubium
Dicynodon pachyrhynchus Broom, 1913 Middle Triassic  South Africa Cynognathus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Kannemeyeria simocephala
Dicynodon parabreviceps Boonstra, 1938 Late Permian  Zambia Upper Madumabisa Mudstone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon pardiceps Owen, 1876 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Dicynodon lacerticeps
Dicynodon parvidens Owen, 1876 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Diictodon feliceps
Dicynodon planus Broom, 1913 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon platyceps Broom, 1913 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon platyfrons Broom, 1932 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon prognathus Broom, 1913 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon pseudojouberti Boonstra, 1948 Middle Permian  South Africa Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone Nomen dubium
Dicynodon psittacops Broom, 1912 Late Permian  South Africa Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Diictodon feliceps
Dicynodon pygmaeus Broom and Haughton, 1917 Late Permian  South Africa Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Pristerodon mackayi
Dicynodon raniceps Broom, 1913 Late Permian  South Africa Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Pristerodon mackayi
Dicynodon rectidens Owen, 1876 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone or Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Nomen dubium
Dicynodon recurvidens Owen, 1876 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Valid as Dicynodontoides recurvidens
Dicynodon richardi Broom, 1940 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon roberti Boonstra, 1938 Late Permian  Zambia Upper Madumabisa Mudstone Junior synonym of Syops vanhoepeni
Dicynodon robertsi Broom, 1948 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone or Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon robustus Broom, 1932 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon rogersi Broom and Haughton, 1917 Late Permian  South Africa Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Tropidostoma dubium
Dicynodon rosmarus Cope, 1870 Late Triassic  USA Lockatong Formation Nomen dubium
Dicynodon rossicus Sushkin, 1926 Late Permian  Russia Upper Vyatkian Junior synonym of Vivaxosaurus trautscholdi
Dicynodon rubidgei Broom, 1932 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Diictodon feliceps
Dicynodon scheepersi Broom, 1948 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Rhachiocephalus magnus
Dicynodon schroederi Toerien, 1953 Middle Permian  South Africa Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Robertia broomiana
Dicynodon schwarzi Broom, 1919 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon scopulusa Lucas, 1998 Late Permian  China Quanzijie Formation Incertae sedis
Dicynodon seeleyi Broili, 1908 Early Triassic  South Africa Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone Nomen dubium
Dicynodon sidneyi Broom, 1940 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Pelanomodon moschops
Dicynodon simocephalus Weithofer, 1888 Middle Triassic  South Africa Cynognathus Assemblage Zone Valid as Kannemeyeria simocephala
Dicynodon sinkianensis Yuan and Young, 1934 Late Permian  China Guodikeng Formation Valid as Jimusaria sinkianensis
Dicynodon sollasi Broom, 1921 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Diictodon feliceps
Dicynodon strigiceps Owen, 1845 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone or Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Nomen dubium
Dicynodon strigops Broom, 1913 Early Triassic  South Africa Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone Nomen dubium
Dicynodon sunanensis Li et al., 2000 Late Permian  China Guodikeng Formation Junior synonym of Turfanodon bogdaensis
Dicynodon swierstrai Broom, 1940 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Pristerodon mackayi
Dicynodon taoshuyuanensis King, 1988 Late Permian  China Guodikeng Formation Junior synonym of Jimusaria sinkianensis
Dicynodon taylori Broom, 1932 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Dicynodon lacerticeps
Dicynodon tealei Haughton, 1932 Late Permian  Tanzania Usili Formation Nomen dubium
Dicynodon tener von Huene, 1935 Middle - Late Triassic  Brazil Santa Maria Formation Nomen dubium
Dicynodon testudiceps Owen, 1845 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone or Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Nomen dubium
Dicynodon testudirostris Broom and Haughton, 1913 Late Permian  South Africa Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Diictodon feliceps
Dicynodon tienshanensis Sun, 1973 Late Permian  China Guodikeng Formation Junior synonym of Diictodon feliceps
Dicynodon tigriceps Owen, 1855 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Aulacephalodon bainii
Dicynodon traquairi von Huene, 1940 Late Permian  Scotland Cutties Hillock Sandstone Formation Junior synonym of Gordonia traquairi
Dicynodon trautscholdi Amalitzky, 1922 Late Permian  Russia Upper Vyatkian Valid as Vivaxosaurus trautscholdi
Dicynodon trigoniceps Broom, 1913 Late Permian  South Africa Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Pristerodon mackayi
Dicynodon trigonocephalus Broom, 1940 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Dicynodon lacerticeps
Dicynodon truncatus Broom, 1913 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone or Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon turpior von Huene, 1935 Late Triassic  Brazil Santa Maria Formation Nomen dubium
Dicynodon tylorhinus Broom, 1913 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Incertae sedis
Dicynodon validus Broom, 1935 Late Permian  South Africa Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Tropidostoma dubium
Dicynodon vanderbyli Broom, 1928 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon vanderhorsti Toerien, 1953 Middle Permian  South Africa Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Diictodon feliceps
Dicynodon vanhoepeni Boonstra, 1938 Late Permian  Zambia Upper Madumabisa Mudstone Valid as Syops vanhoepeni
Dicynodon venteri Broom, 1935 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Nomen dubium
Dicynodon venyukovi Sushkin, 1926 Late Permian  Russia Upper Vyatkian Junior synonym of Vivaxosaurus trautscholdi
Dicynodon verticalis Owen, 1860 Early Triassic  South Africa Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Lystrosaurus murrayi
Dicynodon watsoni Broom, 1921 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Daptocephalus leoniceps
Dicynodon weatherbyi Broom, 1941 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Basilodon woodwardi
Dicynodon wellwoodensis Broom, 1936 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon whaitsi Broom, 1913 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Valid as Odontocyclops whaitsi
Dicynodon whitsonae Toerien, 1954 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Dinanomodon gilli
Dicynodon wilmanae Broom, 1928 Late Permian  South Africa Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone Junior synonym of Oudenodon bainii
Dicynodon woodwardi Broom, 1921 Late Permian  South Africa Dicynodon Assemblage Zone Valid as Basilodon woodwardi

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kammerer, C.F.; Angielczyk, K.D.; Fröbisch, J. (2011). "A comprehensive taxonomic revision of Dicynodon (Therapsida, Anomodontia) and its implications for dicynodont phylogeny, biogeography, and biostratigraphy". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 31 (Suppl. 1): 1–158. doi:10.1080/02724634.2011.627074. 
  • Angielczyk, Kenneth D.; Kurkin, Andrey A. (October 2003). "Phylogenetic analysis of Russian Permian dicynodonts (Therapsida: Anomodontia): implications for Permian biostratigraphy and Pangaean biogeography". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 139 (2): 157−212. doi:10.1046/j.1096-3642.2003.00081.x. 
  • Lucas, S. G., 2005, Dicynodon (Reptilia: Therapsida) from the Upper Permian of Russia: biochronologic significance: In: The Nonmarine Permian; edited by Lucas, S. G., and Zeigler, K. E., New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science, Bulletin 30, p. 192-196.

External links[edit]

  • Dicynodon - Mikko's Phyogeny archive (list of species and cladogram)