Colt Canada C7 rifle

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C7 rifle
Danish AR M95.png
Diemaco C7A1 auto loading rifle [Note 1]
Place of origin  Canadian
Service history
In service 1984–present
Used by See Users
Wars UNAMIR
UNPROFOR
Gulf War
Operation Enduring Freedom
War in Afghanistan
Iraq War
Production history
Manufacturer Diemaco (former)
Colt Canada (current)
Produced 1982–present
Number built 200,000+
Variants C7A1, C7A2
Specifications
Weight 3.3 kg (7.3 lb) (unloaded)
3.9 kg (8.6 lb) (with 30-round magazine)
Length 1,006 mm (39.6 in) (C7/C7A1/C7A2) (A2 stock extended)
929.8 mm (36.61 in) (C7A2) (stock collapsed)
Barrel length 508 mm (20.0 in)

Cartridge 5.56×45mm NATO
Action Gas-operated, rotating bolt
Rate of fire 700–900 rounds/min
Muzzle velocity 900 m/s (3030 ft/s)
Effective firing range 400 m (440 yd) (effective)
600 m (660 yd) (effective in a section)
Feed system Various 30-round STANAG magazines
Sights Iron sights, C79 optical sight

The Colt Canada C7 is a Canadian assault rifle, manufactured by Colt Canada (formerly Diemaco prior to 2005), a variant of the Armalite AR-15, and having similar design and function to the Colt M16A3.

The C7 and its variants have been adopted as the standard issue rifle by the militaries of Canada, Norway (Special forces only), Denmark and the Netherlands. Following trials, C8 variants became - and remain - the personal weapon of choice of United Kingdom Special Forces, Royal Military Police Close Protection Teams and other specialist users. It has been used in various combat operations by Canadian, British, Dutch and Danish Forces in Afghanistan and Iraq.

C7[edit]

The development of the C7 paralleled that of the M16A2 by Colt. A Canadian Forces Liaison Officer worked with the United States Marine Corps in the M16A1 Product Improvement Program and relayed information to Canada's Rifle Replacement Program Office. The C7 is much like earlier M16A1E1s, rather than final product M16A2s. The earliest C7s were manufactured by Colt for Canadian Forces as the Colt Model 715. The C7 series of firearms is driven by the same direct impingement gas system as the M16 series. Like the M16A1 and M16A3, the C7 has both semi-automatic and fully automatic fire modes. The C7 also features the structural strengthening, improved handguards, and longer stock developed for the M16A2. Diemaco changed the trapdoor in the buttstock to make for easier access, and a 13 mm (0.5 in) spacer is available to adjust stock length. The most noticeable external difference between American M16A2s and Diemaco C7s is the retention of the A1 style rear sights. Not so apparent is Diemaco's use of hammer-forged barrels, introduced as the Canadians originally wished to use a heavy barrel profile instead of the M16A2 profile. Also, Diemaco has developed a different mounting system from Colt for the M203 grenade launcher for the C7 rifle family.

C7A1[edit]

The C7A1 (Diemaco C7FT) replaces the iron sight/carrying handle used on the C7 with a modified Weaver rail for mounting optics. Canadian development of rails preceded American standardization of the MIL-STD-1913 "Picatinny rail", so the "Canadian Rail" or "Diemaco Rail" differs slightly. There are 14 slots instead of 13, and each slot is narrower. The height of the rail is also lower, allowing the use of normal-height front sight post whereas a Picatinny rail requires the use of a higher F-marked front sight post. During development, the original rails were vacuum-bonded to the top of a bare receiver. For production, the rail and receiver were made out of a single forging. The mount can use traditional iron sights or the ELCAN C79 Optical Sight 3.4× power optical sight, both of which can be adjusted for individual eye relief. The optical sight was designed for the C9 light machine gun and includes horizontal and vertical mil-bars used for range determination and deflection, and a tritium glow-in-the-dark aiming post rather than the traditional crosshairs. The 3.4× is powerful enough to properly see targets at the maximum accurate range of 400 m (440 yd), though like most magnified optical sights it is prone to criticism for creating tunnel vision in close quarters situations. While the wide aperture helps to speed target acquisition, Canadian soldiers generally forgo the C79 sight in favour of non-magnified optical sights or backup iron sights when engaged or training in close quarters battle. The front sight was changed from the square post to a round post 1.3 mm (0.05 in) in diameter.

C7A2[edit]

Canadian Soldiers of the Kandahar Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) on a patrol with the C7A2
A Canadian soldier fires the current issue C7A2 rifle at the range with a C79A2 sight. This particular example is missing the standard TRIAD mount.

With Canadian involvement in Afghanistan, Diemaco and the Canadian Forces have developed improvements to the C7A1 to better suit the operational situations at hand. The result, the C7A2, has a four-point telescoping stock unit similar to that of the C8 carbine and a 3-rail TRI-AD I mount on the front sight triangle. The selector lever, magazine release, and charging handle latch are ambidextrous.[2] Also, the C7A2 is issued with green colour furniture as standard. These weapons are often seen with a similar plethora of accessories as their American counterparts given the overall commonalities of the system and the rail mounts. The C7A2 is also issued with the C79A2 ELCAN optical gunsight with 3.4× magnification but with a uniform green rubber armored coating, but some soldiers who are issued it have either been issued or have purchased sights like the EOTech holographic weapons sight and the Trijicon ACOG. Within an eight man section, six soldiers will normally carry a C7A2: the section commander and second in command, two grenadiers and two riflemen, with only the machine gunners carrying a C9A2 LMG. The C7A2 is considered a "mid-life" upgrade for the C7 family. The addition of the TRI-AD rail mount has made it easier for soldiers to attach accessories such as laser designators and tac lights.[3]

C8[edit]

C8 carbine
Type Carbine
Place of origin  Canada[Note 1]
Service history
In service 1994–present
Used by See Users
Wars War on Terrorism
Iraq War
War in Afghanistan
Production history
Manufacturer Diemaco (former)
Colt Canada (current)
Produced 1980s–present
Number built 50,000+
Variants C8A1, C8 SFW, C8 FTHB, C8A3
Specifications
Weight 2.68 kg (5.9 lb) (unloaded C8A1)
2.81 kg (6.2 lb) (unloaded C8A2)
Length 840 mm (33 in) (C8, C8A1)
876.3 mm (34.50 in) (C8 SFW, C8FTHB, C8A3) (stock extended)
760 mm (30 in) (C8, C8A1)
800.1 mm (31.50 in) (C8 SFW, C8FTHB, C8A3) (stock collapsed)
Barrel length 368 mm (14.5 in) (C8, C8A1)
406.4 mm (16.00 in) (C8 SFW, C8FTHB, C8A3)

Cartridge 5.56×45mm NATO
Action Gas-operated, rotating bolt
Rate of fire 750–950 rounds/min (cyclic)
Muzzle velocity 900 m/s (3000 ft/s)
Effective firing range 400 m (440 yd) (effective)
Feed system Various STANAG magazines

The C8 range are carbine variants of the C7 family, and is mechanically and aesthetically very similar to the Colt 653. Colt made the initial C8s for Canadian Forces as the Colt Model 725. The C8 has a 368 mm (14.5 in) A1 profile barrel like the Colt Model 653 M16A1 carbine, but with a 1 in 180 mm (7 in) rifling twist appropriate for the 5.56×45mm NATO C77 cartridge. The C8 incorporates the design improvements featured on C7 rifles.

C8A1[edit]

The improved C8A1 (Diemaco C8FT) is essentially the same as the C7A1, just in carbine form; the carbine having a 38 cm barrel versus the 53 cm barrel typically seen on the C7.[4] The overall layout of the weapon remains essentially unchanged except for the upper receiver and the general inclusion of the C79 sight. C8A1s have also been more commonly seen with the detachable carry handle with A1 sights developed by Diemaco for both the C7FT and the C8FT.

C8SFW[edit]

The Special Forces Weapon (SFW) features a longer, 410 mm (16 in) barrel of a heavier profile than the C8/A1. It is designed to provide a fire support capability in carbine form. The profile of the barrel is not uniform, bulging out at the end, whereas M4 barrels step down. The front sight base is strengthened for mounting of the Heckler & Koch AG-C/EGLM grenade launcher. The British military acquired a number of SFWs, primarily for their special forces, under the designation "L119A1". This version of the C8 is also in service with the Norwegian MJK and HJK. Because of the barrel profile, a Diemaco-specific mount is required for the fitment of an M203 grenade launcher.

C8FTHB[edit]

Concerns that Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry had with the C8[clarification needed] led to the creation of the C8FTHB. The C8FTHB (Flat Top Heavy Barrel) features numerous improvements over the C8, including a heavy profile hammer-forged barrel and Elcan C79 Optical Sight.

Other C8 variants[edit]

Three additional C8 variants exist. The C8CQB is similar to the Mark 18 Mod 0 CQBR, having a 250 mm (10 in) barrel and a Vortex Flash Hider made by Smith Enterprise Inc.[5] The smaller Personal Defense Weapon (PDW) has an overall length of 530 mm (20.7 in) with stock fully retracted. It has a 140 mm (5.7 in) barrel and the receiver extension has been shortened by 42 mm (1.65 in). A further upgrade upon the C8FTHB is currently being slowly integrated. The new version will be designated the C8A3. The C8A3 will combine the C8FTHB with the upgrades found on the C7A2. These improvements include green furniture, ambidextrous fire selector, magazine catch, and an extended ambidextrous charging handle.

In 2011, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police adopted the C8 IUR (Integrated Upper Receiver) with ancillary components as their patrol carbine.[6][7] These rifles have been modified to a semi automatic only mode of operation.

Diemaco LSW[edit]

Danish LSW M/04 with optical sight

Colt and Diemaco also paired up to develop a squad automatic weapon variant of the series. The Diemaco Light Support Weapon (LSW) features a heavy barrel suitable for sustained fire. The LSW can only be fired on fully automatic. The LSW has a boxy square handguard with a carrying handle and a vertical foregrip that can be used as a monopod. The LSW was made with no bayonet lug until recently[when?] because of the original bipod. A new bipod attaches to the same barrel yoke as the carrying handle and front grip, so current LSWs are made with a bayonet lug. Unlike many M16 variants, it fires from an open bolt, allowing the removal of the forward assist. The LSW used by the Royal Danish Army and the Netherlands Marine Corps fires from a closed bolt and also has a semi automatic firing mode. The Diemaco LSW was originally a license produced variant of the Colt 750, but both Colt and Diemaco have upgraded their respective weapons to include features like a detachable carry handle and other features separately.

Other Diemaco variants[edit]

C7CT and C8CT Designated Marksman variants[edit]

Diemaco's C7/C8 family is completed with two designated marksman variants, the C7CT and C8CT, with CT meaning Custom Tactical. These accurized C7/C8 variants are designed to provide accurate engagement up to 600 m (660 yd), while providing system commonality to other fielded weapons. They have two-stage match triggers and weighted stocks to counterbalance the heavy 508 mm (20.0 in) or 410 mm (16 in) free-floating barrel surrounded by a tubular forestock. A removable bipod, rails for designators, sling, etc. attach to that forestock. A special, distinctive pistol grip is fitted and the C7-style buttstock can be adjusted with shims. Sound suppressors are usually fitted.[8] The rifle is designed as a sniper spotter weapon or a police containment weapon. The CT series weapons meet or exceed all applicable military standards including: reliability in all environmental and operational conditions, accuracy, lethality, maintainability in field conditions and safety.[9]

Custom tactical features:

  • Direct gas system: The unique direct gas system eliminates the operating rod and keeps all of the firing forces in line with the bore for maximum accuracy and reliability.
  • Hammer forged heavy match barrel: The very heavy barrel profile maintains zero with accessories fitted and provides extra thermal mass to dissipate heat for enhanced consistency.
  • Flat top: The upper receiver can be manufactured in the original Canadian Forces specification Weaver rail, or with a MIL-STD-1913 Picatinny rail.

C10 small bore training version[edit]

Diemaco makes a training version of the C7 named the C10. It fires .22 Long Rifle ammunition, but is only capable of semiautomatic fire. The stock and lower receiver are one piece.

IUR – Integrated Upper Receiver[edit]

In 2008 or 2009, Colt Canada introduced a completely new designed upper receiver with integrated rail attachment system. The front handguard is in this system permanently attached to the upper receiver. The whole system is forged from one piece, and is sometimes called a monolithic rail. This system allows for a completely free floating barrel. Another unique feature is that the system can be adapted for different barrel lengths by screwing on an extension. The system was introduced as an upgrade in the Dutch army with the C7 and C8 in 2009 and currently is introduced with the Danish Army.[10][11]

C7/C8 variants comparison table[edit]

Colt model number Diemaco model number Canadian designation British designation Danish designation Barrel Length Barrel Type Handguard type Buttstock type Pistol grip type Lower receiver type Upper receiver type Rear sight type Muzzle device Forward assist? Case deflector? Bayonet lug? Trigger pack
715 C7 C7 N/A N/A 508 mm (20.0 in) A2 Profile (1 in 180 mm (7 in) twist) Full-length ribbed Fixed A2 A2 A2 A2 A1 M16A2-style birdcage flash suppressor Yes Yes Yes S-R-Auto
N/A C7FT C7A1 N/A Gv M/95 508 mm (20.0 in) A2 Profile (1 in 180 mm (7 in) twist) Full-length ribbed Fixed A2 A2 A2 Flattop None M16A2-style birdcage flash suppressor Yes Yes Yes S-R-Auto
N/A C7A2 C7A2 N/A N/A 508 mm (20.0 in) A2 Profile (1 in 180 mm (7 in) twist) Full-length ribbed Four-position retractable A2 A2 Flattop None M16A2-style birdcage flash suppressor Yes Yes Yes S-R-Auto
750 LSW N/A N/A LSV M/04 508 mm (20.0 in) A2 HBAR Profile (1 in 180 mm (7 in) twist) Square LMG Fixed A2 A2 A2 A2 or Flattop A2 or None M16A2-style birdcage flash suppressor Yes or No Yes Yes or No S-R-Auto or S-Auto
725 C8 C8 N/A N/A 368 mm (14.5 in) A1 Profile (1 in 180 mm (7 in) twist) Short cylindrical ribbed Two-position retractable A2 A2 A2 A1 M16A2-style birdcage flash suppressor Yes Yes Yes S-R-Auto
N/A C8FT C8A1 N/A N/A 368 mm (14.5 in) A1 Profile (1 in 180 mm (7 in) twist) Short cylindrical ribbed Four-position retractable A2 A2 Flattop None M16A2-style birdcage flash suppressor Yes Yes Yes S-R-Auto
N/A C8FTHB C8A2 N/A Kb M/96 368 mm (14.5 in) A2 HBAR Profile (1 in 180 mm (7 in) twist) Short cylindrical ribbed Four-position retractable, Three on the DK vers. A2 A2 Flattop None M16A2-style birdcage flash suppressor Yes Yes Yes S-R-Auto
N/A SFW N/A L119A1 N/A 401 mm (15.8 in) SFW Profile (1 in 180 mm (7 in) twist) KAC M4 RAS Four-position retractable A2 A2 Flattop None M16A2-style birdcage flash suppressor Yes Yes Yes S-R-Auto

In service[edit]

Denmark[edit]

C8 CQB (Close Quarters Battle) as used by a boarding team of the Royal Danish Navy.

Denmark bought the first batch of C7A1 in 1995 and C8A2 in 1996, designating them the M/95 and M/96 carbine. In 2004 the LSW, named LSV M/04 was added to the arsenal. These are to replace the German made M/75 (H&K G3), which has been the main infantry weapon since 1975.

The C7A1 is issued to standard infantry units of the Royal Danish Army. The C8A2 is issued to units where the physically longer C7A1 can be obstructive to that units primary work, such as logisticians, tankers and special units. Jægerkorpset and Frømandskorpset (Special forces) use the C8SFW with a 401 mm (15.8 in) barrel and extra front rails. The now defunct Patruljedelingen, a draftee LRRP-unit, also used the C8SFW.

The LSW used to be issued to "support gunners" in infantry squads. However, it is planned[when?] that the Royal Danish Army will only use 7.62mm belt-fed machine guns for the support role. Most of the LSWs are intended to be transferred to the Danish Home Guard.[citation needed]

The Army almost exclusively use the C7A1 and C8A2 with the Elcan C79 optical sight, while the Danish Home Guard use the C8A2 with the Swedish produced Aimpoint. The main feature of the Aimpoint is the "both eyes open" sighting. This is the preferred sighting method at shorter ranges.

The C7A1 was first issued to field units of Logcoy/Danbn/Dancon of the Danish International Brigade, in October–November 1995 shortly before the transition from UNPROFOR to IFOR in Bosnia.

In 2010 the Danish Defence Materiel Service ordered am improved version of the M/96 and M/95 from Colt Canada under the Danish name M/10, which Colt Canada designated the C8 IUR.[12] It features a 401 mm (15.8 in) floating barrel, fully ambidextrous controls, flip up iron sights, a collapsible buttstock with more positions, and the Integrated Upper Receiver (IUR).[13]

Afghan National Army[edit]

In 2007 and 2008, Canada donated 2,500 surplus C7 rifles to the Afghan National Army.[14] In 2011, the ANA gave back the C7s since the Afghan security forces chose the American M16 instead. Canadian Forces officials said the Canadian rifles would be shipped to Canada for disposal.[15]

The Netherlands[edit]

Latest upgraded variant of the C7 rifles in Dutch service, 2013.

The most commonly used version in the Dutch Military is the C7. The Luchtmobiele Brigade (Airmobile Brigade), consisting of 11 Infantry Battalion Garderegiment Grenadiers en Jagers, 12 Infantry Battalion Regiment Van Heutsz and 13 Infantry Battalion Regiment Stoottroepen Prins Bernhard uses the C7A1, and the C8A1 (Diemaco C8FT) is mainly used by the Korps Commandotroepen, the paratroopers of the Luchtmobiele Brigade (one company per battalion), the Korps Mariniers and most of the recon units of the various combat units, including the Forward Air Controllers and the reconnaissance units of the cavalry and the artillery. The Korps Mariniers also uses the LSW, which is locally known as LOAW.

Many of the Dutch C7s, C8s and LOAW have had an overhaul: the rifle's black furniture has now been replaced by dark earth furniture. New parts include a new retracting stock, the Diemaco IUR with RIS rails for mounting flashlights and laser systems, and a vertical foregrip with built-in bipod; the thermold plastic magazines have now become brown in color. The ELCAN sighting system has also disappeared in favour of the Swedish made Aimpoint CompM4 red dot sight. These upgraded versions are now known as C7NLD, C8NLD and LOAWNLD.[16]

Sweden[edit]

The Diemaco C8 SFW (Special Forces Weapon) is used by the SOG and has been seen with Aimpoint sights and various attachments.

United Kingdom[edit]

The UK first selected the Diemaco C8 in the mid 1990s as the Special Forces Individual Weapon. This selection was later reconfirmed in the mid 2000s, by which time Diemaco had become Colt Canada. The weapon is so well-liked, reliable and successful that the planned competition to seek a replacement of the C8 from 2014 has been deferred in favour of continuing with the C8. Use of the C8 has expanded to include, among others, the original SAS and SBS, Special Forces Support Group PARAs, the Pathfinder Platoon 16 Air Asslt Bde, Fleet Protection Group RM, RMP Close Protection and MoD Police[citation needed]. There are about 2,500 in service. A number of barrel lengths are available for different users and most weapons are now fitted with Knights Armaments Rail Adapter System handguards and Picatinny rail flat-top upper receivers. Most users fit Trijicon ACOG x4 sights with CQB reflex attachment, but other sights are used. Various laser, light, downgrip and other attachments are used. Surefire vortex-type flash hiders are generally fitted, and suppressors are available. The standard Canadian bayonet is issued, but rarely used. Coloured furniture is becoming commonplace. As mentioned above, the UK very much prefers polymer magazines to metal on grounds of weight and reliability and has now standardised on these for all C8 and operational SA80 users, with well over a million magazines purchased. Many weapons are fitted with the L17A1 underslung 40mm grenade launcher (UGL), the UK designation for the Heckler & Koch AG36. Detachable shoulder stocks are available for stand-alone use of the UGL.

Users[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b A derivative of an American design.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "WorldGuns – C7/C8 Rifle". Retrieved 15 November 2014. 
  2. ^ "C7A2". 
  3. ^ "Canadian American Strategic Review - Canadian Forces Automatic Rifles". May 2010. 
  4. ^ "C8A2 Technical Specifications". April 2009. 
  5. ^ "Colt Canada Corporation". 212. Retrieved 6 June 2013. 
  6. ^ Chris Purdy. "Front-line RCMP officers to get high-powered guns". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2013-08-31. 
  7. ^ "RCMP Adopts C8 Carbine". Soldier Systems. 2011-10-23. Retrieved 2013-08-31. 
  8. ^ Canadian Forces Rifle — Marksman Rifle System 5.56mm C7CT DM[dead link]
  9. ^ "Custom Tactical". 2011. 
  10. ^ "Brochure Colt Canada 2010". 2010. 
  11. ^ "Algemene Vereniging van Reserve Militairen" (in Dutch). Retrieved January 31, 2013. 
  12. ^ New Canadian-Made Rifles for the Danish Army – C8 IUR M/10
  13. ^ "Denmark M/10 Carbine". 02a574b.netsolhost.com. 2010-04-26. Retrieved 2013-08-31. 
  14. ^ a b "Canadian military donates 2,500 rifles to Afghan army". CBC.ca. December 23, 2007. Retrieved June 15, 2011. 
  15. ^ a b Brewster, Murray (16 June 2011). "Afghan army gives donated rifles back to Canada in favour of U.S. weapons". The Canadian Press. Retrieved 16 June 2011. 
  16. ^ "The Netherlands Forces - C7NLD, C8NLD, LOAWNLD Upgraded from C7, C7A1, C8, C8A1, LOAW". Retrieved 15 November 2014. 
  17. ^ a b c Miller, David (2001). The Illustrated Directory of 20th Century Guns. Salamander Books Ltd. ISBN 1-84065-245-4.
  18. ^ "Kitchener plant to make new gun for front-line RCMP officers". Canadian Press. 21 October 2011. Retrieved 22 October 2011. 
  19. ^ a b c [1][dead link]
  20. ^ "Colt C7/C8NLD 5.56mm". Retrieved 15 November 2014. 
  21. ^ Bartocci, Christopher R. (2004). Black Rifle II The M16 into the 21st Century. Collector Grade Publications Incorporated. ISBN 0-88935-348-4.
  22. ^ "Paint-ball kan ha utløst politiaksjon - VG Nett". Vg.no. Retrieved 2013-08-31. 
  23. ^ [2][dead link]
  24. ^ "Royal Military Police train for close protection". Retrieved 15 November 2014. 
  25. ^ "Video on Pathfinder Platoon showing them using the C8 Carbine alongside more standard L85A2s". http://www.youtube.com. Retrieved 2010-05-31. 
  26. ^ "SAS Weapons - C8 SFW Carbine L119A1s". 

External links[edit]