Comparison of standard Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian

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Areas where Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian were spoken by a plurality of speakers in 2006

Standard Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, and Serbian are different national variants and official registers of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian language.[1][2][3]

History[edit]

In socialist Yugoslavia, the official policy insisted on one language with two standard varieties—Eastern (used in Serbia, Montenegro, and Bosnia and Herzegovina by all ethnicities, either with the Ekavian or the Ijekavian accent) and Western (used in Croatia by all ethnicities, the Ijekavian accent only). However, due to discontent in Croatian intellectual circles, beginning in the late 1960s Croatian cultural workers started to refer to the language exclusively as 'the Croatian literary language', or sometimes 'the Croatian or Serbian language', as was common before Yugoslavia. The language was regarded as one common language with different variants and dialects. The unity of the language was emphasized, making the differences not an indicator of linguistic divisions, but rather factors enriching the 'common language' diversity. In addition, Yugoslavia had two other official languages on the federal level, Slovenian and Macedonian, reflecting Yugoslavia's acceptance of diversity with regards to language use. No attempts were made to assimilate those languages into the Serbo-Croatian language.

With the breakup of the Federation, in search of additional indicators of independent and separate national identities, language became a political instrument in virtually all of the new republics. With a boom of neologisms in Croatia, an additional emphasis on Turkisms in the Muslim parts of Bosnia and a privileged position of the Cyrillic script in Serb inhabited parts of the new states, every state and entity showed a 'nationalization' of the language. The language in Bosnia started developing independently after Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence in 1992. The independent development of the language in Montenegro became a topic among some Montenegrin academics in the 1990s.

It should be noted that the Serbian and Bosnian language standards tend to be inclusive, i.e. to accept a wider range of idioms and to use loan-words, whereas the Croatian language policy is more purist[4] and prefers neologisms[5] to loan-words, as well as the re-use of neglected older words.[6] Yet there is criticism of the puristic language policy even in Croatia. These approaches are, again, due to the different cultural, historical and political development of the three variants and the societies they are found in.

Writing[edit]

Script[edit]

Though all of the language variants could theoretically use either, the scripts differ:

  • Bosnian and Montenegrin uses both Latin and Cyrillic.
  • Croatian uses strictly the Latin alphabet.
  • Serbian uses both the Cyrillic (ћирилица) and Latin (latinica) scripts. Cyrillic is the official script of the administration in Serbia and Republika Srpska, but the Latin script is most widely used in media and especially on the Internet.

Phonemes[edit]

All standard languages have the same set of 30 regular phonemes, so the Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian Latin and Serbian Cyrillic alphabets map one to one with one another, and with the phoneme inventory.

Some linguists analyze the yat reflexes je and ije, commonly realized as [ie] in Croatian and Bosnian dialects, as a separate phoneme – "jat diphthong" – or even two phonemes, one short and one long. There are even several proposals by Croatian linguists for an orthography reform concerning these two diphthongs, but they have not been seriously considered for implementation.

The ongoing standardization of Montenegrin has introduced two new letters, Ś and Ź, for the sounds [ɕ] and [ʑ] respectively. These are optional spellings of the digraphs sj and zj. Critics note that [ɕ] and [ʑ] are merely allophones of /sj/ and /zj/ in Herzegovinian dialects such as Montenegrin, so the new letters are not required for an adequate orthography

Most dialects of Serbia originally lack the phoneme /x/, instead having /j/, /v/, or nothing (silence). /x/ was introduced with language unification, and the Serbian standard allows for some doublets such as snajasnaha and hajdeajde. However, in other words, especially those of foreign origin, h is mandatory.

In some regions of Croatia and Bosnia, sounds for letters č (realized as [tʃ] in most other dialects) and ć [tɕ] merged or nearly merged, usually into [tʃ]. The same happened with their voiced counterparts, i.e. and đ merged into [dʒ]. As result, speakers of those dialects often have difficulties distinguishing the corresponding these sounds. However, this merger is nonstandard.

Orthography[edit]

Serbian language usually phonetically transcribes foreign names and words (although both transcription and transliteration are allowed), whereas the Croatian standard usually transliterates. Bosnian also usually follows the Serbian model.

Also, when the subject of the future tense is omitted, producing a reversal of the infinitive and auxiliary "ću", only the final "i" of the infinitive is orthographically elided in Croatian and Bosnian, whereas in Serbian the two have merged into a single word:

  • "Uradit ću to." (Croatian/Bosnian)
  • "Uradiću to." (Serbian)

Regardless of spelling, the pronunciation is the same.

Grammar[edit]

Accentuation[edit]

In general, the Shtokavian dialects that represent the foundation of the standard languages have four pitch accents on stressed syllables: falling tone on a short vowel, written e.g. ı̏ in dictionaries; rising tone on a short vowel, written e.g. ì; falling tone on a long vowel, written e.g. î; and rising tone on a long vowel, written e.g. í. In addition, the following unstressed vowel may be either short, i, or long, ī. In declension and verb conjugation, accent shifts, both by type and position, are very frequent.

The distinction between four accents and preservation of post accent lengths is common in vernaculars of western Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, in parts of Serbia, as well as in parts of Croatia with strong Serb immigration. In addition, a distinct characteristics of some vernaculars is stress shift to proclitics, e.g. phrase u Bosni (in Bosnia) will be pronounced /ùbosni/ instead of /ubȍsni/ as in northern parts of Serbia.

The northern vernaculars in Serbia also preserve the four-accent system, but the unstressed lengths have been shortened or disappeared in some positions. However, the shortening of post-accent lengths is in progress in all Shtokavian vernaculars, even in those most conservative in Montenegro. Stress shift to enclitics is, however, in northern Serbia rare and mostly limited to negative verb constructs (ne znam = I don't know > /nȅznām/).

The situation in Croatia, is however, different. A large proportion of speakers of Croatian, especially those coming from Zagreb, do not distinguish between rising and falling accents.[7][8] This is considered to be a feature of the Zagreb dialect, which has strong Kajkavian influence, rather than Standard Croatian.[8]

Regardless of vernacular differences, all three standard languages exclusively promote the Neo-Shtokavian four-accentual system. Both dialects that are considered to be the basis of Standard Serbian (Eastern Herzegovinian and Šumadija-Vojvodina dialects) have four accents.

Phonetics[edit]

Feature Croatian Bosnian Serbian English
Opposition -u/e burza berza berza stock exchange
porculan porcelan/porculan porcelan porcelain
Opposition -u/i tanjur tanjir tanjir plate
Opposition -o/u barun baron baron baron
Opposition -io/iju milijun milion milion million
Opposition -i/je after l/t proljev proljev/proliv proliv diarrhoea
zaljev zaljev/zaliv zaliv gulf
stjecaj stjecaj/sticaj sticaj concurrence
Opposition -s/z inzistirati insistirati insistirati insist
Opposition -s/c financije finansije finansije finance
Opposition -t/ć plaća plaća plata salary
sretan sretan srećan happy
Opposition -k/h kor hor hor choir
kirurg hirurg hirurg surgeon
Opposition -l/-o after o sol so so salt
vol vo vo ox
kolčić kočić/kolčić kočić stick
Serbian often drops or does not add initial or medial 'h': čahura čahura čaura cartridge
hrvač hrvač rvač wrestler
hrđa hrđa rđa rust
Serbian does not add final 'r': jučer jučer juče yesterday
večer večer veče evening
također također takođe also

Morphology[edit]

There are three principal "pronunciations" (izgovori/изговори) of the Štokavian dialect that differ in their reflexes of the proto-Slavic vowel jat vowel. Illustrated by the Common Slavic word for "child", dě, they are:

  • dete in the Ekavian pronunciation
  • dite in the Ikavian pronunciation
  • dijete in the Ijekavian pronunciation

The Serbian language recognizes Ekavian and Ijekavian as equally valid pronunciations, whereas Standard Croatian and Bosnian accept only Ijekavian pronunciation. In Bosnia and Herzegovina (regardless of the official language) and in Montenegro, the Ijekavian pronunciation is used almost exclusively.

Ikavian pronunciation is nonstandard, and is limited to dialectal use in Dalmatia, Lika, Istria, central Bosnia (area between Vrbas and Bosna), Western Herzegovina, Bosanska Krajina, Slavonia and northern Bačka (Vojvodina). So, for example:

English Ekavian Ijekavian Ikavian
wind vetar vjetar vitar
milk mleko mlijeko mliko
to want hteti htjeti htiti
arrow strela strijela strila
But:
small arrow strelica strelica strilica

A few Croatian linguists have tried to explain the following differences in morphological structure for some words, with the introduction of a new vowel, "jat diphthong". This is not the opinion of most linguists.

Sometimes this leads to confusion: Serbian poticati (to stem from) is in Croatian and Bosnian "to encourage". Croatian and Bosnian "to stem from" is potjecati, whereas Serbian for "encourage" is podsticati.

English Croatian Bosnian Serbian
add by pouring* dolijevati dolijevati/dolivati dolivati*
diarrhea proljev proliv/proljev proliv
gulf, bay zaljev zaliv/zaljev zaliv
to influence utjecati utjecati/uticati uticati

Standard Bosnian allows both variants, and ambiguities are resolved by preferring the Croatian variant; this is a general practice for Serbian–Croatian ambiguities.

Phoneme /x/ (written as h) has been volatile in eastern South Slavic dialects. In Serbian dialects, it has been replaced with /j/, /v/, or elided, and subsequent standardization sanctioned those forms:

English Serbian Bosnian and Croatian
ear uvo/uho uho
fly muva muha
to cook kuvati kuhati
sister-in-law snaja/snaha snaha
dragon aždaja aždaha
rust rđa hrđa

However, /x/ has been kept in many words as a distinct feature of Bosnian speech and language tradition, particularly under influence of Turkish and Arabic, and even introduced in some places where it etymologically did not exist. Those forms are now also accepted in standard Bosnian:[9][10]

English Bosnian Croatian Serbian
easy lahko lako lako
soft mehko meko meko
coffee kahva or kafa kava kafa

As the Ijekavian pronunciation is common to all official standards, it will be used for examples on this page. Other than this, examples of different morphology are:

English Bosnian Croatian Serbian (Ijekavian) Montenegrin[dubious ]
point tačka točka tačka tačka
correct tačno točno tačno tačno
municipality općina općina opština opština
priest svećenik svećenik sveštenik svještenik
male student student student student student
female student studentica studentica studentkinja studentkinja
studentica
male professor profesor profesor profesor profesor
female professor profesorica profesorica profesorka
profesorica
profesorka
profesorica
scientist naučnik znanstvenik naučnik naučnik
translator prevodilac prevoditelj prevodilac prevodilac
reader čitalac čitatelj čitalac čitalac
writer pisac pisac pisac/spisatelj pisac/spisatelj
But:
assembly skupština skupština skupština skupština
thinker mislilac mislilac mislilac mislilac
diver ronilac ronilac ronilac ronilac
teacher učitelj učitelj učitelj učitelj
female writer spisateljica spisateljica spisateljica
spisateljka
spisateljica

Internationalisms[edit]

Also many internationalisms and transliterations are different:

English Bosnian Croatian Serbian
to organize organizirati
organizovati
organizirati organizovati
to construct konstruirati
konstruisati
konstruirati konstruisati
But:
to analyse analizirati analizirati analizirati

(cf. German organisieren, konstruieren, analysieren)

Historically, modern-age internationalisms entered Bosnian and Croatian mostly through German and Italian, whereas they entered Serbian through French and Russian, so different localization patterns were established based on those languages. Also, Greek borrowings came to Serbian directly, but through Latin into Croatian:

English Bosnian Croatian Serbian Note
Armenia Armenija Armenija Jermenija Through Latin and Venetian in Croatian, through Greek in Serbian
Athens Atina Atena Atina
Bethlehem Betlehem Betlehem Vitlejem
Crete Krit Kreta Krit
Cyprus Kipar Cipar Kipar
Europe Evropa Europa Evropa
Jerusalem Jerusalem Jeruzalem Jerusalim
Latvia Latvija Latvija Letonija
Lithuania Litva Litva Litvanija
Spain Španija Španjolska Španija
chlorine hlor klor hlor
diplomacy diplomatija/diplomacija diplomacija diplomatija
impedance impedanca impedanca impedansa All from French impédance, Italianized ending in Croatian (cf. impedenza)
But:
license licenca licenca licenca Through Latin in both
tendency tendencija tendencija tendencija

Most of terms for chemical elements are different: for international names, Bosnian and Croatian use -ij where Serbian has -ijum (uranijuranijum). In some native names, Croatian have -ik where Serbian has -(o)nik (kisikkiseonik 'oxygen', vodikvodonik 'hydrogen') and Bosnian accepts all variants. Yet others are totally different (dušikazot 'nitrogen', kositarkalaj 'tin'). Some element names are the same: srebro (silver), zlato (gold), bakar (copper).

Some other imported words differ by grammatical gender, feminine words having an -a suffix and masculine words having a zero-suffix:

English Serbian Croatian Bosnian
minute (n.) minut/minuta minuta minuta/minut
second (n.) sekund/sekunda sekunda sekunda
But:
planet planeta planet planeta/planet
comet kometa komet kometa/komet
territory teritorija teritorij teritorij/teritorija
mystery misterija misterij misterij/misterija

Pronouns[edit]

In Serbian and Bosnian, the pronoun what is što when used as a relative, but šta when used as an interrogative; the latter applies also to relative sentences with interrogative meaning. Croatian uses što in all contexts.

English Bosnian and Serbian Croatian and Montenegrin
What did he say? Šta je rekao? Što je rekao?
Ask him what he said. Pitaj ga šta je rekao. Pitaj ga što je rekao.
What he said was a lie. To što je rekao je laž. To što je rekao je laž.

This is applicable only to the nominative and the accusative – in all other cases, the standards have the same forms: čega, čemu etc. for što.

In Croatian, the pronoun who has the form tko, whereas in Serbian, Bosnian and Montenegrin it has ko. The declension is the same: kome, koga, etc. In addition, Croatian uses komu as an alternative form in the dative case.

Usage of locative pronouns gd(j)e, kuda, and kamo differs between Serbian and Croatian (the latter not being used in Serbian):

English Bosnian and Serbian (Ijekavian) Croatian Montenegrin
Where will you be? Gdje ćeš biti? Gdje ćeš biti? Đe ćeš biti?
Where will you go? Gdje ćeš ići??
(Kuda ćeš ići?)
Kamo ćeš ići? Đe ćeš ići?
Which way will you go? Kuda ćeš ići? Kuda ćeš ići? Kuda ćeš ići?

Syntax[edit]

Infinitive vs. subjunctive[edit]

With modal verbs such as ht(j)eti (want) or moći (can), the infinitive is prescribed in Croatian, whereas the construction da (that/to) + present tense is preferred in Serbian. This subjunctive of sorts is possibly an influence of the Balkan sprachbund. Again, both alternatives are present and allowed in Bosnian (the first one is preferred in orthography, the latter is more common in colloquial language).

The sentence "I want to do that" could be translated with any of

  • Hoću to da uradim.
  • Hoću to uraditi.

This difference partly extends to the future tense, which in Serbo-Croatian is formed in a similar manner to English, using (elided) present of verb "ht(j)eti" → "hoću"/"hoćeš"/... > "ću"/"ćeš"/... as auxiliary verb. Here, the infinitive is formally required in both variants:

  • Ja ću to uraditi. (I shall do that.)

However, when da+present is used instead, in it can additionally express the subject's will or intention to perform the action:

  • Ja ću to da uradim. (I will do that.)

This form is more frequently used in Serbia and Bosnia. The nuances in meaning between two constructs can be slight or even lost (especially in Serbian dialects), in similar manner as the shall/will distinction varies across English dialects. Overuse of da+present is regarded as Germanism in Serbian linguistic circles, and it can occasionally lead to awkward sentences.

However, Croatians seldom naturally use da+present form. Instead, a different form can be used to express will:

  • Ja hoću to uraditi. (I want to do that.)

(The sentence would sound more Croatian, but keep the same meaning, if it stated: "Želim to učiniti.", as "uraditi" is uncommon in Croatian).

Interrogative constructs[edit]

In interrogative and relative constructs, Croatian uses the interrogative participle li after the verb, whereas Serbian also allows forms with da li. (A similar situation exists in French, where a question can be formed either by inversion or using est-ce que, and can be stretched in English with modal verbs):

  • Možeš li? (Can you?) (spoken Croatian)
  • Both Možeš li? and Da li možeš? (Can you, Do you can?) are common in Serbian.

In addition, non-standard je li ("Is it?"), usually elided to je l' , is vernacular for forming all kinds of questions, e.g. Je l' možeš?. In standard language, it is used only in questions involving auxiliary verb je (="is"):

  • Je li moguće? (Is it possible?) (spoken Croatian)
  • Both Je li moguće? and Da li je moguće? are common in Serbian.

In summary, the English sentence "I want to know whether I'll start working" would typically read:

  • ''Želim da znam hoću li početi da radim. (spoken Serbian)
  • Želim znati hoću li početi raditi. (spoken Croatian)

although many in-between combinations could be met in vernacular speech, depending on speaker's dialect, idiolect, or even mood.

Trebati (need)[edit]

In formal Croatian, verb trebati (need or should) is transitive, as in English.[11] In Serbian and Bosnian, it is impersonal, (as French il faut, or English construct is necessary (to)); the grammatical subject is either omitted (it), or presents the object of needing; the person that needs something is an indirect grammatical object, in dative case.[12] (Such usage is, however, also encountered in Croatian, especially spoken.[11]):

Serbian and Bosnian English (literal trans.) Croatian English
Petru treba novac. Money [is necessary] to Peter. Petar treba novac. Peter needs money.
Ne trebam ti. I [am not necessary] to you Ne trebaš me. You don't need me.
Treba da radim. (It) [is necessary] that I work. Trebam raditi. I should work.

Vocabulary[edit]

Examples[edit]

The greatest differences between the standards is in vocabulary. However, most words are well understood, and even occasionally used, in the other standards. In most cases, common usage favors one variant and the other(s) are regarded as "imported", archaic, dialectal, or simply more rarely used. The preference for certain words depends on the speaker's geographic origin rather than ethnicity; for example, Serbs from Bosnia use "mrkva" and "hlače" rather than "šargarepa" and "pantalone".

English Serbian Croatian Bosnian Montenegrin
one thousand hiljada tisuća hiljada (preferred)
tisuća (allowed)
hiljada
January[13] januar siječanj januar (preferred)
siječanj (allowed)
januar
factory fabrika tvornica fabrika
tvornica
fabrika
rice pirinač
riža
riža riža oriz
riža
carrot šargarepa
mrkva
mrkva mrkva šargarepa
mrkva
trousers pantalone
hlače
hlače hlače
pantalone
pantalone
music[14] muzika glazba/muzika muzika muzika
library[14] biblioteka knjižnica biblioteka biblioteka
bread hleb/hljeb
kruh
kruh hljeb/kruh hljeb
millennium milenijum
tisućl(j)eće (allowed)
tisućljeće milenij milenijum
spinach spanać špinat špinat spanać
football fudbal nogomet fudbal
nogomet1
fudbal
nogomet
train voz vlak voz voz
wave talas
val (allowed)
val talas
val
val
talas
person lice
osoba
osoba osoba
lice
osoba
lice
uncivil nevaspitan neodgojen neodgojen nevaspitan
one's own sopstveno
vlastito
osobno
vlastito
vlastito
sopstveno
vlastito
sopstveno
road put
drum
cesta (allowed)
cesta
put
put
cesta
put
cesta
road toll drumarina
putarina
cestarina (allowed)
cestarina putarina putarina
But:
dad tata tata
ćaća
tata
babo
tata
tajo
tomato paradajz rajčica
pomidor
paradajz
paradajz paradajz

1 Bosniak linguists claim that word "nogomet" is "used in Bosnian" (same in Croatian); still, the form "fudbal" is in majority use among Bosniaks, compare FK Sarajevo, FK Velež.

English Serbian Croatian Bosnian
to accept prihvatati prihvaćati prihvatati
happy, lucky srećan/sretan sretan sretan
to comprehend shvatati shvaćati shvatati
But:
to catch hvatati hvatati hvatati

Note that there are only a few differences that can cause confusion, for example the verb "ličiti" means "to look like" in Serbian and Bosnian, but in Croatian it is "sličiti"; "ličiti" means "to paint (a house)".

The word "bilo" means "white" in the Ikavian accent, "pulse" in official Croatian, and "was" in all official languages, although it is not so confusing when pronounced because of different accentuation (bîlo or bílo = white, bı̏lo = pulse, bílo = was).

In Serbian and Bosnian, the word izvanredan (extraordinary) has only the positive meaning (excellent), vanredan being used for "unusual" or "out of order"; however, only izvanredan is used in Croatian in both contexts.

Also note that in most cases Bosnian officially allows almost all of the listed variants in the name of "language richness", and ambiguities are resolved by preferring the Croatian variant. Bosnian vocabulary writers based their decisions on usage of certain words in literary works by Bosnian authors.

Names of the months[edit]

The months have Slavic-derived names in Croatian, wheres Serbian and Bosnian have almost the same set of international Latin-derived names as English. The Slavic-derived names may also be used in Bosnian[citation needed], but the international names are preferred.

English Croatian Serbian Bosnian
January siječanj januar januar
February veljača februar februar
March ožujak mart mart
April travanj april april
May svibanj maj maj
June lipanj jun juni
July srpanj jul juli
August kolovoz avgust august
September rujan septembar septembar
October listopad oktobar oktobar
November studeni novembar novembar
December prosinac decembar decembar

The international names of the months are well understood in Croatia and are used in several fixed expressions such as Prvi Maj (May 1st), Prvi April (April Fools' Day) or Oktobarska revolucija (October Revolution).

In spoken Croatian and in western Bosnia it is common to refer to a month by its number. Therefore, many speakers refer to the month of May as peti mjesec ("the fifth month"). Saying peti peti (fifth of fifth) would be the equivalent of May 5th. Outside of a context where the month is already implied, such usage may lead to confusion.

Notes on comprehension[edit]

It is important to notice a few issues:

  • Pronunciation and vocabulary differs among dialects spoken within Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia themselves. Each larger region has its own pronunciation and it is reasonably easy to guess where a speaker is from by their accent and/or vocabulary. Colloquial vocabulary can be particularly different from the official standards.
    This is one of the arguments for claiming it is all one and the same language: there are more differences within the territories of the official languages themselves than there are between the standards (all three of which are based on the same Neo-Štokavian dialect). This is not surprising, of course, for if the lines between the varieties were drawn not politically but linguistically, then there would be no borders at all. As Pavle Ivić explains, the continuous migration of Slavic populations during the five hundred years of Turkish rule has scattered the local dialects all around.
  • When Bosniaks, Croats and Serbs talk amongst each other, the other speakers usually understand them completely, save for the odd word, and quite often, they will know what that means (much as with British and American English speakers). Nevertheless, when communicating with each other, there is a habit to use terms that are familiar to everyone, with the intent to avoid not being understood and/or confusion. For example, to avoid confusion with the names of the months, they can be referred to as the "first month", "second month" and so on, or the Latin-derived names can be used if "first month" itself is ambiguous, which makes it perfectly understandable for everyone. In Serbia, the names of the months are the international ones so again they are understandable for anyone who knows English or another Western European language.
  • Even during the time of Yugoslavia it was common for publishers to do some adaptations to "Eastern" or "Western" standard. Especially translations were and are changed by the lectors. It is to be considered that Croatian and Serbian standards have completely different scientific terminology[citation needed]. Jung's masterpiece "Psychology and Alchemy" was translated into Croatian in 1986, and adapted in late 1990s into Serbian. Ivo Andrić had some problems in Croatia with publishers who changed his infinitive constructions and other expressions. Eventually, he managed to forbid that kind of intervention. In Montenegro, the publisher CID switched from the Ekavian to the Jekavian accent after Montenegro's independence.

Language samples[edit]

The following samples, taken from article 1 to 6 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, are "synonymous texts, translated as literally as possible" in the sense of Ammon[15] designed to demonstrate the differences between the standard varieties treated in this article in a continuous text.

Croatian[16] Bosnian[17] Serbian[18] English[19]
Opća deklaracija o pravima čovjeka Opća deklaracija o pravima čovjeka Opšta deklaracija o pravima čov(j)eka Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Članak 1. Sva ljudska bića rađaju se slobodna i jednaka u dostojanstvu i pravima. Ona su obdarena razumom i sviješću i trebaju jedno prema drugome postupati u duhu bratstva. Član 1. Sva ljudska bića rađaju se slobodna i jednaka u dostojanstvu i pravima. Ona su obdarena razumom i sviješću i trebaju jedno prema drugome postupati u duhu bratstva. Član 1. Sva ljudska bića rađaju se slobodna i jednaka u dostojanstvu i pravima. Ona su obdarena razumom i sv(ij)ešću i treba da jedno prema drugome postupaju u duhu bratstva. Article 1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Članak 2. Svakome su dostupna sva prava i slobode navedene u ovoj Deklaraciji bez razlike bilo koje vrste, kao što su rasa, boja, spol, jezik, vjera, političko ili drugo mišljenje, narodnosno ili društveno podrijetlo, imovina, rođenje ili drugi pravni položaj.
Nadalje, ne smije se činiti bilo kakva razlika temeljem političkog, pravnog ili međunarodnog položaja zemlje ili područja kojima neka osoba pripada, bilo da je ovo područje nezavisno, pod skrbništvom, nesamoupravno, ili da se nalazi ma pod kojim drugim ograničenjima suverenosti.
Član 2. Svakome su dostupna sva prava i slobode navedene u ovoj Deklaraciji bez razlike bilo koje vrste, kao što su rasa, boja, spol, jezik, vjera, političko ili drugo mišljenje, narodnosno ili društveno porijeklo, imovina, rođenje ili drugi pravni položaj.
Nadalje, ne smije se činiti bilo kakva razlika na osnovu političkog, pravnog ili međunarodnog položaja zemlje ili područja kojima neka osoba pripada, bilo da je ovo područje nezavisno, pod starateljstvom, nesamoupravno, ili da se nalazi ma pod kojim drugim ograničenjima suverenosti.
Član 2. Svakome su dostupna sva prava i slobode navedene u ovoj Deklaraciji bez razlike bilo koje vrste, kao što su rasa, boja, pol, jezik, v(j)era, političko ili drugo mišljenje, narodnosno ili društveno por(ij)eklo, imovina, rođenje ili drugi pravni položaj.
Nadalje, ne sm(ij)e da se čini bilo kakva razlika na osnovu političkog, pravnog ili međunarodnog položaja zemlje ili područja kojima neko lice pripada, bilo da je ovo područje nezavisno, pod starateljstvom, nesamoupravno, ili da se nalazi ma pod kojim drugim ograničenjima suverenosti.
Article 2. Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.
Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.
Članak 3. Svatko ima pravo na život, slobodu i osobnu sigurnost. Član 3. Svako ima pravo na život, slobodu i ličnu sigurnost. Član 3. Svako ima pravo na život, slobodu i ličnu bezb(j)ednost. Article 3. Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
Članak 4. Nitko ne smije biti držan u ropstvu ili ropskom odnosu; ropstvo i trgovina robljem zabranjuje se u svim njihovim oblicima. Član 4. Niko ne smije biti držan u ropstvu ili ropskom odnosu; ropstvo i trgovina robljem zabranjuje se u svim njihovim oblicima/formama. Član 4. Niko ne sm(ij)e da bude držan u ropstvu ili ropskom odnosu; ropstvo i trgovina robljem zabranjuje se u svim njihovim formama. Article 4. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.
Članak 5. Nitko ne smije biti podvrgnut mučenju ili okrutnom, nečovječnom ili ponižavajućem postupku ili kažnjavanju. Član 5. Niko ne smije biti podvrgnut mučenju ili okrutnom, nečovječnom ili ponižavajućem postupku ili kažnjavanju. Član 5. Niko ne sm(ij)e da bude podvrgnut mučenju ili okrutnom, nečovečnom ili ponižavajućem postupku ili kažnjavanju. Article 5. No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
Članak 6. Svatko ima pravo svugdje se pred zakonom priznavati kao osoba. Član 6. Svako se ima pravo svuda/svugdje pred zakonom priznavati kao osoba. Član 6. Svako ima pravo da se svuda pred zakonom priznaje kao lice. Article 6. Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  6. ^ Kordić, Snježana (2009). "Što je (ne)standardno za kroatiste?" [What is (non)standard for Croatists?]. In Bierich, Alexander. Varietäten im Slavischen. Heidelberger Publikationen zur Slavistik, Linguistische Reihe, vol. 17 (in Serbo-Croatian). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. pp. 313–330. ISBN 978-3-631-57010-4. LCCN 2009502912. OCLC 319695935. Archived from the original on 8 August 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
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  13. ^ All month names are different. See below for full table.
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  19. ^ "Universal Declaration of Human Rights in English". Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. 

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