Diet of Porvoo
The Diet of Porvoo (Finnish Porvoon maapäivät, or unhistorically Porvoon valtiopäivät; Swedish Borgå landtdag), was the summoned legislative assembly to establish the Grand Principality of Finland in 1809 and the heir of the powers of the Swedish Riksdag of the Estates. The session of the Diet lasted from January to July 1809.
During the Finnish War between Sweden and Russia, the four Estates of Russian occupied Finland (Nobility, Clergy, Burghers and Peasants) were assembled at Porvoo (Borgå) by Tsar Alexander I, the new Grand Prince of Finland, between March 25 and July 19, 1809. The central event at Porvoo was the sovereign pledge and the oaths of the Estates in Porvoo Cathedral on March 29. Each of the Estates swore their oaths of allegiance, committing themselves to accepting the Emperor as Grand Prince of Finland as the true authority, and to keeping the constitution and the form of government unchanged. Alexander I subsequently promised to govern Finland in accordance with its laws. This was thought to essentially mean that the emperor confirmed the Swedish Instrument of Government from 1772 as the constitution of Finland, although it was also interpreted to mean respecting the existing codes and statutes. The diet had required that it would be convened again after the Finnish War, which separated Finland from Sweden, had been concluded. On September 17 of the same year, the conflict was settled by the Treaty of Fredrikshamn, but it would be another five decades until the Finnish Estates would be called again.
During the rise of Finnish nationalism later in the 19th century, it was claimed that the Diet implied that a Treaty between States had been signed at the Diet between Finland and Russia. According to Emeritus Professor Jussila of Helsinki University, it is true that Alexander said that Finland had been raised to the status of a nation among nations, but the claim of a Treaty between equals was simply a device invented for the political realities of the struggle for independence.
List of participants at the Diet of Porvoo
- Count Robert Wilhelm De Geer was lantmarskalk, leader of the Noble estate.
- Baron Carl Erik Mannerheim, later count, was an important participant
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- Diet of Finland
- Parliament of Finland
- Senate of Finland
- Governor-General of Finland
- Finnish nobility
- Finnish House of Knights and Nobility
- Kingdom of Finland (1742)
- The Finnish word for a Diet, "valtiopäivät", was invented only in the mid-19th century, so calling the lantdag in Porvoo with that name is unhistorical. The Swedish name for the Finnish parliament was lantdag up until 1919, when it was officially changed to riksdag. To be noted however is that the Russian Emperor used the French word for Diet when he addressed the estates.
- History of the Finnish Parliament - Official site
- Kejsarens tal vid lantdagens avslutande den 19 juli 1809 - in Swedish at Wikisource (Originally in French)