"Dies Irae" (Day of Wrath) is a thirteenth-century Latin hymn attributed to either Thomas of Celano of the Franciscan Order (1200 – c. 1265) or to Latino Malabranca Orsini (+1294), lector at the Dominican studium at Santa Sabina, the forerunner of the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum in Rome.
It is a medieval Latin poem characterized by its accentual stress and its rhymed lines. The metre is trochaic. The poem describes the day of judgment, the last trumpet summoning souls before the throne of God, where the saved will be delivered and the unsaved cast into eternal flames.
Use in the Roman liturgy
The "Dies Irae" was used in the Roman liturgy as the sequence for the Requiem Mass for centuries, as evidenced by the important place it holds in musical settings such as those by Mozart and Verdi. It appears in the Roman Missal of 1962, the last edition before the implementation of the revisions from the Second Vatican Council. As such, it is still heard in churches where the Tridentine Latin liturgy is celebrated. It also formed part of the traditional liturgy of All Souls' Day.
In the reforms to the Roman Catholic liturgy ordered by the Second Vatican Council, it was retained only in part by the "Consilium for the Implementation of the Constitution on the Liturgy"—the Vatican body charged with drafting and implementing the reforms (1969–70). It remains as a hymn ad libitum in the Liturgy of the Hours during the last week before Advent, divided into three parts for the Office of Readings, Lauds and Vespers.
Nevertheless, the Consilium felt that the funeral rite was in need of reform and eliminated the sequence as such from the Masses for the Dead. A leading figure in the post-conciliar liturgical reforms, Archbishop Annibale Bugnini, explains the mind of the cardinals and bishops who were members of the Consilium:
They got rid of texts that smacked of a negative spirituality inherited from the Middle Ages. Thus they removed such familiar and even beloved texts as the "Libera Me, Domine", the "Dies Irae", and others that overemphasized judgment, fear, and despair. These they replaced with texts urging Christian hope and arguably giving more effective expression to faith in the resurrection.
The Latin text below is taken from the Requiem Mass in the 1962 Roman Missal. The first English version below, translated by William Josiah Irons in 1849, albeit from a slightly different Latin text, replicates the rhyme and metre of the original. This translation, edited for more conformance to the official Latin, is approved by the Catholic Church for use as the funeral mass sequence in the liturgy of the Anglican ordinariate. The second English version is a more formal equivalence translation.
|1||Dies iræ! Dies illa
Solvet sæclum in favilla:
Teste David cum Sibylla!
|Day of wrath and doom impending,
David’s word with Sibyl’s blending,
Heaven and earth in ashes ending!
|The day of wrath, that day
Will dissolve the world in ashes
As foretold by David and the Sibyl!
|2||Quantus tremor est futurus,
Quando iudex est venturus,
Cuncta stricte discussurus!
|Oh, what fear man's bosom rendeth,
When from heaven the Judge descendeth,
On whose sentence all dependeth.
|How much tremor there will be,
when the Judge will come,
investigating everything strictly!
|3||Tuba mirum spargens sonum
Per sepulchra regionum,
Coget omnes ante thronum.
|Wondrous sound the trumpet flingeth;
Through earth's sepulchres it ringeth;
All before the throne it bringeth.
|The trumpet, scattering a wondrous sound
through the sepulchres of the regions,
will summon all before the Throne.
|4||Mors stupebit, et natura,
Cum resurget creatura,
|Death is struck, and nature quaking,
All creation is awaking,
To its Judge an answer making.
|Death and nature will marvel,
when the creature arises,
to respond to the Judge.
|5||Liber scriptus proferetur,
In quo totum continetur,
Unde mundus iudicetur.
|Lo! the book, exactly worded,
Wherein all hath been recorded:
Thence shall judgement be awarded.
|The written book will be brought forth,
in which all is contained,
from which the world shall be judged.
|6||Iudex ergo cum sedebit,
Quidquid latet, apparebit:
Nil inultum remanebit.
|When the Judge his seat attaineth,
And each hidden deed arraigneth,
Nothing unavenged remaineth.
|When therefore the Judge will sit,
whatever hides will appear:
nothing will remain unpunished.
|7||Quid sum miser tunc dicturus?
Quem patronum rogaturus,
Cum vix iustus sit securus?
|What shall I, frail man, be pleading?
Who for me be interceding,
When the just are mercy needing?
|What am I, miserable, then to say?
Which patron to ask,
when [even] the just may [only] hardly be sure?
|8||Rex tremendæ maiestatis,
Qui salvandos salvas gratis,
Salva me, fons pietatis.
|King of Majesty tremendous,
Who dost free salvation send us,
Fount of pity, then befriend us!
|King of tremendous majesty,
who freely savest those that have to be saved,
save me, Source of mercy.
|9||Recordare, Iesu pie,
Quod sum causa tuæ viæ:
Ne me perdas illa die.
|Think, kind Jesu!–my salvation
Caused thy wondrous Incarnation;
Leave me not to reprobation!
|Remember, merciful Jesus,
That I am the cause of Thy way:
Lest Thou lose me in that day.
|10||Quærens me, sedisti lassus:
Redemisti Crucem passus:
Tantus labor non sit cassus.
|Faint and weary, Thou hast sought me,
On the Cross of suffering bought me.
Shall such grace be vainly brought me?
|Seeking me, Thou sat tired:
Thou redeemed [me] having suffered the Cross:
let not so much hardship be lost.
|11||Iuste iudex ultionis,
Donum fac remissionis
Ante diem rationis.
|Righteous Judge! for sin's pollution
Grant Thy gift of absolution,
Ere the day of retribution.
|Just Judge of revenge,
give the gift of remission
before the day of reckoning.
|12||Ingemisco, tamquam reus:
Culpa rubet vultus meus:
Supplicanti parce, Deus.
|Guilty, now I pour my moaning,
All my shame with anguish owning;
Spare, O God, Thy suppliant groaning!
|I sigh, like the guilty one:
my face reddens in guilt:
Spare the supplicating one, God.
|13||Qui Mariam absolvisti,
Et latronem exaudisti,
Mihi quoque spem dedisti.
|Through the sinful woman shriven,
Through the dying Thief forgiven,
Thou to me a hope hast given.
|Thou who absolved Mary,
and heardest the Robber,
gavest hope to me, too.
|14||Preces meæ non sunt dignæ:
Sed tu bonus fac benigne,
Ne perenni cremer igne.
|Worthless are my prayers and sighing,
Yet, Good Lord, in grace complying,
Rescue me from fires undying!
|My prayers are not worthy:
however, Thou, Good [Lord], do good,
lest I am burned up by eternal fire.
|15||Inter oves locum præsta,
Et ab hædis me sequestra,
Statuens in parte dextra.
|With Thy sheep a place provide me,
From the goats afar divide me,
To Thy right hand do Thou guide me.
|Grant me a place among the sheep,
and take me out from among the goats,
setting me on the right side.
Flammis acribus addictis:
Voca me cum benedictis.
|While the wicked are confounded,
Doomed to flames of woe unbounded
Call me with thy saints surrounded.
|Once the cursed have been rebuked,
sentenced to acrid flames:
Call Thou me with the blessèd.
|17||Oro supplex et acclinis,
Cor contritum quasi cinis:
Gere curam mei finis.
|Low I kneel, with heart submission,
See, like ashes, my contrition;
Help me in my last condition.
|I meekly and humbly pray,
[my] heart is as crushed as the ashes:
perform the healing of mine end.
|18||Lacrimosa dies illa,
qua resurget ex favilla
Iudicandus homo reus.
Huic ergo parce, Deus:
|Ah! that day of tears and mourning!
From the dust of earth returning
Man for judgement must prepare him;
Spare, O God, in mercy spare him!
|Tearful will be that day,
on which from the ash arises
the guilty man who is to be judged.
Spare him therefore, God.
|19||Pie Iesu Domine,
dona eis requiem. Amen.
|Lord, all-pitying, Jesus blest,
Grant them thine eternal rest. Amen.
|Merciful Lord Jesus,
grant them rest. Amen.
Because the last two stanzas differ markedly in structure from the preceding stanzas, some scholars consider them to be an addition made in order to suit the great poem for liturgical use. The penultimate stanza Lacrimosa discards the consistent scheme of rhyming triplets in favor of a pair of rhyming couplets. The last stanza Pie Iesu abandons rhyme for assonance, and, moreover, its lines are catalectic.
In the liturgical reforms of 1969–71, stanza 19 was deleted and the poem divided into three sections: 1–6 (for Office of Readings), 7–12 (for Lauds) and 13–18 (for Vespers). In addition "Qui Mariam absolvisti" in stanza 13 was replaced by "Peccatricem qui solvisti" so that that line would now mean, "You who freed/absolved the sinful woman". In addition, a doxology is given after stanzas 6, 12 and 18:
|O tu, Deus maiestatis,
alme candor Trinitatis
nos coniunge cum beatis. Amen.
|O God of majesty
nourishing light of the Trinity
join us with the blessed. Amen.
|O thou, God of majesty,
gracious splendour of the Trinity
conjoin us with the blessed. Amen.
The text of the sequence is found, with slight verbal variations, in a 13th-century manuscript in the Biblioteca Nazionale at Naples. It is a Franciscan calendar missal that must date between 1253 and 1255 for it does not contain the name of Clare of Assisi, who was canonized in 1255, and whose name would have been inserted if the manuscript were of later date.
- "Dies iræ, dies illa, dies tribulationis et angustiæ, dies calamitatis et miseriæ, dies tenebrarum et caliginis, dies nebulæ et turbinis, dies tubæ et clangoris super civitates munitas et super angulos excelsos."
- "That day is a day of wrath, a day of tribulation and distress, a day of calamity and misery, a day of darkness and obscurity, a day of clouds and whirlwinds, a day of the trumpet and alarm against the fenced cities, and against the high bulwarks." (Douay–Rheims Bible)
Other images come from Revelation 20:11–15 (the book from which the world will be judged), Matthew 25:31–46 (sheep and goats, right hand, contrast between the blessed and the accursed doomed to flames), 1Thessalonians 4:16 (trumpet), 2Peter 3:7 (heaven and earth burnt by fire), Luke 21:26 ("men fainting with fear... they will see the Son of Man coming"), etc.
Day of judgment! Day of wonders!
Hark! the trumpet's awful sound,
Louder than a thousand thunders,
Shakes the vast creation round!
How the summons wilt the sinner's heart confound!
Jan Kasprowicz, a Polish poet, wrote a hymn entitled "Dies irae" which describes the Judgment day. The first six lines (two stanzas) follow the original hymn's metre and rhyme structure, and the first stanza translates to "The trumpet will cast a wondrous sound".
The American writer Ambrose Bierce published a satiric version of the poem in his 1903 book Shapes of Clay, preserving the original metre but using humorous and sardonic language; for example, the second verse is rendered:
- Ah! what terror shall be shaping
- When the Judge the truth's undraping –
- Cats from every bag escaping!
Rev. Bernard Callan (1750–1804), an Irish priest and poet, translated it into Gaelic around 1800. His version is included in the Gaelic prayer book, The Spiritual Rose.
- Walter Scott used the first two stanzas in the sixth canto of his narrative poem "The Lay of the Last Minstrel" (1805).
- Johann Wolfgang von Goethe used the first, the sixth and the seventh stanza of the hymn in the scene "Cathedral" in the first part of his drama Faust (1808).
- Oscar Wilde's "Sonnet on Hearing the Dies Irae Sung in the Sistine Chapel" (Poems, 1881), contrasts the "terrors of red flame and thundering" depicted in the hymn with images of "life and love".
- In Gaston Leroux's 1910 novel The Phantom of the Opera, Erik (the Phantom) has the chant displayed on the wall of his funereal bedroom.
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The words of "Dies Irae" have often been set to music as part of the Requiem service. In some settings, it is broken up into several movements; in such cases, "Dies Irae" refers only to the first of these movements, the others being titled according to their respective first words.
In 5-line staff notation, the same appears:
The earliest surviving polyphonic setting of the Requiem by Johannes Ockeghem does not include a Dies Irae, after this the first polyphonic settings to include the Dies Irae are by Engarandus Juvenis (c. 1490) and Antoine Brumel (1516) to be followed by many composers of the renaissance. Later many notable choral and orchestral settings of the Requiem Mass, including the Dies Irae, were made by composers such as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Hector Berlioz, Giuseppe Verdi, Gaetano Donizetti, and Igor Stravinsky.
- Charles-Valentin Alkan – Souvenirs: Trois morceaux dans le genre pathétique, Op. 15 (No. 3: Morte)
- Ernest Bloch – Suite Symphonique
- Hector Berlioz – Symphonie fantastique
- George Crumb – Black Angels
- Michael Daugherty – Metropolis Symphony 5th movement, "Red Cape Tango";
- Dead Elvis (1993) for bassoon and chamber ensemble
- Luigi Dallapiccola – Canti di prigionia
- Diamanda Galás – Masque Of The Red Death: Part I – The Divine Punishment
- Donald Grantham – Baron Cimetiére's Mambo
- Charles Gounod – Faust opera, act 4
- Joseph Haydn – Symphony No. 103, "The Drumroll"
- Gustav Holst – The Planets, movement 5, "Saturn, the Bringer of Old Age"
- Arthur Honegger – La Danse des Morts, H. 131
- Franz Liszt – Totentanz
- Gustav Mahler – Symphony No. 2, movements 1 and 5
- Nikolai Myaskovsky – Symphony No. 6, Op. 23
- Sergei Rachmaninoff – Symphony No. 1, Op. 13; Symphony No. 2, Op. 27; Symphony No. 3, Op. 44; Isle of the Dead, Op. 29; The Bells choral symphony, Op. 35; Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, Op. 43; Symphonic Dances, Op. 45
- Camille Saint-Saëns – Danse Macabre, Symphony No. 3 (Organ Symphony)
- Dmitri Shostakovich – Symphony No. 14
- Stephen Sondheim – Sweeney Todd – quoted in the accompaniment to "Epiphany"
- Kaikhosru Shapurji Sorabji – Sequentia cyclica super "Dies irae" ex Missa pro defunctis and eight other works
- Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky – Manfred Symphony, Orchestral Suite No. 3
- Eugène Ysaÿe – Solo Violin Sonata in A minor, Op. 27, No. 2 "Obsession"
- Danny Elfman – The Nightmare Before Christmas – quoted in "Jack's Lament" and "Making Christmas"
- "Dies Iræ". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
- "Scritti vari di Filologia", The Catholic Encyclopædia, Rome: New Advent, 1901, p. 488, retrieved 15 Feb 2013.
- Liturgia Horarum IV, Vaticana, 2000, p. 489.
- Bugnini, Annibale (1990), "46.II.1", The Reform of the Liturgy: 1948–1975, The Liturgical Press, p. 773.
- English Missal.
- The Hymnal, USA: The Episcopal Church, 1940.
- The Order for Funerals for use by the Ordinariates erected under the auspices of the Apostolic Constitution Anglicanorum cœtibus (PDF), US: Ordinariate.
- McKenna, Malachy (ed.), The Spiritual Rose, Dublin: School of Celtic Studies – Scoil an Léinn Cheiltigh, Institute for Advanced Studies – Institiúid Ard-Léinn Bhaile Átha Cliath, F 2.22.
- Leroux, Gaston (1985), The Phantom of the Opera, Barnes & Noble, p. 139.
- Simmons, Walter (2004), Voices in the Wilderness: Six American Neo-romantic Composers, Scarecrow, ISBN 0-8108-4884-8.
- About this Recording – 8.559635 – Daugherty, M.: Metropolis Symphony / Deus ex Machina (T. Wilson, Nashville Symphony, Guerrero), Naxos.
- Dead Elvis.
- Grantham, Donald (2004), "Donald Grantham", in Camphouse, Mark, Composers on Composing for Band 2, Chicago: GIA, pp. 100–01, ISBN 1-57999-385-0.
- Greenberg, Robert (2011), The Great Courses: The 30 Greatest Orchestral Works, The Teaching Co.
- Spratt, Geoffrey K. The Music of Arthur Honegger. Cork University Press, 1985.
- Zadan, Craig (1989). Sondheim & Co (2nd ed.). Perennial Library. p. 248. ISBN 0-06-091400-9.
- Roberge, Marc-André, "Citations of the Dies irae", Sorabji Resource Site, CA: U Laval.
- Lintgen, Arthur, "Tchaikovsky: Manfred Symphony", Fanfare (review).
- Leonard, James. Tchaikovsky: Suite No. 3; Stravinsky: Divertimento at AllMusic. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- Elfman, Danny (1993). The Nightmare Before Christmas: Piano/Vocal. Hal Leonard Corporation. ISBN 0-7935-2827-5.