Digital television transition
The digital television transition, also called the digital switchover or analogue switch-off, is the process in which analog television broadcasting is converted to and replaced by digital television. This primarily involves the conversion of analogue terrestrial television to digital terrestrial. However, it also involves analogue cable conversion to digital cable, as well as analogue to digital satellite.
In many countries, a simulcast service is operated where a broadcast is made available to viewers in both analog and digital at the same time. As digital becomes more popular, it is likely that the existing analogue services will be removed. In some cases this has already happened, where a broadcaster has offered incentives to viewers to encourage them to switch to digital. In other cases government policies have been introduced to encourage or force the switchover process, especially with regard to terrestrial broadcasts. Government intervention usually involves providing some funding for broadcasters and, in some cases monetary relief to viewers, to enable a switchover to happen by a given deadline.
The switchover for individual countries varies; in some countries it is being implemented in stages as in India and the United Kingdom, where each region has a separate date to switch off. In others, the whole country switches on one date, such as the Netherlands, which switched off all analog services on 11 December 2006. Some countries have different switch off dates for each channel, such as China where CCTV channels 1-5 will be switched off first.
- 1 Purpose of the transition
- 2 Timeline for the digital switchover
- 3 Digital switchover at a glance
- 4 Transitions around the world
- 5 Digital-to-analog converters
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
Purpose of the transition
Almost all analogue formats in current use were standardised between the 1940s and the 1950s and have had to be adapted to the technological innovations since then. Initially offering only black and white images with monophonic sound, the formats have had to be modified to broadcast in colour and with stereo sound, second audio program (SAP), captioning, and other information all while being backwards compatible with televisions unable to use the features. Additionally, engineers have had to implement these protocols within the limits of a set bandwidth and the tolerances of an inefficient analogue format.
However, during this time, the application and distribution of digital communications evolved. Digital television transmission more efficiently uses the available bandwidth and can easily integrate other digital services. While analog video and audio broadcasts can not efficiently include other digital services, they have the advantage of greater area coverage because a degraded signal can still be usable to a fringe user while a digital one will just drop off.
- For the end-user, digital television has the potential for resolutions and sound fidelity far higher than those of analogue broadcasts. It is also possible to offer far more channels by way of digital multiplexing, and subchannels, distinct simulcast programming, from the same broadcaster. However, most free-to-air broadcasters do not have the finances to operate multiple channels with the same quality of content on all channels; also the more channels provided has the impact of decreasing the bandwidth available to the existing channel(s) meaning overall lower picture quality due to compression artifacts and non-proportional anamorphic widescreen digital scaling.
- For government and industry, digital television reallocates the radio spectrum so that it can be auctioned off. In the subsequent auctions, telecommunications industries can introduce new services and products in mobile telephony, wi-fi Internet, and other nationwide telecommunications projects.
- Impact on public-access television: decreased allocations available, expensive digital equipment cost replacement and lower broadcast area coverage due to digital drop-off.
Timeline for the digital switchover
- 2006: Netherlands
- 2007: Andorra, Finland, Sweden
- 2008: Germany, Switzerland
- 2009: Denmark, Isle of Man, Norway, United States (full power TV stations)
- 2010: Belgium, Croatia, Estonia, Guernsey, Jersey, Latvia, Luxembourg, San Marino, Slovenia, Spain
- 2011: Austria, Canada, Cyprus, France, Israel, Malta, Monaco, Turkey
- 2012: Czechia, Gibraltar, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, UAE, Jordan, Egypt, Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, Portugal, Slovakia, South Korea, Taiwan, United Kingdom
- 2013: Australia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Hungary, Iceland, Kenya, Republic of Macedonia, Mauritius, Moldova, Namibia, New Zealand, Poland, South Africa, Zimbabwe
- 2014: Greece, India, Serbia
- 2015: Algeria, Belarus, Brunei, Hong Kong, Iran, Libya, Mauritania, Mexico, Morocco, Nigeria, Philippines, Romania, Rwanda, Tunisia, Ukraine, United States (low power TV stations), Uruguay, Western Sahara
- 2017: Chile, Malaysia
- 2018: Brazil, China, Costa Rica, Russia, Singapore
- 2019: Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, El Salvador
- 2020: Panama, Peru, Thailand, Venezuela, Vietnam, Paraguay
- 2021: Indonesia, Cuba
- No intention of switching: Laos, North Korea
The Geneva 2006 Agreement sets 17 June 2015 as the date after which countries may use those frequencies currently assigned for analogue television transmission for digital services, without being required to protect the analogue services of neighbouring countries against interference. This date is generally viewed as an internationally mandated analogue switch-off date, at least along national borders. The European Commission has recommended that digital switchover should be completed by 1 January 2012 - Commission Recommendation 2009/848/EC, of 28.10.2009.
Digital switchover at a glance
|Andorra||25 September 2007|
|Australia||1 January 2001||30 June 2010||10 December 2013|
|Belgium||3 November 2008||1 March 2010|
|Brazil||2 December 2007||29 November 2015||25 November 2018|
|Bulgaria||1 January 2009||1 March 2013||30 September 2013|
|Canada||1 March 2003||31 August 2011|
|Croatia||13 June 2002||26 January 2010||5 October 2010|
|Czech Republic||October 2005||September 2007||12 February 2012|
|Denmark||1 March 2003||1 November 2009|
|El Salvador||22 April 2009||1 March 2018||1 January 2019|
|Estonia||1 July 2010|
|Finland||21 August 2001||1 September 2007|
|France||31 March 2005||2 February 2010||29 November 2011|
|Germany||1 November 2002||25 November 2008|
|Greece||20 March 2006||24 September 2009||19 December 2014|
|Guernsey||17 November 2010|
|Hungary||October 2001||31 July 2013||31 October 2013|
|India||26 January 2003||31 October 2012||31 March 2015|
|Ireland||29 October 2010||24 October 2012|
|Isle of Man||24 July 2009|
|Italy||2003||15 October 2008||4 July 2012|
|Japan||1 December 2003||24 July 2011||31 March 2012|
|Jersey||17 November 2010|
|Latvia||1 June 2010|
|Lithuania||March 2001||29 October 2012|
|Macedonia||4 May 2004||1 January 2010||1 June 2013|
|Mexico||July 2, 2004||18 July 2013||31 December 2015|
|Netherlands||11 December 2006|
|New Zealand||2 May 2007||30 September 2012||1 December 2013|
|Norway||1 September 2007||1 March 2008||1 December 2009|
|Peru||30 March 2010||28 July 2020||3 January 2023|
|Poland||30 September 2010||7 November 2012||23 July 2013|
|Portugal||29 April 2009||12 January 2012||26 April 2012|
|Philippines||October 2008||31 May 2015||31 December 2015|
|Qatar||1 January 2002||13 February 2012|
|Saudi Arabia||1 January 2003||13 February 2012|
|Slovakia||22 December 2009||28 October 2010||31 December 2012|
|Slovenia||30 June 2011|
|South Korea||26 October 2001||1 September 2010||31 December 2012|
|Spain||15 November 1999||5 April 2008||3 April 2010|
|Sweden||1999||19 September 2005||29 October 2007|
|Switzerland||1 June 2006||1 January 2008|
|Thailand||1 April 2014||2015||2020|
|Taiwan||1 January 2004||7 May 2012||30 June 2012|
|Tunisia||2012||6 March 2015||3 April 2015|
|United Kingdom||1998||17 October 2007||24 October 2012|
|United States||1998||2007||12 June 2009 (Full power stations)
1 September 2015 (Low power stations)
Transitions around the world
- Netherlands moved to digital-only broadcasting on Monday, 11 December 2006. The switch-off was helped greatly by the fact that about 80% of Dutch households subscribe to cable systems, which continued to use analog distribution, and thus their old tuners continued to be useful. Like Germany, Sweden and Japan, the Netherlands still has a high number of analogue cable viewers and therefore a switchover to Digital broadcasting is unlikely to happen in the near future.
- Finland ceased analog terrestrial transmissions nationwide at 04:00, Saturday, 1 September 2007 (the switch-off was previously planned for midnight on September 1 but a few extra hours were added for technical reasons). This was controversial, as the cost of a digital TV set in Finland at the time was heavily criticised and saw a substantial decrease in how much the television license cost. Cable TV viewers continued to receive analogue broadcasts until the end of February 2008.
- Andorra completed its switch-off on Tuesday 25 September 2007.
- Sweden: The switch-off of the analogue terrestrial network progressed region–by–region. It started on the island of Gotland on Monday, 19 September 2005, and was completed on Monday, 29 October 2007, when the last analogue SVT1 transmitters in Blekinge and western Scania were shut down. Like the Netherlands, Germany and Japan, cable distributors continued broadcasting analogue television. Cable broadcasters continue to broadcast in analogue (like the Netherlands and Germany), so therefore a cable switchover is unlikely to happen in the near future.
- Switzerland began with the switch-off on Monday 24 July 2006 in Ticino and continued with Engadin on Monday 13 November 2006. The switch-off was completed on Monday 26 November 2007. A very high percentage of Swiss viewers receive their signals via cable distributors. By 2012 40% of cable viewers have switched to digital. The government plans to shut off analogue cable by 2015.
- Germany started the switch-off in the Berlin area, beginning on Friday, 1 November 2002 and completing on Monday 4 August 2003. "Simulcast" digital transmissions started in other parts of the country in an effort to prepare for a full switchover. The switch-off of terrestrial analogue transmitters was completed on Tuesday 25 November 2008, except one main transmitter in Bad Mergentheim, which was shut down in June 2009. Analogue satellite receivers were still used by 6% of households in 2010 - the highest in Europe. The analogue satellite transmissions were switched off on Monday 30 April 2012, being the last in Europe. However, analogue cable is still used by about 30% of the population and 55% of all cable broadcasts, so therefore a cable switchover is unlikely to happen in the near future.
- Isle of Man switched off all analogue services on Thursday 16 July 2009.
- Denmark switched off all analog services at midnight on Sunday 1 November 2009.
- Norway: The switch-off of the analogue transmissions started in March 2008 and was completed on Tuesday 1 December 2009. Norway started its DTT service on the Saturday 1 September 2007.
- Belgium: Media regulations are under regional legislation. Flanders switched off analogue television on Monday 3 November 2008, while in Wallonia, all analogue services were switched off on Monday, 1 March 2010, making Belgium a country completely serviced by a digital signal. However, analogue cable is still used by many cable subscribers, so therefore a cable switchover is unlikely to happen in the near future.
- Spain: The switch-off of the analogue terrestrial transmissions was completed on Saturday 3 April 2010. The switch-off was successful, as about 70% of Spanish television transmissions are terrestrial, so it was easy for people to just switch to the digital signal. Spain started its DTT service on Wednesday 30 November 2005.
- Latvia's analogue television completely converted to digital broadcasting on Tuesday 1 June 2010.
- Estonia's analogue television was switched off completely on Thursday, 1 July 2010.
- Jersey and Guernsey switched off their analogue signals on Wednesday 17 November 2010.
- Croatia: Analogue television broadcasts were switched off for all national TV channels on Tuesday 5 October 2010 at 12:35 and for local TV channels on Saturday 20 November 2010.
- Slovenia: the switch-off on main transmitters was completed on Wednesday 1 December 2010. The last local analogue transmitters were switched off on Thursday 30 June 2011.
- San Marino completed its switch-off on Thursday 2 December 2010.
- Luxembourg shut down their last analog transmitter on UHF Channel 21 on Friday 31 December 2010.
- Monaco switched off their analog TV broadcasts on Tuesday 24 May 2011.
- Austria: Began analogue switch-off on Monday, 5 March 2007, progressing from the west to the east. The analog broadcast was shut down nationwide at the end of 2010 regarding the main transmitters. The last analog translators were switched off on 7 June 2011.
- Cyprus terminated all analog transmissions on Thursday 30 June 2011 and moved to digital-only transmissions in MPEG-4 on Friday 1 July 2011.
- Malta terminated all analogue services on Monday, 31 October 2011. The switch-off was originally planned for Wednesday 1 June 2011 but was delayed for unknown reasons.
- France switched off all analogue services (terrestrial, satellite and cable) on Tuesday, 29 November 2011. This included overseas departments and territories such as Guadeloupe, French Guiana, Martinique, Mayotte, Réunion, French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Saint Barthelemy, Saint Martin, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, and Wallis and Futuna.
- Portugal: Digital broadcasts started on Wednesday 29 April 2009. Portugal's government hoped to cover 80% of the territory with DTV by the end of 2009, and simulcasts remained until Thursday 26 April 2012, when the analogue broadcasting ended. The switchover began on Thursday 12 January 2012.
- Czech Republic: The last analogue retransmitters in the south-east Moravia and the northern Moravia - Silesia were switched off on Saturday, 30 June 2012.
- Italy: The conversion to digital television progressed region–by–region. It started in Sardinia on Wednesday 15 October 2008, and was completed on Wednesday 4 July 2012, when the last analogue transmitters in the Province of Palermo were shut down.
- United Kingdom: Digital terrestrial broadcasting began in the UK on Sunday 15 November 1998 with the launch of the ONdigital, later renamed ITV Digital and now Freeview. The transition from analogue and digital to digital-only terrestrial signals started on Wednesday 17 October 2007 with the Whitehaven transmitter in Cumbria, and followed a transmitter switchover timetable, implemented by region. The first constituent country to switch off all its analogue signals was Wales on Wednesday 31 March 2010 and the last region to switch off its analogue signals was Northern Ireland on Wednesday 24 October 2012. Analogue cable broadcasts ended in January 2012, with Milton Keynes still relying on analogue cable, which the town will not get an analogue switch-off. Analogue satellite was discontinued on Thursday 27 September 2001, making the UK and Ireland the first countries in Europe with digital-only satellite.
- Ireland: Digital television was launched in Ireland as Saorview on Friday 29 October 2010. At launch it had 5 standard-definition channels and 1 high-definition channel. The analogue service was terminated on Wednesday 24 October 2012  and will be replaced by a second multiplex for Saorview. A small number of low power independent analogue re-broadcast systems (often termed 'deflectors') on UHF are still on air in parts of Ireland and six remain licensed until the Monday 31 December 2012. There has been no date released for the shutdown of analogue cable, and many major cable companies (e.g. UPC Ireland) are still actively offering analogue. Analogue satellite was discontinued on Thursday 27 September 2001, making the UK and Ireland the first countries in Europe with digital-only satellite.
- Lithuania: The switch-off of the analogue terrestrial transmissions was completed on Monday, 29 October 2012.
- Slovakia: Slovakia finished analogue transmission broadcasts on Monday, 31 December 2012.
- Gibraltar Analogue transmissions ceased in December 2012.
- Macedonia: Analogue transmission terminated on Saturday, 1 June 2013.
- Poland: The switch-off of the analogue terrestrial transmissions was completed on Tuesday, 23 July 2013.
Further information: Digital terrestrial television in Poland
- Bulgaria: The analogue signal was officially terminated on Monday, 30 September 2013.
- Hungary: Hungarian analogue terrestrial transmissions stopped on Thursday, 31 October 2013, after completing two phases that ended on 31 July and 31 October, respectively.
- Canada: Canada's DTV transition was completed in 28 mandatory markets on Wednesday, 31 August 2011. Some CBC analog transmitters in mandatory markets were permitted to operate for another year, and transmitters outside mandatory markets were given the option of converting to digital, or remaining in analog. The CBC decided to shut down all (more than 600) of its remaining analog transmitters on Tuesday, 31 July 2012, without replacing them. Also on 31 August 2011, all full-power TV transmitters had to vacate channels 52 to 69. There does however remain a very small number of community-based transmitters; see Digital television in Canada
- Namibia: Will shut down analogue signals in 13 September 2014.
- Israel started digital transmissions in MPEG-4 on Sunday 2 August 2009 and analogue transmissions ended on Thursday 31 March 2011. Israel was the first nation in the Middle East and the first Non-European nation to shut down their analogue signals.
- Saudi Arabia started digital transmissions in MPEG-2 on 1 January 2003. Analogue satellite transmissions were switched off on Thursday 2 July 2009. The Analogue PAL was terminated on Monday 13 February 2012 and will be replaced by a multiplex for Nilesat. The government plans to shut off analogue cable by 31 March 2018. Saudi Arabia was transitioning from using MPEG-2 to MPEG-4 for its terrestrial broadcasts, a process which began on Sunday 26 August 2012. Saudi Arabia adopted DVB-T2 on March 2013.
- Japan shut down all analog satellite and the analog terrestrial television in 44 prefectures at noon on Sunday 24 July 2011, while three remaining prefectures (Fukushima, Iwate, and Miyagi) that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the 11 March 2011 9.0 magnitude Tohoku earthquake and its related nuclear accidents stopped analog broadcasting at noon on Saturday 31 March 2012. Analog high-definition television broadcasting ended on Sunday, 30 September 2007. Like Netherlands, Germany and Sweden, analog cable continues to broadcast with a high demand too (25% of all viewings, which is known as Dejiana), but the service is scheduled to be terminated on 31 March 2015. Many television stations across the country have already begun broadcasting simultaneously in digital, beginning on Monday 1 December 2003 in the Kanto region and spreading to the other six regions by the end of analog high-definition television broadcasting.
- Qatar started digital transmissions in MPEG-2 on Tuesday 1 January 2002. Analogue satellite transmissions were switched off on Thursday 2 July 2009. The Analogue PAL was terminated on Monday 13 February 2012 and will be replaced by a multiplex for Nilesat. The government plans to shut off analogue cable by 31 March 2018. Qatar was transitioning from using MPEG-2 to MPEG-4 for its terrestrial broadcasts, a process which began on Sunday 26 August 2012. Qatar adopted DVB-T2 on January 2013.
- Taiwan: Digital television launched terrestrially throughout Taiwan on Friday, 2 July 2004. Analogue television ended transmission on Saturday 30 June 2012. However, the process will be completed in 2014, when the analogue cable television will be phased out.
- South Korea: Digital switchover progressed region–by–region, with the first analogue transmitters in Uljin, North Gyeongsang Province ending transmissions on Wednesday, September 1, 2010. Digital switchover was completed on Monday, December 31, 2012, when the last analogue transmitters in Gyeonggi Province and Seoul ended transmissions. However, the South Korean government still maintains a few border analogue transmitters which target North Korea.
- United Arab Emirates started digital transmissions in MPEG-2 on Thursday 20 January 2005. Analogue satellite transmissions were switched off on Thursday 2 July 2009. The Analogue PAL was terminated on Monday 13 February 2012 and will be replaced by a multiplex for Nilesat. The government plans to shut off analogue cable by 31 March 2018. United Arab Emirates was transitioning from using MPEG-2 to MPEG-4 for its terrestrial broadcasts, a process which began on Sunday 26 August 2012. United Arab Emirates adopted DVB-T2 on February 2013.
- Vietnam: The country launched DVB-T unofficially in 1997, and shut down all analogue signals for good on 28 May 2014.
- New Zealand: digital terrestrial television broadcasts began officially in April 2008. Analogue PAL switchoff started on 30 September 2012 with the North Island's Hawke's Bay region and the South Island's West Coast region and finished with the Upper North Island which was switched off 1 December 2013.
- Australia: Digital television commenced in Australia's five most populous cities on Monday 1 January 2001. The Mildura region was the first to terminate its analogue network, on Wednesday 30 June 2010. Digital switchover was originally expected to be complete by Tuesday 31 December 2013, however the last regions to switch over (Melbourne and Remote Eastern/Central Australia) did so slightly earlier, on Tuesday 10 December 2013 at 9:00 am. Until the switch-off in the respective areas, free-to-air stations were simulcast, along with digital-only channels like ABC2. Cable television networks began simulcasting in 2004 and analogue cable services were switched off in April 2007. The switchover was co-ordinated by the Digital Switchover Taskforce operating under the federal Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy.
Transitions in progress
- Albania: Analog broadcasts will be switched on Monday, 1 June 2015.
- Armenia: Will shutdown analogue signals on Monday, 1 June 2015.
- Azerbaijan: Began analogue switch-off on Sunday, 17 October 2010, is expected to complete on April 17, 2015.
- Belarus: Analog broadcasts will be switched off on Friday, May 15, 2015. Phased analogue switch-off began August 1, 2013.
- Bosnia and Herzegovina: Will shutdown analogue signals on Monday, 1 June 2015.
- Georgia: Analog broadcasts will be switched off on Thursday, 17 June 2015. Launch terrestrial digital broadcast network is scheduled in March 2015.
- Greece will complete analogue broadcasting switch off by December 19, 2014.
- Iceland will cease all analog broadcasting in the end of 2014.
- Moldova: Will shut down analogue signals in 2015. At the moment, digital broadcasting operates in Chisinau. In 2013, the digital transmitters will be launched in other cities.
- Montenegro: Will shutdown analogue signals in 2015.
- Republic of Kosovo (partially recognized state): Will shutdown analogue signals in 2015.
- Romania plans to switch off analogue broadcasting by 17 June 2015. It will beginning phasing out the analogue transmission on 30 April 2014, when 5 licences will be awarded for the DTT multiplexes.
- Russia The deadline for analogue switch-off signal in border areas - June 17, 2015, for the whole area - July 1, 2019 (due to the large size of the territory).
Further information: Digital television in Russia
- Serbia launched its first DTT transmissions in 2005. The first DTT-only channel was made available in 2008. The deadline for the transition to digital has been moved from April 4, 2012 to June 17, 2015. As of 2013, the initial DVB-T2 network covers Belgrade and much of Vojvodina, several cities in Šumadija and Western Serbia and the southern city of Niš. Digital TV switchover for 98% of citizens starts on September 1, 2014. Transition will progress in three stages of analog switchoff.
- Turkey launched trial digital transmissions in 2006 and originally planned to gradually handle the switchover, with a scheduled completion date of 2015. The deadline for analogue switch-off signal - 3 March 2015
- Ukraine's analogue transmissions will be terminated on Thursday, 17 June 2015. Launch of a full-fledged digital TV network capable to replace the existing analog transmissions will occur in 2011 or 2012. The DVB-T2 standard will be used for both SD and HD.
- Argentina: Digital television broadcasts started on Tuesday, 9 September 2008 in Buenos Aires. The analogue network will be terminated on Sunday, 1 September 2019.
- Bolivia: Started on Tuesday, 20 July 2010, it will be completed on 20 July 2020.
- Brazil: Began free-to-air HD digital transmissions, after a period of test broadcasts, on Sunday, 2 December 2007 in São Paulo, expanding in 2008 to Brasília, Rio de Janeiro, and Belo Horizonte. Digital broadcasts were phased into the other 23 state capitals in the following years, and to the remaining cities by Tuesday 31 December 2013. Analogue and digital simulcasts were scheduled to continue until Wednesday, 29 June 2016, supposedly to coincide with the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, when analogue would be discontinued. The main broadcasters (Globo, Record, Band, SBT and RedeTV!) are simulcasting in analogue and digital, in standard definition and 1080i high definition. However, in 2013, the government announced that analogue broadcasts will end in 2018 instead of 2016. In July 10, 2014, the Brazilian Ministry of Communications released a timetable for phasing out analog TV signals, starting in November 29, 2015 in Rio Verde, Goiás as a pilot experiment, followed by state capitals, the Federal District and main cities and regions from April 3, 2016 to November 25, 2018, when it is expected the ending of all analog television broadcasting.
- Chile: The transition to digital started in 2012, and the switch-off is scheduled for 31 December 2016.
- Mexico: Digital broadcasts commenced in 2000, with the first being Tijuana's XETV - an English-language affiliate of The CW serving primarily San Diego, California. Analogue shutdown was originally scheduled to occur in 2021, but on Thursday, September 2, 2010, Mexican president Felipe Calderón, in its Fourth Report of the Government, advanced the analog shutdown from 2021 to 2015. Groups of cities which are required to simulcast digitally are added in descending order of size, with full coverage of the smallest centers required by 2015. The digital switchover, which will progress region–by–region, was to begin on Tuesday, May 28, 2013 in Tijuana, but was postponed to July 18 due to the 2013 Baja California state elections. Switchover is scheduled to be completed on December 31, 2015.
- Paraguay: The transmission of digital television broadcasts started on August 2011, by TV Pública (which belongs to the Paraguayan government) with an initial coverage area of 25 kilometres (about 16 miles) from Asuncion downtown. The analogue television system switch-off is estimated to be completed on Tuesday, 28 July 2020.
- Peru: Digital television broadcasts started in Lima in March 2010, and analogue broadcasts are scheduled to be terminated on Tuesday, 28 July 2020.
- United States: On Monday, 8 September 2008, Wilmington, North Carolina became the first city in the United States to fully switch over from analogue to digital broadcasts. All analogue signals were terminated at noon. This switchover was a test by FCC to make further improvements to the transition process before the whole nation was switched over to digital. Having moved the deadline from Tuesday, 17 February 2009 (some stations still chose to shutdown on that date), all VHF transmissions (stations 2–13) and most full-power UHF analog transmitters were shut down on Friday, 12 June 2009, with the exception of "nightlight" analog stations (which broadcast a video on how to set up a digital TV or purchase a DTV set-top box) and LPTV transmissions. "Nightlight" broadcasts were shut down on Friday, 26 June 2009. Television transmission on channels 52 to 69 was required to cease by Saturday, 31 December 2011, to allow FCC to commence with the first phase of VHF/UHF TV spectrum allotment for other services. LPTV transmitters (primarily low-powered (LP), and Class-A low-powered (-CA) stations, and also broadcast translator (TX) translator/repeaters in rural communities) will be forced to convert to digital by Tuesday, 1 September 2015.
Further information: Digital television transition in the United States
- Cambodia launched DVB-T2 on Tuesday, 9 November 2010, transition will start in 2012 and finish on Thursday, 9 April 2015 
- China: Analogue in CCTV1 to CCTV5 was terminated on 31 January 2014 at 12:00 AM. Analogue services on CCTV6-CCTV10 will be terminated on 22 November 2014. Other channels that will terminate analogue broadcasts will follow this schedule: 12 July 2015 (CCTV11-CCTV16), 14 May 2016 (CCTV17-CCTV21), 17 August 2016 (CCTV22-CCTV27), 31 December 2016 (CCTV28-CCTV32), 25 May 2017 (CCTV33-CCTV36), and 1 January 2018 (CCTV37-CCTV45). The last date will mark the completion of the first portion of the Chinese analogue television shutdown.
- Hong Kong's analogue broadcasting was planned to be switched off by 2012. However, it has been postponed until the end of 2015.
- India: The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting set 31 December 2014 as the deadline for digital switchover. Digitization, on cable and terrestrial, will have four phases, in a 3-year transition starting from 1 November 2012, and finishing on 31 December 2014.
- Indonesia: Digital switchover has been postponed to 2021.
Further information: Digital television in Indonesia
- Iran commenced broadcasting digital TV in 2009, using the DVB-T MPEG-4 standard, with 40% of population having access to digital TV by mid-2011. The switch over to digital TV will be completed by 2015, when all analogue signals will be terminated.
- Malaysia: The first roll-out of DTTB services were rolled out on 16 January 2014, for a start in a few test areas, while full nationwide coverage to an estimated 98% populated areas is slated by the end of the analogue-digital simulcast period. It is expected that Malaysia will terminate analogue signal in 2017.
- Philippines: In June 2010, the National Telecommunications Commission set a deadline of 11:59 p.m. on 31 December 2015 for the discontinuation of analog television. Digital television in the Philippines will use the Japanese ISDB standards.
- Singapore launched digital terrestrial television under MediaCorp in January 2009. The rest of the analog signals will be switched off in 2018. Analogue broadcasting through StarHub was discontinued on Tuesday, 30 June 2009.
- Thailand launched digital terrestrial television in May 2014 after postponed for 12 years. Analog signals will be switched off in 2020.
Further information: Digital television in Thailand
- Algeria: Digital broadcasting started in 2009, with analog signals planned to be switched off in 2014.
- Kenya started digital broadcasting on Wednesday, 9 December 2009. The analog network was to be switched off in June 2012. A court case has been filed challenging the timelines and this has put on hold the migration that has now been postponed to June 2014.
- Mauritius Digital satellite broadcasting was first introduced by private television companies. In 2005, the Mauritius Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) was the first public television Broadcaster in Africa to launched the Digital Terrestrial Television channels. In 2007, the MBC also extent its digitalized service to the islands of Rodrigues and Agaléga. In 2012, the MBC provided 16 television channels and 6 radios channels on the digital platform. Although the whole territory of Mauritius is covered with the digitalized service, the analogue service has not been terminated and three of the main TV channels provided by the MBC are still provided on analogue platform. The digital switchover has not been completed as some Mauritians did not buy the DTV receiver which is needed for the digital transmission as they are also subscribed to other television companies.
- Nigeria: Digital television broadcasts started via satellite set-top box receivers and some terrestrial stations, but a timetable for nationwide transition is still in the process of being created. Twenty million set-top boxes are due to be distributed nationwide by the end of 2015, and four of the six largest metro areas in the country have already gone digital.
Transitions not yet started
- Brunei: The country will switch off analogue TV on 25 January 2015.
- Colombia: The government has plans to close down analogue broadcast on Sunday, 1 January 2017.
- Costa Rica: Will shut down analogue signals permanently in December 2018.
- Cuba began to propose DVB-T in May 2009, and the analogue switchoff will take place approximately 15 years later, most likely in 2024.
- Dominican Republic: Will shut down analogue signals in September 2015.
- El Salvador: The target date is Tuesday, 1 January 2019.
- Lesotho: Will shut down analogue signals on 3 April 2015.
- Rwanda: Will shut down analogue signals on 3 April 2015.
- Tunisia: The analogue TV nationwide will be terminated on Friday, 3 April 2015
Countries broadcasting analog signals only
After the switch from analog to digital broadcasts is complete, analog TVs will be incapable of receiving over-the-air broadcasts without the addition of a set-top converter box. Consequently, a digital converter box – an electronic device that connects to an analog television – must be used in order to allow the television to receive digital broadcasts. In the United States, the government subsidized the purchase of such boxes for consumers via their coupon-eligible converter box program in 2009, funded by a small part of the billions of dollars brought in by a spectrum auction. The program was managed by the Department of Commerce through its National Telecommunications and Information Administration.
- List of digital television deployments by country
- Digital dividend after digital television transition
- Digital television
- "DigiTAG Analogue Switch Off Handbook". 2008.
- "Official Journal of the European Union". eur-lex.europa.eu. October 28, 2009. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
- "Digital TV Switchover Australia: Digital TV timetable by region". Australian Government Digital Switchover Taskforce. 2012-10-26. Retrieved 2012-11-29.
- "Transição para rádio e TV digitais começa em 2015 | INFO". Info.abril.com.br. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
- "TV Digital no Brasil - cronograma de desligamento". TELECO. Retrieved 2014-07-15.
- "Dobrodošli u digitalno doba! / Vijesti / Digitalna televizija / Aktualne teme / Aktualne teme i projekti / Vlada Republike Hrvatske - službeni web portal" (in Croatian). Vlada.hr. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- "Analogové vysílání televize skončí v Česku 12. 2. 2012. Konečně vypíná i Nova" (in Czech). mediar.cz. Retrieved 2012-09-13.
- "Page introuvable / Accueil" (in French). CSA.fr. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- (Hungarian)"A new era in the Hungarian television - Start of the residential phase of digital switchover". 2013-03-11.
- "Hungary set for digital switchover". Retrieved 2013-03-20.
- [dead link]
- "Questions raised over I&B ministry's digitisation numbers". Business Standard. October 29, 2012.
- "Home - Going Digital". Digitaltelevision.ie. 2012-06-04. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- "[Dpa] 社団法人 デジタル放送推進協会". Dpa.or.jp. 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- "Posible, concluir apagón analógico en 2015: Cofetel" (in Spanish). El Economista. 2013-06-03. Retrieved 2013-06-11.
- "When is my area". Going Digital. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- "DVB-T je realitou už aj na Slovensku". Retrieved 2012-12-28.
- "Vypínanie vybraných analógových vysielačov". Retrieved 2012-12-28.
- "Éra analógového vysielania sa definitívne končí". Retrieved 2012-12-28.
- Onda Digital inicia sus emisiones en pruebas El Mundo, 16 November 1999
- El "apagón analógico", dividido en cuatro fases, culminará finalmente el 3 de abril de 2010 Mundoplus, 7 September 2007
- Webfactory www.webfactory.ie. "Digital Video Broadcasting - Tunisia". DVB. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- "digitaluk.co.uk". digitaluk.co.uk. 2011-04-06. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- P.R. China (2011-07-19). "FCC Sets Deadlines for LPTV, TV Translator and Class A Stations To Convert to Digital - And Gives Hints When Television Spectrum May Be Reclaimed for Broadband". Broadcast Law Blog. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- "Digi-tv esillä ympäri maata". Finnish Ministry of Communications. Retrieved 2007-08-12.
- "Andorra fa el salt a la TDT" (in Catalan). Vilaweb.
- "Historisk övergång till digital-tv" (Press release). Teracom. 2007-10-15.
- "Kabel-TV in Zukunft nur noch digital". www.sf.tv.
- "Douglas transmitter group (Border region) – Arqiva confirms completion of Digital Switch Over" (Press release). arqiva.
- "Nyt TV-signal fejres med lysshow". TVTid på TV2. Retrieved 2009-11-01.
- "Norway completes ASO". www.broadbandtvnews.com.
- (Spanish) Disposición adicional primera del Real Decreto 944/2005, de 29 de julio, published in BOE del 30 de julio
- "DVB-T: Zeitplan". Digitales Fernsehen Förder GmbH. June 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-23.
- "Analogue terrestrial TV switch-off in the EU - briefing — EUbusiness.com - EU Business News". Eubusiness.com. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- Webfactory http://www.webfactory.ie. "Digital Video Broadcasting - Malta". DVB. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- "First digital TV switch date set". BBC News. 2007-03-15. Retrieved 2007-04-24.
- "digitaluk.co.uk". digitaluk.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- "Digital switchover takes place". The Irish Times. 2012-10-24. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
- "Analogue Deflectors still in service until 31 December". boards.ie. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
- "Digitalization of all Macedonian televisions by 2013". Ministry of Information Society and Administration. 14 March 2012. Retrieved 15 March 2012.
- "2015 Same Strategy, Different Path". Cbc.radio-canada.ca. 2012-04-04. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- "岩手、宮城、福島の3県のアナログ放送は平成24年3月31日に終了しました" [Analog broadcast ended in Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima on 31 March 2012 (year Heisei 24)] (in Japanese). Tokyo: Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. 2012-03-31. Retrieved 2012-04-01.
- "Broadcasting Digitization Schedule". DPA: The Association for Promotion of Digital Broadcasting. Retrieved 2009-11-16.
- "경상북도 울진군, 오늘부터 '디지털 송출' 시작" (in Korean). sbs.co.kr. 2010-01-20. Retrieved 2013-06-11.
- "South Korea to continue analog TV near border". North Korea Tech. 2012-12-27. Retrieved 2013-06-11.
- "When is my area going digital? - Going Digital". New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
- "Azerbaijan to switch over to digital TV 'very soon'". News.Az. 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- "In 2013, Azerbaijan will fully switch to digital TV - Minister". News.Az. 2012-12-03. Retrieved 2012-12-10.
- "Νέα ΚΥΑ για τροποποίηση ημερομηνιών των Switch-Off ; Greek Digital TV". greekdigitaltv.blogspot.gr. 2014-04-30. Retrieved 2014-05-01.
- "Hætta hliðrænum útsendingum. Stafrænt sjónvarp nauðsyn 2013" [Ending analog broadcasting. Digital television necessary in 2013] (in Icelandic). Eyjan Media ehf. 16 June 2011.
- "Televiziune digitală: Procedura de selecţie a celor cinci licenţe ar putea fi lansată în ianuarie". Mediafax. Retrieved 2013-10-18.
- Webfactory www.webfactory.ie. "Digital Video Broadcasting - Serbia". DVB. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- "Pilot mreža". JP Emisiona tehnika i veze. Retrieved 2013-06-24.
- "Türkiye'de DVB-T". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Transport, Maritime Affairs and Communications.
- "CNews: Cпутниковое телевидение и радиовещание". Tvsat.cnews.ru. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
- Cassia, Fernando (2007-12-02). "Brazil starts HDTV transmissions". The Enquirer. p. 1. Retrieved 2007-12-03.
- "Conheça os planos das emissoras para a TV digital" (in Portuguese). G1. 2007-11-13. p. 1. Retrieved 2007-11-19.
- "TV analógica sobreviverá até 2018 no Brasil" [Analogue TV will survive in Brazil until 2018]. Olhar Digital (in Brazilian Portuguese). UOL. 10 April 2013. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
- Cronograma de desligamento da TV analógica no Brasil Teleco. Accessed in July 15, 2014.
- "México avanza hacia el ''Apagón analógico'" (in Spanish). Generaccion.com. 2010-09-03. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- "México posterga 'apagón analógico'" (in Spanish). Univision. 2013-06-01. Retrieved 2013-06-11.
- [dead link]
- "News". DVB. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
- "Digital TV". Government of Hong Kong. Retrieved 2007-06-04.
- "Analogue television switch-off working target deferred to end 2015". Government of Hong Kong. Retrieved 2011-06-23.
- "تلویزیون دیجیتال - 40 درصد از جمعيت كشور تحت پوشش سامانه تلويزيون ديجيتال قرار دارند - صفحه اصلی". Portal.irib.ir. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- "تلویزیون دیجیتال - مشروح مصاحبه دکتر علیعسکری، معاون توسعه و فناوری رسانه، در برنامه پارک ملت (پنجشنبه 13 مرداد 1390) - صفحه اصلی". Portal.irib.ir. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- "تلویزیون دیجیتال - تهیه طرح جامع گذار از آنالوگ به دیجیتال در رسانه ملی - صفحه اصلی". Portal.irib.ir. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- "Media Development Authority Introduction to Digital TV". Mda.gov.sg. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- "News". DVB. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
- Daily Nation, 9 December 2009: Digital TV a reality in Kenya
- Kadida, Jillo (2012-12-21). "Kenya: Court Suspends Nairobi's Digital TV Migration Plan". allAfrica.com. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
- "Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting in Mauritius - History". Retrieved November 28, 2012.
- "BROADCASTING SERVICES IN MAURITIUS". Mauritius Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
- "Digital migration: Hurdles Nigeria must cross in 30 months". The Vanguard (Lagos, Nigeria). Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- "Digital TV migration: Nigeria To Manufacture 20m Set Top Boxes". Leadership. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- "Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB): Nigeria". The Digital Video Broadcasting Project. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- Webfactory www.webfactory.ie (2009-11-23). "Digital Video Broadcasting - Cuba". DVB. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- El Diario de Hoy, El Salvador prepara el salto a la TV Digital, 11 July 2010
- "What is a set-top converter box?". Digital TV Facts. 2007. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
- Hart, Jeffrey A., Television, technology, and competition : HDTV and digital TV in the United States, Western Europe, and Japan, New York : Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-521-82624-1
|Wikinews has related news: Finnish terrestrial analogue TV network shut down|
|Wikinews has related news: Denmark holds nationwide light show to mark digital switchover|
- Digital Switchover UK
- EU Switchover from analogue to digital broadcasting
- Digital UK
- DigiTAG Handbook on ASO