Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase

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Dihydroorotate oxidase
Identifiers
EC number 1.3.3.1
CAS number 9029-03-2
Databases
IntEnz IntEnz view
BRENDA BRENDA entry
ExPASy NiceZyme view
KEGG KEGG entry
MetaCyc metabolic pathway
PRIAM profile
PDB structures RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum
Gene Ontology AmiGO / EGO
1f76.gif
Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase from E. coli
Identifiers
Symbol DHO_dh
Pfam PF01180
InterPro IPR001295
PROSITE PDOC00708
SCOP 1dor
SUPERFAMILY 1dor
OPM superfamily 59
OPM protein 1uum
Human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase
Identifiers
Symbol DHODH
Entrez 1723
HUGO 2867
OMIM 126064
PDB 1D3G (RCSB PDB PDBe PDBj)
RefSeq NM_001361
UniProt Q02127
Other data
Locus Chr. 16 q22

Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.3.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the fourth step in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine. It converts dihydroorotate to orotate:

(S)-dihydroorotate + O2 \rightleftharpoons orotate + H2O2

Human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase is a ubiquitous FMN flavoprotein. In bacteria (gene pyrD), it is located on the inner side of the cytosolic membrane. In some yeasts, such as in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (gene URA1), it is a cytosolic protein, whereas, in other eukaryotes, it is found in the mitochondria.[1]

Human proteins containing this domain[edit]

DHODH; DPYD;

Clinical significance[edit]

The anti-inflammatory drug leflunomide has been shown to inhibit DHODH. Human DHODH has two domains: an alpha/beta-barrel domain containing the active site and an alpha-helical domain that forms the opening of a tunnel leading to the active site. Leflunomide has been shown to bind in this tunnel.[2] Leflunomide is being used for treatment of rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis.

Mutations in this gene have been shown to cause Miller syndrome [3] also known as Genee-Wiedemann syndrome, Wildervanck-Smith syndrome or post axial acrofacial dystosis (POADS).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lacroute F, Thomas D, Nagy M (1992). "Divergent evolution of pyrimidine biosynthesis between anaerobic and aerobic yeasts". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89 (19): 8966–70. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.19.8966. PMC 50045. PMID 1409592. 
  2. ^ Liu S, Neidhardt EA, Grossman TH, Ocain T, Clardy J (January 2000). "Structures of human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase in complex with antiproliferative agents". Structure 8 (1): 25–33. doi:10.1016/S0969-2126(00)00077-0. PMID 10673429. 
  3. ^ Ng SB, Buckingham KJ,Lee C, Bigham AW, Tabor HK, Dent KM, Huff CD, Shannon PT, Jabs EW, Nickerson DA, Shendure J, Bamshad MJ (December 2009). "Exome Sequencing identifies the cause of a mendelian disorder". Nature Genetics 42 (1): 30–5. doi:10.1038/ng.499. PMC 2847889. PMID 19915526. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro IPR001295