|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2012)|
|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Legal status||Schedule I (US)|
|Routes||Oral, Intravenous, Intranasally, Sublingually|
|Mol. mass||287.354 g/mol|
|(what is this?)|
Dihydromorphine (Paramorfan, Paramorphan) is a semi-synthetic opioid structurally related to and derived from morphine. The 7,8-double bond in morphine is reduced to a single bond to get dihydromorphine. Dihydromorphine is a moderately strong analgesic and is used clinically in the treatment of pain and also is an active metabolite of the analgesic opioid drug dihydrocodeine.
Dihydromorphine is an opioid that is used for the management of moderate to severe pain such as cancer, although its less effective in treating things such as neuropathic pain and is generally considered inappropriate and ineffective for psychological pain.
Dihydromorphine is slightly stronger than morphine as an analgesic with a similar side effect profile. The relative potency of dihydromorphine is about 1.2 times that of morphine. In comparison, the relative potency of dihydrocodeine is 1.15 times that of codeine.
Dihydromorphine acts as an agonist at the μ-opioid (mu), δ-opioid (delta) and κ-opioid (kappa) receptors. Agonist of the μ-opioid and δ-opioid receptors is largely responsible for the clinical effects of opioids like dihydromorphine with the μ agonism providing more analgesia than the δ.
Dihydromorphine's onset of action is more rapid than morphine and it also tends to have a longer duration of action, generally 4–7 hours.
United States of America
Under the Controlled Substances Act, dihydromorphine is listed as a Schedule I substance along with heroin. In the United States, its role in the production of dihydrocodeine makes it the Schedule I substance with one of the higher annual manufacturing quotas granted by the US Drug Enforcement Administration. The DEA has assigned dihydromorphine and all of its salts, esters, &c the ACSCN of 9145.
- Rama Rao Nadendla. Principles Of Organic Medicinal Chemistry pp. 215
- DrugBank: Dihydromorphine (DB01565)
- Dihydromorphine - PubChem
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- Dureja. Handbook Of Pain Management pp. 67
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- Rama Rao Nedendla. Principles Of Organic Medicinal Chemistry pp. 216
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- Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961 - Page 40 of 44
- Controlled Substances (in alphabetical order) - Page 5 of 12