Digital Revolution

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A university computer lab containing many desktop PCs

The Digital Revolution, also called the Third Industrial Revolution, is the change from analog, mechanical, and electronic technology to digital technology which began anywhere from the late 1950s to the late 1970s with the adoption and proliferation of digital computers and digital record keeping that continues to the present day.[1] Implicitly, the term also refers to the sweeping changes brought about by digital computing and communication technology during (and after) the latter half of the 20th century. Analogous to the Agricultural Revolution and Industrial Revolution, the Digital Revolution marked the beginning of the Information Age.

Central to this revolution is the mass production and widespread use of digital logic circuits, and its derived technologies, including the computer, digital cellular phone, and the Internet.

The trends of technological revolutions[edit]

The Agricultural Revolution led to agricultural cities in the ancient world in the Middle East, Mesoamerica, China, the Indus Valley, Southern Europe and South America.

Then the Industrial Revolution lead to industrial cities in the 19th century such as Manchester, Newcastle Upon Tyne and New York City. In the 20th century the rise of the service economy caused people to leave the industrial cities and move out into the suburbs.

The Industrial Revolution and Digital Revolution are now taking place concurrently in China and India as people leave the rural areas for industrial and high tech cities like Beijing, Shanghai and Bombay.

Rise in digital technology use, 1980–2010[edit]

1980[edit]

  • Cell phone subscribers: 11.2 million [2]
  • Internet users: All Internet users at this time were indexed in a phone book sized directory.

1990[edit]

  • Cell phone subscribers: 12.4 million (0.25% of world population in 1990)[3]
  • Internet users: 2.8 million (0.05% of world population in 1990)[4]

2002[edit]

  • Cell phone subscribers: 1.2 billion (19% of world population in 2002)[4]
  • Internet users: 631 million (11% of world population in 2002)[4]

2010[edit]

  • Cell phone subscribers: 4 billion (67% of world population in 2010)[5]
  • Internet users: 1.8 billion (26.6% of world population in 2010)[6]

Brief history[edit]

The underlying technology was invented in the later half of the 19th century, including Babbage's analytical engine and the telegraph. Digital communication became economical for widespread adoption after the invention of the personal computer. Claude Shannon, a Bell Labs mathematician, is credited for having laid out the foundations of digitalization in his pioneering 1948 article, A Mathematical Theory of Communication.[7] The digital revolution converted technology that previously was analog into a digital format. By doing this, it became possible to make copies that were identical to the original. In digital communications, for example, repeating hardware was able to amplify the digital signal and pass it on with no loss of information in the signal. Of equal importance to the revolution was the ability to easily move the digital information between media, and to access or distribute it remotely.

A major landmark in the revolution was the transition from analog to digital recorded music. In the 1980s, the digital format of optical compact discs supplanted analog formats, such as vinyl records and cassette tapes, as the popular medium of choice.[8]

Timeline[edit]

Origins (1947–1969)[edit]

In 1947 the transistor was invented,[9] leading the way to more advanced digital computers. In the 1950s and 1960s the military, governments and other organizations had computer systems.

The public was first introduced to the concepts that would lead to the Internet when a message was sent over the ARPANET in 1969. Packet switched networks such as ARPANET, Mark I, CYCLADES, Merit Network, Tymnet, and Telenet, were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s using a variety of protocols. The ARPANET in particular led to the development of protocols for internetworking, in which multiple separate networks could be joined together into a network of networks.

The Whole Earth movement of the 1960s led to the inspiration and eventual creation of the World Wide Web.[10]

The 1970s[edit]

The 1970s saw the introduction of the home computer,[1] time-sharing computers,[2] the video game console, the first coin-op video games,[11][12] and the subsequent golden age of arcade video games. As digital technology proliferated, and the switch from analog to digital record keeping became the new standard in business, a relatively new job description was popularized, the data entry clerk. Culled from the ranks of secretaries and typists from earlier decades, the data entry clerk's job was to convert analog data (customer records, invoices, etc.) into digital data.

The 1980s[edit]

In developed nations, computers achieved semi-ubiquity during the 1980s as they made their way into schools, homes, business, and industry. Automated teller machines, industrial robots, CGI in film and television, electronic music, bulletin board systems, and video games all fueled what became the zeitgeist of the 1980s. Millions of people purchased home computers, making household names of early personal computer manufacturers such as Apple, Commodore, and Tandy. To this day the Commodore 64 is often cited as the best selling computer of all time, having sold 17 million units (by some accounts)[13] between 1982 and 1994.

In 1984 the U.S. Census Bureau began collecting data on computer and Internet use in the United States; their first survey showed that 8.2% of all U.S. households owned a personal computer in 1984, and that households with children under the age of 18 were nearly twice as likely to own one at 15.3% (middle and upper middle class households were the most likely to own one, at 22.9%).[14] By 1989 15% of all U.S. households owned a computer, and nearly 30% of households with children under the age of 18 owned one.[15] By the late 1980s, many businesses were dependent on computers and digital technology.

Motorola created the first mobile phone, Motorola DynaTac in 1983. However, this device used analog communication - digital cell phones were not sold commercially until 1991 when the 2G network started to be opened in Finland to accommodate the unexpected demand for cell phones that was becoming apparent in the late 1980s.

The first true digital camera was created in 1988, and the first were marketed in December 1989 in Japan and in 1990 in the United States.[16] By the mid-2000s, they would eclipse traditional film in popularity.

Digital ink was also invented in the late 1980s. Disney's CAPS system (created 1988) was used for a scene in 1989's The Little Mermaid and for all their animation films between 1990's The Rescuers Down Under and 2004's Home On The Range.

The 1990s[edit]

Tim Berners-Lee designed the World Wide Web, first brainstorming the general concept in March 1989 and writing the code and server in the last months of 1990. The first public digital HDTV broadcast was of the 1990 World Cup that June; it was played in 10 theaters in Spain and Italy. However HDTV did not become a standard until the mid-2000s outside of Japan.

The World Wide Web became publicly accessible in 1991, previously available only to government and universities.[17] In 1993 Marc Andreesen and Eric Bina introduced Mosaic, the first web browser capable of displaying inline images[18] and the basis for later browsers such as Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer. The Internet expanded quickly, and by 1996, it was part of mainstream consciousness and many businesses listed websites in their ads. By 1999 almost every country had a connection, and nearly half of Americans and people in several other countries used the Internet on a regular basis. However throughout the 1990s, most connections were slow dial-up and the present day mass Internet culture was not possible.

In 1989 about 15% of all households in the United States owned a personal computer, by 2000, this was up to 51%;[19] for households with children nearly 30% owned a computer in 1989, and in 2000 more than 75% owned one.

The 2000s[edit]

Cell phones became as ubiquitous as computers by the early 2000s, with movie theaters beginning to show ads telling people to silence their phones. They also became much more advanced than phones of the 1990s, most of which only took calls or at most allowed for the playing of simple games.

Text messaging existed in the 1990s but was not widely used until the early 2000s, when it became a cultural phenomenon.

The digital revolution became truly global in this time as well - after revolutionizing society in the developed world in the 1990s, the digital revolution spread to the masses in the developing world in the 2000s.

In late 2005 the population of the Internet reached 1 billion,[20] and 3 billion people worldwide used cell phones by the end of the decade. HDTV became the standard television broadcasting format in many countries by the end of the decade.

The 2010s[edit]

The widespread use and interconnectedness of mobile networked devices and mobile telephony, internet websites and resources, and social networking have become a de facto standard in digital communication.[citation needed] By 2012, over 2 billion people used the Internet, twice the number using it in 2007. Cloud computing had entered the mainstream by the early 2010s. By 2015, tablet computers and smartphones are expected to exceed personal computers in Internet usage.[21]

Converted technologies[edit]

Technological basis[edit]

Underlying the digital revolution was the development of the digital electronic computer, the personal computer, and particularly the microprocessor with its steadily increasing performance (as described by Moore's law), which enabled computer technology to be embedded into a huge range of objects from cameras to personal music players. Equally important was the development of transmission technologies including computer networking, the Internet and digital broadcasting. 3G phones, whose social penetration grew exponentially in the 2000s, also played a very large role in the digital revolution as they simultaneously provide ubiquitous entertainment, communications, and online connectivity.

Socio-economic impact[edit]

Positive aspects include greater interconnectedness, easier communication, and the exposure of information that in the past could have more easily been suppressed by totalitarian regimes. Michio Kaku wrote in his books Physics of the Future that the failure of the Soviet coup of 1991 was due largely to the existence of technology such as the fax machine and computers that exposed classified information.

The Revolutions of 2011 were enabled by social networking and smartphone technology; however these revolutions in hindsight largely failed to reach their goals as hardcore Islamist governments and in Syria a civil war have formed in the absence of the dictatorships that were toppled.

The economic impact of the digital revolution has been large. Without the World Wide Web (WWW), for example, globalization and outsourcing would not be nearly as feasible as they are today. The digital revolution radically changed the way individuals and companies interact. Small regional companies were suddenly given access to much larger markets. Concepts such as On-demand services and manufacturing and rapidly dropping technology costs made possible innovations in all aspects of industry and everyday life.

After initial concerns of an IT productivity paradox, evidence is mounting that digital technologies have significantly increased the productivity and performance of businesses.[22]

Negative effects include information overload, Internet predators, forms of social isolation, and media saturation. In a poll of prominent members of the national news media, 65 percent said the Internet is hurting journalism more than it is helping [23] by allowing anyone no matter how amateur and unskilled to become a journalist; causing information to be muddier and the rise of conspiracy theory in a way it didn't exist in the past.

In some cases, company employees' pervasive use of portable digital devices and work related computers for personal use — email, instant messaging, computer games — were often found to, or perceived to, reduce those companies' productivity. Personal computing and other non-work related digital activities in the workplace thus helped lead to stronger forms of privacy invasion, such as keystroke recording and information filtering applications (spyware and content-control software).

Information sharing and privacy[edit]

Privacy in general became a concern during the digital revolution. The ability to store and utilize such large amounts of diverse information opened possibilities for tracking of individual activities and interests. Libertarians and privacy rights advocates feared the possibility of an Orwellian future where centralized power structures control the populace via automatic surveillance and monitoring of personal information in such programs as the CIA's Information Awareness Office.[24] Consumer and labor advocates opposed the ability to direct market to individuals, discriminate in hiring and lending decisions, invasively monitor employee behavior and communications and generally profit from involuntarily shared personal information.

The Internet, especially the WWW in the 1990s, opened whole new avenues for communication and information sharing. The ability to easily and rapidly share information on a global scale brought with it a whole new level of freedom of speech. Individuals and organizations were suddenly given the ability to publish on any topic, to a global audience, at a negligible cost, particularly in comparison to any previous communication technology.

Large cooperative projects could be endeavored (e.g. Open-source software projects, SETI@home). Communities of like-minded individuals were formed (e.g. MySpace, Tribe.net). Small regional companies were suddenly given access to a larger marketplace.

In other cases, special interest groups as well as social and religious institutions found much of the content objectionable, even dangerous. Many parents and religious organizations, especially in the United States, became alarmed by pornography being more readily available to minors. In other circumstances the proliferation of information on such topics as child pornography, building bombs, committing acts of terrorism, and other violent activities were alarming to many different groups of people. Such concerns contributed to arguments for censorship and regulation on the WWW.

Copyright and trademark issues[edit]

Copyright and trademark issues also found new life in the digital revolution. The widespread ability of consumers to produce and distribute exact reproductions of protected works dramatically changed the intellectual property landscape, especially in the music, film, and television industries.

The digital revolution, especially regarding privacy, copyright, censorship and information sharing, remains a controversial topic. As the digital revolution progresses it remains unclear to what extent society has been impacted and will be altered in the future.

Concerns[edit]

While there have been huge benefits to society from the digital revolution, especially in terms of the accessibility of information, there are a number of concerns. Expanded powers of communication and information sharing, increased capabilities for existing technologies, and the advent of new technology brought with it many potential opportunities for exploitation. The digital revolution helped usher in a new age of mass surveillance, generating a range of new civil and human rights issues. Reliability of data became an issue as information could easily be replicated, but not easily verified. The digital revolution made it possible to store and track facts, articles, statistics, as well as minutia hitherto unfeasible.

From the perspective of the historian, a large part of human history is known through physical objects from the past that have been found or preserved, particularly in written documents. Digital records are easy to create but also easy to delete and modify. Changes in storage formats can make recovery of data difficult or near impossible, as can the storage of information on obsolete media for which reproduction equipment is unavailable, and even identifying what such data is and whether it is of interest can be near impossible if it is no longer easily readable, or if there is a large number of such files to identify. Information passed off as authentic research or study must be scrutinized and verified. With such massive proliferation of information it became possible to write an article citing wholly false sources, also based on false sources.[citation needed]

These problems are further compounded by the use of digital rights management and other copy prevention technologies which, being designed to only allow the data to be read on specific machines, may well make future data recovery impossible. Interestingly, the Voyager Golden Record, which is intended to be read by an intelligent extraterrestrial (perhaps a suitable parallel to a human from the distant future), is recorded in analog rather than digital format specifically for easy interpretation and analysis.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b The Digital Revolution. UCSD.
  2. ^ a b http://www.theglobalist.com/globalicons/syndication/sample.htm
  3. ^ http://www.worldmapper.org/display.php?selected=333
  4. ^ a b c http://www.worldmapper.org/textindex/text_communication.html
  5. ^ http://www.computeruser.com/articles/cell-phone-dangers-protecting-our-homes-from-cell-phone-radiation.html
  6. ^ http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm
  7. ^ Shannon, Claude E.; Weaver, Warren (1963). The mathematical theory of communication (4. print. ed.). Urbana: University of Illinois Press. p. 144. ISBN 0252725484. 
  8. ^ "The Digital Revolution Ahead for the Audio Industry," Business Week. New York, March 16, 1981, p. 40D.
  9. ^ http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/transistor.htm
  10. ^ http://www.wholeearth.com/history-whole-earth-catalog.php
  11. ^ http://www.atari.com/history/arcadecoin-op
  12. ^ http://io9.com/forgotten-arcade-games-let-you-shoot-space-men-and-catc-513560652
  13. ^ http://www.pagetable.com/?p=547
  14. ^ http://www.census.gov/hhes/computer/files/1984/p23-155.pdf
  15. ^ http://www.census.gov/hhes/computer/files/1989/p23-171.pdf
  16. ^ http://www.digicamhistory.com/1988.html
  17. ^ http://thenextweb.com/insider/2011/08/06/20-years-ago-today-the-world-wide-web-opened-to-the-public/
  18. ^ http://www.pbs.org/transistor/background1/events/www.html
  19. ^ http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p23-208.pdf
  20. ^ http://www.emarketer.com/Article.aspx?id=1003975
  21. ^ Tablets, Phones to Surpass PCs for Internet Use in Four Years. PCWorld.
  22. ^ http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=290325
  23. ^ http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2009/04/media-insiders-say-internet-hurts-journalism/307410/
  24. ^ John Markoff (November 22, 2002). "Pentagon Plans a Computer System That Would Peek at Personal Data of Americans". The New York Times.

External links[edit]