|Classification and external resources|
Gastrointestinal diseases refer to diseases involving the gastrointestinal tract, namely the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and rectum, and the accessory organs of digestions, the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
Even though anatomically part of the GI tract, diseases of the mouth are often not considered alongside other gastrointestinal diseases. By far the most common oral conditions are plaque-induced diseases (e.g. gingivitis, periodontitis, dental caries). Some diseases which involve other parts of the GI tract can manifest in the mouth, alone or in combination, including:
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease can cause acid erosion of the teeth and halitosis.
- Gardner's syndrome can be associated with failure of tooth eruption, supernumerary teeth, and dentigerous cysts.
- Peutz–Jeghers syndrome can cause dark spots on the oral mucosa or on the lips or the skin around the mouth.
- Several GI diseases, especially those associated with malabsorption can cause recurrent mouth ulcers, atrophic glossitis, angular cheilitis. E.g. Crohn's disease is sometimes termed orofacial granulomatosis when it involves the mouth alone.
- Sideropenic dysphagia can cause glossitis, angular cheilitis.
Oesophageal diseases include a spectrum of disorders affecting the oesophagus. The most common condition of the oesophagus in developing countries is gastroesophageal reflux disease, which in chronic forms is thought to result in changes to the epithelium of the oesophagus, known as Barrett's oesophagus.
Acute disease might include infections such as oesophagitis, or rupture of blood vessels such as oesophageal varices, Boerhaave syndrome or Mallory-Weiss tears. Chronic diseases might include congenital diseases such as Zenker's diverticulum and esophageal webbing, and oesophageal motility disorders including the Nutcracker oesophagus, achalasia, diffuse oesophageal spasm, and oesophageal stricture.
Oesophageal disease may result in a sore throat, throwing up blood, or difficulty swallowing. Chronic or congenital diseases might be investigated using Barium swallows, whereas acute diseases such as reflux may be investigated and diagnosed based on symptoms and a medical history alone.
Stomach diseases refer to diseases affecting the stomach. Inflammation of the stomach by infection from any cause is called gastritis, and when including other parts of the gastrointestinal tract called gastroenteritis. When gastritis is persists in a chronic state, it is associated with several diseases, including atrophic gastritis, pyloric stenosis, and gastric cancer. Another common condition is gastric ulceration. This erodes the gastric mucosa, which protects the tissue of the stomach from the stomach acids. Gastric ulcers are most commonly caused by the infectious disease Helicobacter pylori. :870-871
As well as gastric ulcers, vomiting blood may result from abnormal arteries or veins that have ruptured, including Dieulafoy's lesion and Gastric antral vascular ectasia. Congenital disorders of the stomach include pernicious anaemia, in which a targeted immune response against parietal cells results in an inability to absorb vitamin B12. Other common symptoms that stomach disease might cause include indigestion or dyspepsia, vomiting, and in chronic disease, digestive problems leading to forms of malnutrition. :850-853 In addition to routine tests, an endoscopy might be used to examine or take a biopsy from the stomach. :848
- Intestinal Pseudoobstruction
- Bowel obstruction
- Peptic (duodenal) ulcer
Diseases that affect the large intestine may affect it in whole or in part. Appendicitis is one such disease, caused by inflammation of the appendix. Generalised inflammation of the large intestine is referred to as colitis, which when caused be the bacteria Clostridium difficile is referred to as Pseudomembranous colitis. Diverticulitis is a common cause of abdominal pain resulting from outpouchings that particularly effects the colon. Functional colonic diseases refer to disorders without a known cause, and include irritable bowel syndrome and Intestinal pseudoobstruction. Constipation may result from lifestyle factors, impaction of a rigid stool in the rectum, or in neonates, Hirschprung's disease.:913-915
Diseases affecting the large intestine may cause to be passed with stool, may cause constipation, or may result in abdominal pain or a fever. Tests that specifically examine the function of the large intestine include barium swallows, abdominal x-rays, and colonoscopy.:913-915
Rectum and anus
Diseases affecting the rectum and anus are extremely common, especially in older adults. Hemorrhoids, vascular outpouchings of skin, are very common, as is pruritis ani, referring to anal itchiness. Other conditions, such as anal cancer may be associated with sexually transmitted infections such as HIV or ulcerative colitis. Inflammation of the rectum is known as proctitis, one cause of which is radiation damage associated with radiotherapy to other sites such as the prostate. Faecal incontinence can result from mechanical and neurological problems, and when associated with a lack of voluntary voiding ability is described as encopresis. Pain on passing stool may result from anal abscesses, small inflammed nodules, anal fissures, and anal fistulas. :915-916
Rectal and anal disease may be asymptomatic, or may present with pain when passing stools, fresh blood in stool, a feeling of incomplete emptying, or pencil-thin stools. In addition to regular tests, medical tests used to investigate the anus and rectum include the digital rectal exam and proctoscopy.
Accessory digestive gland disease
- Fatty liver
- Alcoholic liver disease
- Liver failure
- Liver abscess
- Hepatorenal syndrome
- Peliosis hepatis
- Wilson's Disease
- Pancreatic pseudocyst
- Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency
- Pancreatic fistula
Gall Bladder and Bile Ducts
- Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses
- Postcholecystectomy syndrome
- Cholestasis/Mirizzi's syndrome
- Biliary fistula
- common bile duct