Dido Elizabeth Belle

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Dido Elizabeth Belle
Painting of two young women
Painting of Dido Belle with her cousin Elizabeth Murray, formerly attributed to Johann Zoffany, 1779
Born c.1761
Died 1804 (aged c.43)
Resting place
St George's Fields (Bayswater, London) (1804-1970's)
Nationality British
Spouse(s) John Davinier (1793–1804; her death)
Children
  • Charles Davinier (bap.1795)
  • John Danvier (bap.1795)
  • William Tomas Danvier (bap. 1802)
Parents

Dido Elizabeth Belle (1761–1804), was born into slavery as the natural daughter of Maria Belle, an enslaved African woman in the West Indies, and Captain John Lindsay, a British career naval officer who was stationed there. He was later knighted and promoted to admiral.[1] Lindsay took Dido with him when he returned to England in 1765, entrusting her to his uncle William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield and his wife to raise. The Murrays educated Dido, bringing her up as a free gentlewoman at their Kenwood House, together with their niece, Elizabeth Murray, whose mother had died. Belle lived there for 30 years. In his will of 1793, Lord Mansfield confirmed her freedom and provided an outright sum and an annuity to her.

In these years, her great-uncle, in his capacity as Lord Chief Justice, ruled in two significant slavery cases, finding in 1772 that slavery had no precedent in common law in England, and had never been authorized under positive law. This was taken as the formal end of slavery in Britain. In a case related to the slave trade, he narrowly ruled that owners of a company were not due insurance payments for the loss of slaves during a voyage, as it appeared related to errors by the officers.

Early life[edit]

Dido Elizabeth Belle's father Sir John Lindsay

Dido Elizabeth Belle was born into slavery in 1761 in the West Indies, to an enslaved African woman known as Maria Belle. (Her name was spelled as Maria Bell in her daughter's baptism record.)[2] Her father was Sir John Lindsay, a career naval officer and then captain of the British warship HMS Trent, based in the West Indies.[1] Lindsay is thought to have found Maria Belle held as a slave on a Spanish ship which his forces captured in the Caribbean; he appears to have taken her as his concubine.[3] Lindsay returned to England after the war in 1765, likely bringing at that time his young, mixed-race natural daughter to London. He entrusted her to the care of his uncle, William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, and his wife. She was baptized as Dido Ellizabeth Belle in 1766 at St. George's Church, Bloomsbury.

A contemporary obituary of Sir John Lindsay, who had been promoted to Admiral later in his career, acknowledged that he was the father of Dido Belle, and described her:

. . . he has died, we believe, without any legitimate issue but has left one natural daughter, a Mulatto who has been brought up in Lord Mansfield’s family almost from her infancy and whose amiable disposition and accomplishments have gained her the highest respect from all his Lordship's relations and visitants.[1]

At one time, historians thought her mother was an African slave on a ship captured by Lindsay's warship during the capture of Havana in 1762.[4] But, this specific date is unlikely as Dido was born in 1761, the previous year.[2]

At Kenwood House[edit]

The Murray, the Earl of Mansfield, lived with his family at Kenwood House in Hampstead, just outside London, England. Mansfield and his wife, Lady Margery Murray, who were childless, were already raising Lady Elizabeth Murray, born 1760, after her mother's death. It is possible that the Mansfields took Dido in to be Elizabeth's playmate and, later in life, her personal attendant.[3] (Her role within the family, as outlined below, suggests that her role became more that of a lady's companion than a lady's maid).

Dido lived at Kenwood house for 30 years. Her position was unusual, because she was born into slavery in terms of colonial law. The Murrays to some extent treated her and brought her up as a member of the Murray family. as she grew older, she often assisted Mansfield by taking dictation of his letters, which showed she had been educated.[5] One of Mansfield's friends, American Thomas Hutchinson, a former governor of Massachusetts who as a Loyalist had moved to London, recalled that Dido "was called upon by my Lord every minute for this thing and that, and shewed the greatest attention to everything he said". He described her as "neither handsome nor genteel - pert enough".[5]

Lord Mansfield ruled on a related matter of the status of slaves in England in his capacity as Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales. When called on in 1772 to judge the case of an escaped slave whose owner wanted to send him back to the West Indies for sale, Somersett's Case, he decreed:

The state of slavery is of such a nature, that it is incapable of being introduced on any reasons, moral or political; but only positive law, which preserves its force long after the reasons, occasion, and time itself from whence it was created, is erased from memory: it's so odious, that nothing can be suffered to support it but positive law. Whatever inconveniences, therefore, may follow from a decision, I cannot say this case is allowed or approved by the law of England.

Mansfield's ruling that slavery did not exist in common law and had never been introduced by positive law, was taken by abolitionists to mean that slavery was abolished in England. His ruling was narrow and reserved judgment on this point, saying only that the slave's owner had no right to remove Somersett from England against his will. Mansfield later said his decision was intended only to apply to the slave at issue in the case. At the time it was suggested that Mansfield's personal experience with rearing Dido Belle influenced his decision. Thomas Hutchinson later recalled a comment by a slave-owner,

"A few years ago there was a cause before his Lordship brought by a Black for recovery of his liberty. A Jamaica planter, being asked what judgment his Lordship would give [answered] 'No doubt...he will be set free, for Lord Mansfield keeps a Black in his house which governs him and the whole family.’"[5]

Social position[edit]

The social conventions of his household are unclear. A 2007 exhibit at Kenwood suggests that she was treated as "a loved but poor relation", and therefore did not always dine with guests, as was reported by American Thomas Hutchinson, former governor of Rhode Island.[1] He said Dido joined the ladies afterward for coffee in the drawing-room.[1] In 2014 author Paula Byrne wrote that Dido's exclusion from this particular dinner was pragmatic rather than the custom. She notes that other aspects of Dido's life, such as being given expensive medical treatments and luxurious bedroom furnishings, were evidence of her position as Elizabeth's equal at Kenwood.[6]

As Dido grew older, she took responsibility to manage the dairy and poultry yards at Kenwood. She also helped Mansfield with his correspondence, which was an indication that she was fairly well educated. The running of the dairy and poultry yard would have been a typical occupation for ladies of the gentry, but helping her uncle with his correspondence was less usual. This was normally done by a male secretary or a clerk. Dido was given an annual allowance of £30 10s, several times the wages of a domestic servant. By contrast, Elizabeth received around £100, but she was an heiress in her own right through her mother's family. Dido was also illegitimate, in a time and place when great social stigma usually accompanied such status, in addition to being mulatto.

Later life[edit]

Dido's father died in 1788 without legitimate heirs, bequeathing £1000 to be shared by his "reputed children", John and Elizabeth Lindsay (as noted in his will).[1] Historian Gene Adams believed this suggested that Lindsay referred to his daughter as Elizabeth, and she may have been named "Dido" by his uncle and his wife, after they took charge of the girl.[3] Another source says that there was another natural daughter, known as Elizabeth Palmer (born c. 1765), who lived in Scotland.[1]

Dido also inherited £100 from Lady Margery Murray in 1793, one of two women relatives who had come to live with and help care for the Murrays in their later years.[3] In his will written in 1783, Lord Mansfield officially confirmed Dido's freedom to secure her future; he also bequeathed Dido with £500 as an outright sum and a £100 annuity, which she received after his death in 1793.[7]

William Murray left his niece Elizabeth Murray £10,000. Her father was in line to inherit his father's title and more money.[1]

After her great-uncle's death in March 1793, Dido married John Davinier, a Frenchman who worked as a gentleman's steward, on 5 December 1793 at St. George's, Hanover Square. They were both then residents of the parish.[8] The Daviniers had at least three sons: twins Charles and John, both baptized at St George's on 8 May 1795; and William Thomas, baptized there on 26 January 1802.[8][9]

Dido Belle Davinier died in 1804 at the age of 43. She was interred in July of that year at St George's Fields, a burial-ground close to what is now Bayswater Road. In the 1970s, the site was redeveloped and her grave was moved.[8] She was survived by her husband, who later remarried and had two more children with his second wife.[8]

Descendants[edit]

Belle's son Charles Davinier, served in what was informally known as the Indian Army. His service probably began with one of the territorial armies that was founded before the formation of the British Indian Army in 1858. Her last known descendant, her great-great-grandson Harold Davinier, died in South Africa in 1975 without having had children.[10]

Mansfield family tree[edit]

 
David Murray
 
Majory Scott
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
David Murray
 
Anne Stewart
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2) Louisa Schaw Cathcart
 
David Murray
 
1) Henrietta Frederica Bunau
 
James Murray
 
John Murray
 
 
 
 
Catherine Murray
 
Marjorie Murray
 
Amelia Murray
 
Sir Alexander Lindsay of Evelick
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Five children
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Daniel Finch
 
Anne Hatton
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Elizabeth Belle
 
John Lindsay
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other children
 
Edward Finch
 
Elizabeth Finch
 
William Murray
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dido Elizabeth Belle
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Elizabeth Murray
 
 
George Finch-Hatton
 
 

Representation in other media[edit]

The family commissioned a painting of Dido and Elizabeth. Completed in 1779, it was formerly attributed to Johann Zoffany.[2] It is "unique in British art of the 18th century in depicting a black woman and a white woman as near equals."[1] It shows Dido carrying exotic fruit and wearing a turban with a large feather. She is alongside and slightly behind her cousin Elizabeth.[10] Dido is portrayed with great vivacity, while her cousin appears more sedate and formal. Her cousin's hand lies gently upon Dido's arm, suggesting affection and equality rather than a subordinate status. The painting, which hangs at Scone Palace in Perth, Scotland, is owned by the present Earl of Mansfield. In 2007 it was exhibited in Kenwood, together with more information about Belle, during an exhibition marking the bicentenary of the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act 1807.[2]

Film, music, plays[edit]

  • Dido Belle (2006), a film by Jason Young, was written as a short period drama entitled Kenwood House. It was workshopped at Battersea Arts Centre on 21 June 2006 as part of the Battersea Writers' Group script development programme.
  • Shirley J. Thompson's operatic trilogy, Spirit Songs - including Spirit of the Middle Passage about Dido Elizabeth Belle, with Abigail Kelly in the role, was performed with the Philharmonia Orchestra at London's Queen Elizabeth Hall, South Bank Centre, in March 2007 as part of the 200-year commemoration of the act abolishing the international slave trade.[11]
  • Let Justice Be Done, Mixed Blessings Theatre Group; 2008 play explores the influence that Belle might have had on her great-uncle's Somerset Ruling of 1772.[12]
  • An African Cargo by Margaret Busby, staged by Nitro (Black Theatre Co-operative)[13] at Greenwich Theatre, 2007, in commemoration of the bicentenary of the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act.[14] The play deals with a landmark 1783 trial presided over by Lord Mansfield, resulting from the Zong massacre. The character of Belle expresses feelings of horror and injustice for the murder of the slaves on the ship.
  • Belle (2013), a feature film directed by Amma Asante, explores Dido's life as the mixed-race natural daughter of an aristocrat in 18th-century England; she became an heiress but occupied an ambiguous social position. The film stars Gugu Mbatha-Raw as Dido and Tom Wilkinson as her guardian Lord Mansfield.

Novel[edit]

  • Family Likeness, a 2013 novel by Caitlin Davies, was inspired in part by the life of Dido Elizabeth Belle.[15]
  • Author Paula Byrne was commissioned to write Belle: The True Story of Dido Belle (2014) as a tie-in to the 2013 movie, Belle. It was published as an audibook when the movie opened in the United States.[16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i English-Heritage>"Slavery and Justice at Kenwood House, Part 1". English Heritage. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d Slavery and Justice Exhibition at Kenwood House, English Heritage. Accessed 30 January 2014.
  3. ^ a b c d Adams, Gene (1984). "Dido Elizabeth Belle/ A Black Girl at Kenwood/ an account of a protegée of the 1st Lord Mansfield". Camden History Review: 10–14. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  4. ^ Urquhart, Frank. "Portrait of woman who inspired "Belle" to be shown". The Scotsman. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c Nisha Lilia Diu, The Telegraph, "Dido Belle: Britain’s first black aristocrat", 6 June, 2014
  6. ^ Start the Week, BBC Radio 4, 14 April 2014.
  7. ^ "Dido Elizabeth Belle and The First Earl of Mansfield", Slavery and Justice Exhibition at Kenwood House, English Heritage.
  8. ^ a b c d Reyahn King, "Belle, Dido Elizabeth (1761?–1804)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, October 2007.
  9. ^ Sarah Minney, "The Search for Dido", History Today 55, October 2005.
  10. ^ a b "The Girl in the Picture", Inside Out: Abolition of the British Slave Trade special, BBC One, 2 March 2007.
  11. ^ Biography, Abigail Kelly Soprano.
  12. ^ Mixed Blessings Theatre Group.
  13. ^ "African Cargo, An" Black Plays Archive, National Theatre.
  14. ^ An African Cargo by Margaret Busby, Nitro.
  15. ^ Caitlin Davies, Family Likeness (published by Hutchinson, 2013; Windmill, 2014). Caitlin Davies website.
  16. ^ Paula Byrne, Belle: The True Story of Dido Belle, Harper Audiobooks, 2014, accessed 28 June 2014

External links[edit]