Dihydroartemisinin

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Dihydroartemisinin
Artenimol.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(3R,5aS,6R,8aS,9R,12S,12aR)-decahydro-3,6,9-trimethyl-3,12-epoxy-12H-pyrano[4,3-j]-1,2-benzodioxepin-10-ol
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
Legal status Prescription only
Routes Oral
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 12%
Metabolism Liver
Half-life About 4-11 hours
Excretion Mainly Bile
Identifiers
CAS number 71939-50-9 YesY
ATC code P01BE05
PubChem CID 107770
ChemSpider 27663 YesY
UNII 6A9O50735X YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL25164 N
Chemical data
Formula C15H24O5 
Mol. mass 284.35 g/mol
 N (what is this?)  (verify)

Dihydroartemisinin (also known as dihydroqinghaosu, artenimol or DHA) is a drug used to treat malaria. Dihydroartemisinin is the active metabolite of all artemisinin compounds (artemisinin, artesunate, artemether, etc.) and is also available as a drug in itself. It is a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin and is widely used as an intermediate in the preparation of other artemisinin-derived antimalarial drugs.[1] It is sold commercially in combination with piperaquine and has been shown to be equivalent to artemether/lumefantrine.[2]

Chemistry[edit]

The lactone of artemisinin could selectively be reduced with mild hydride-reducing agents, such as sodium borohydride, potassium borohydride, and lithium borohydride to dihydroartemisinin (a lactol) in over 90% yield. It is a novel reduction, because normally lactone cannot be reduced with sodium borohydride under the same reaction conditions (0-5 ˚C in methanol). Reduction with LiAlH4 leads to some rearranged products. It was surprising to find that the lactone was reduced, but that the peroxy group survived. However, the lactone of deoxyartemisinin resisted reduction with sodium borohydride and could only be reduced with diisobutylaluminium hydride to the lactol deoxydihydroartimisinin. These results show that the peroxy group assists the reduction of lactone with sodium borohydride to a lactol, but not to the alcohol which is the over-reduction product. No clear evidence for this reduction process exists.[citation needed]

Dosing[edit]

Dihydroartemisinin is available as a fixed drug combination with piperaquine (each tablet contains 40 mg of dihydroartemisinin and 320 mg of piperaquine).

The adult dose is 1.6/12.8 mg/kg per dose (rounded up or down to the nearest half tablet) given at 0 h, 8 h, 24 h, and 48 h. Alternatively, the same total dose may be given once daily for three days.[3]

Activity as experimental cancer chemotherapeutic[edit]

Accumulative research suggests that dihydroartemisinin and other artemisinin-based endoperoxide compounds may display activity as experimental cancer chemotherapeutics.[4] Recent pharmacological evidence demonstrates that dihydroartemisinin targets human metastatic melanoma cells with induction of NOXA-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis that occurs downstream of iron-dependent generation of cytotoxic oxidative stress.[5]

Commercial preparations[edit]

In combination with piperaquine:

  • Eurartesim (Sigma Tau; by Good Manufacturing Practices)
  • Duocotecxin (Holley Pharm)
  • Artekin (Holleykin)
  • Timequin (SAMI Pharma)

Alone (not recommended by WHO due to risk of resistance development):

  • Cotecxin (Zhejiang Holley Nanhu Pharmaceutical Co.)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Woo, Soon Hyung; Parker, Michael H.; Ploypradith, Poonsakdi; Northrop, John; Posner, Gary H. (1998). "Direct conversion of pyranose anomeric OH→F→R in the artemisinin family of antimalarial trioxanes". Tetrahedron Letters 39 (12): 1533–6. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(98)00132-4. 
  2. ^ Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Sandison, Taylor G.; Wanzira, Humphrey; Kakuru, Abel; Homsy, Jaco; Kalamya, Julius; Kamya, Moses R.; Vora, Neil et al. (2009). "Artemether‐Lumefantrine versus Dihydroartemisinin‐Piperaquine for Falciparum Malaria: A Longitudinal, Randomized Trial in Young Ugandan Children". Clinical Infectious Diseases 49 (11): 1629–37. doi:10.1086/647946. PMID 19877969. 
  3. ^ Ashley, E. A.; McGready, R.; Hutagalung, R.; Phaiphun, L.; Slight, T.; Proux, S.; Thwai, K. L.; Barends, M. et al. (2005). "A Randomized, Controlled Study of a Simple, Once-Daily Regimen of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for the Treatment of Uncomplicated, Multidrug-Resistant Falciparum Malaria". Clinical Infectious Diseases 41 (4): 425–32. doi:10.1086/432011. PMID 16028147. 
  4. ^ Efferth, Thomas (2006). "Molecular Pharmacology and Pharmacogenomics of Artemisinin and its Derivatives in Cancer Cells". Current Drug Targets 7 (4): 407–21. doi:10.2174/138945006776359412. PMID 16611029. 
  5. ^ Cabello, Christopher M.; Lamore, Sarah D.; Bair, Warner B.; Qiao, Shuxi; Azimian, Sara; Lesson, Jessica L.; Wondrak, Georg T. (2011). "The redox antimalarial dihydroartemisinin targets human metastatic melanoma cells but not primary melanocytes with induction of NOXA-dependent apoptosis". Investigational New Drugs 30 (4): 1289–301. doi:10.1007/s10637-011-9676-7. PMC 3203350. PMID 21547369.