Digital Public Library of America
The Digital Public Library of America (DPLA) is a US project aimed at providing public access to digital holdings in order to create a very-large-scale public digital library. It officially launched on April 18, 2013, after 2.5 years of development.
The DPLA is a discovery tool, or union catalog, for public domain content held by the nation's archives, libraries, museums, and other cultural heritage institutions. It was started by Harvard University's Berkman Center for Internet & Society in 2010, with financial support from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and has subsequently received funding from several foundations and government agencies, including the US National Endowment for the Humanities, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation It "aims to unify such disparate sources as the Library of Congress, the Internet Archive, various academic collections, and presumably any other collection that would be meaningful to include. ... They have yet to ... decide such issues as how near to the present their catalog will come. There is an ongoing dispute regarding so-called 'orphan works' and other questions of copyright." John Palfrey, co-director of the Berkman Center, stated in 2011: "We aspire to establish a system whereby all Americans can gain access to information and knowledge in digital formats in a manner that is 'free to all.' It is by no means a plan to replace libraries, but rather to create a common resource for libraries and patrons of all types.”
The DPLA links service hubs, including nine major state and regional digital libraries or library collaborations, as well as twelve content hubs that maintain a one-to-one relationship with DPLA.
2012 Project Steering Committee
A steering committee led the planning phase of the DPLA initiative from inception through its launch in 2013. Members of the project's Steering Committee included Harvard University's Robert Darnton, Maura Marx, and John Palfrey; Paul Courant of University of Michigan, Carla Hayden of Baltimore's Enoch Pratt Free Library, Charles J. Henry of the US Council on Library and Information Resources, Luis Herrera of San Francisco Public Library, Susan Hildreth of the US government Institute of Museum and Library Services (who stepped down from the Steering Committee to avoid a conflict of interest related to funding from IMLS), Brewster Kahle, Michael A. Keller of Stanford University, Carl Malamud, consultant Deanna Marcum, Jerome McGann, Dwight McInvaill of Georgetown County Library in South Carolina, Peggy Rudd of the Texas State Library and Archives Commission, Amy Ryan of the Boston Public Library, David Spadafora of the Newberry Library in Chicago, and Doron Weber of the Sloan Foundation. Others working on the project include Harvard's David Weinberger.
Critiques of the project include: its vagueness, lack of internal cohesion, potentially redundant overlap with similar efforts (such as Project Gutenberg), and potential to redirect financial support away from existing public libraries. It has been suggested that in contrast to the brick-and-mortar public library, a digital public library may not be suitable for providing adult literacy training or fostering young children's cognitive development.
Some public librarians have also expressed a concern that a national digital library will divert and reduce traditional public library funding, which received a fast response from the DPLA. According to Peggy Rudd, a member of the board of directors, "the Chief Officers of State Library Agencies passed a resolution at their May 11, 2011 meeting asking the steering committee to reconsider the name Digital Public Library of America, fearing that the inclusion of the word “public” would have the unintended consequence of giving local governments the excuse to reduce public library funding".
Participants have established a wiki which outlines "workstreams" ("Audience and Participation," "Content and Scope," "Financial/Business Models," "Governance," "Legal Issues," "Technical Aspects") and corresponding listserves. A proposed future project of the DPLA is the idea of the Scannebago, a mobile scanning unit that would travel the United States in order to digitize and curate local historical materials. Harvard staff are coordinating a broad-based team that built a digital library platform, which launched on April 18, 2013.
Board of Directors
In September, 2012, an inaugural Board of Directors was appointed to guide the DPLA: Cathy Casserly, CEO of Creative Commons; Paul Courant, University Librarian and Dean of Libraries, Harold T. Shapiro Collegiate Professor of Public Policy, Arthur F. Thurnau Professor, Professor of Economics and Professor of Information at the University of Michigan; Laura DeBonis, Former Director of Library Partnerships for Google Book Search; Luis Herrera, City Librarian for the City and County of San Francisco; and John Palfrey, Head of School, Phillips Academy Andover.
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- "Funding and Support". Retrieved 21 April 2014.
- Devin Coldewey (5 April 2012). "Nonprofit "Digital Public Library Of America" To Launch In April 2013". TechCrunch. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
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- Howard, Digital Public Library of America: Young but Well Connected
- Digital Public Library of America. "Hubs." Accessed February 28, 2014
- "Digital Public Library of America website". Retrieved 29 April 2012.
- David Weinberger (4 January 2012). "Starting on the platform for the Digital Public Library of America". Joho the Blog. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
- Nicholas Carr (2012). "The Library of Utopia". Technology Review (MIT) (May/June). Retrieved 27 April 2012.
- Susan Flannery (November 1, 2012). Digitizing the Culture of Print: The Digital Public Library of America and Other Urgent Projects. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Communications Forum. 43:25 minutes in. Retrieved November 8, 2012. "These are not the clientele for the DPLA"
- Dillon, Cy (2012). "Planning the Digital Public Library of America". College & Undergraduate Libraries 19 (1): 101–107. doi:10.1080/10691316.2012.652556.
- http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/dpla/Main_Page Wiki: Digital Public Library of America
- Brandes, Jordan (12 October 2012). "Looking to the Future of Digital Libraries". American Libraries.
- Digital Public Library of America (March 2012). "Concept Note (as of March, 2012)". Retrieved 29 April 2012.
- "HathiTrust to partner with DPLA". DPLA. June 18, 2013.
- "Berkman Center for Internet & Society url=http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/node/7946". USA: Harvard University.
- Enis, Matt. "Q&A: Dan Cohen on His Role as the Founding Executive Director of DPLA". The Digital Shift. Library Journal. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- Boekesteijn, Erik (June 9, 2013). TWIL #98: Dan Cohen (Director of the Digital Public Library of America, DPLA) (Video podcast). This Week In Libraries. Delft, Netherlands: Shanachie Media. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
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- Darnton, Robert (May 22, 2014), "A World Digital Library Is Coming True", New York Review of Books
- Hill, Nate (15 June 2011). "Thoughts from the DPLA meeting in DC". PLA Blog: official blog of the Public Library Association. American Library Association.
- Howard, Jennifer. "Digital Library of America, 7-Month-Old Superaggregator 1 Ambitious Library Venture Makes Cross-Country Connections," Chronicle of Higher Education Dec 9, 2013
- Palfrey, John (November 26, 2012). "Building a Digital Public Library of America". The Digital Shift.
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- Rothman, David H. (May 23, 2011). "A Point-Counterpoint on the Digital Public Library of America". Library journal.
- Rothman, David H. (June 16, 2011). "Digital Public Library of America - can it live up to its huge potential". LLRX.com.
- Yelton, Andromeda (April 6, 2012). "My first hackathon; or, gender, status, code, and sitting at the table". andromedayelton.com.
- "Copyright Laws Slow DPLA". The Harvard Crimson. December 7, 2012.
- Digital Public Library of America official website
- Digital Public Library of America submissions for "beta sprint," 2011 (proposals for software development)
- Flickr. Photo of hackathon, Cambridge, Mass., 2012
- Samuel Klein (2012). "DPLA: Building a national library that anyone can edit". Wikimania 2012. Washington, DC. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
- The National Digital Public Library Is Launched! April 25, 2013 New York Review of Books