Difang and Igay Duana
Difang Duana (20 March, 1921 – 29 March, 2002) and Igay Duana (1922 – 2002), Chinese names Kuo Ying-nan (郭英男) and Kuo Hsiu-chu (郭秀珠), were an Amis husband and wife farmers who became known as a folk music duo from Taiwan who specialized in traditional Amis chants. Their most recognized work is of a performance of a traditional Amis Palang song (alternately called "Weeding and Paddyfield Song No. 1", "Elders' Drinking Song", and "Jubilant Drinking Song") which was recorded by a French government project and EMI, and which was subsequently sampled by the musical project Enigma for their international hit single "Return to Innocence". Accusations of plagiarism were primarily settled out of court.
In 1988 Difang and Igay traveled to France to sing on a tour, during which they and around 30 other aboriginal Taiwanese artists were paid $15 a day. Their performances were recorded by the Maison des Cultures du Monde (Institute for World Cultures), part of the French Ministère de L'éducation Nationale (National Education Ministry) and put onto an "anonymous" compilation of "Taiwanese aboriginal songs" to be used for educational purposes. Six years later, Michael Cretu (the creative mind behind the Ibiza-based Romanian/German musical project Enigma), believing the recording to be in the public domain, sampled the recording on his song "Return to Innocence." After Taiwanese press agencies identified the Duanas' performance, the couple were offered a contract with Magic Stone, a subsidiary of the Taiwanese indie label, Rock Records; their music achieved little exposure outside of Taiwan.
In 1998, the Duanas filed suit against Cretu and EMI for violation of copyright. The suit was settled out of court in July 1999 for an undisclosed amount. The couple purportedly used some of the money to set up a scholarship fund for Amis children. Magic Stone's attorney also won a suit against the French government, but the government insisted on giving the money to a folk art foundation in trust, and not to the Duanas. In response to the lawsuits, a Taiwanese recording industry representative from the Association of Recording Copyright Owners affirmed that traditional folk music was indeed in the public domain and that people who performed or arranged it could not claim any copyright on it. The Duanas have been credited on all subsequent releases of the song.
The media attention garnered by the Duanas' legal case piqued public interest in their music. Dan Lacksman of Deep Forest, in collaboration with Magic Stone Records and the Duanas, produced the chart-topping ethnic electronica album, Circle of Life. The album was released in 1998 under the artist name Difang, though both Difang and Igay perform on the record. A second album, Across the Yellow Earth, was released in 2001.
- Uncredited ("anonymous") recording in Polyphonies vocales des aborigènes de Taïwan, Ministère de l'éducation nationale, 1988
- "Return to Innocence", EMI Records, 1993
- Circle of Life, Magic Stone Records, 1998 (reached No. 1 in Japan and Taiwan)
- Across the Yellow Earth, Magic Stone Records, 2001
- Taylor, T. "A Riddle Wrapped in a Mystery". In René T A Lysloff (ed.), Music and Technoculture, Weslyan University Press 2003. ISBN 0-8195-6514-8
- RTI Article (archived), EnigmaLair, Geocities.com
- Guy, Nancy. "Trafficking Taiwan Aboriginal Voices", Handle with Care: Ownership and Control of Ethnographic Materials, ed. Jaarsma, S.R. University of Pittsburgh Press (2002): 195-206.
- Huang, Sandy (2002-03-30). "Amis singer Difang passes away". Taipei Times. Retrieved 2012-04-19.