Dima Hasao district
|Dima Hasao District
ডিমা হাছাও জিলা
|• Body||Dima Hasao Autonomous Council(DHAC)|
|• Chief Executive Member ( CEM )||Debojeet Thaosen|
|• Total||4,890 km2 (1,890 sq mi)|
|Elevation||513 m (1,683 ft)|
|• Density||43.667/km2 (113.10/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Telephone code||91 - (0) 03673|
Dima Hasao (Assamese: ডিমা হাছাও জিলা) (Pron: ˈdɪmə həˈsaʊ) district — earlier called North Cachar Hills district (Assamese: উত্তৰ কাছাৰ পাৰ্বত্য জিলা) — is an administrative district in the state of Assam in north-eastern India. As of 2011 it is the least populous district of Assam (out of 27). "Dima Hasao" means "Dimasa Hills" in the Dimasa language.
Dima Hasao District district was a part of Kachari Kingdom before 1832. The kingdom was extended from Jamuna in the North to the foot-hills of Lushai Hills in the south & from the Kopili in the west to the Angami & Katcha Naga hills beyond the Dhansiri in the east. The Dimasa Kachari kings had their Capitals successively at Dimapur, Maibang, Kashpur & lastly at Horitikor ( Karimganj district near Badarpur ). In 1830, the Dimasa king Gobinda Chandra was assassinated by his own general Gambhir Singh, after that the British annexed the southern part of the kingdom on 14 August 1832 under the doctrine of Lapsi. The rest was ruled by last Dimasa General Tularam. In 1837 a portion of Tularam’s kingdom was further annexed to the British Empire & constituted into a sub-division of Nagaon district in 1837 with Head quarter at Asalu. In 1854, on the death of Tularam, the remaining portion of his kingdom was finally annexed to the British Empire & added to the Asalu sub-division.
In 1867 this sub-division was abolished & apportioned into three parts among the districts Cachar, Khasi & Jaintia Hills & Nagaon.
The present North Cachar Hills district was included in the old Cachar district with Asalu being only police outpost. In 1880, this portion was constituted into a sub-division with Head quarters at Gunjung under Cachar district.
This head quarter was shifted to Haflong in 1895. Since then Haflong continues to be the Head quarter. In 1951, after commencement of the constitution of India, North Cachar Hills as specified under paragraph 20 of the sixth schedule to the constitution, ceased to be a part of Cachar district. This part along with Mikir Hills constituted a new civil district namely " United district of North Cachar & Mikir Hills" with effect from 17 November, 1951. According to the provision of sixth schedule, two different councils were constituted later on, viz., North Cachar Hills District Council & Mikir Hills District Council within the geographical boundary of that district. Dima Hasao District District Council was inaugurated on 19 April 1952.
In 2 February, 1970, Government declared an independent administrative district, viz., North Cachar Hills District with the geographical boundary of autonomous North Cachar Hills district council. It may be mentioned here that at present this autonomous council possesses administrative control over almost all departments of the district except Law & order, Administration & Treasury Deptt.
The district headquarters are located at Haflong. Dima Hasao district occupies an area of 4,888 square kilometres (1,887 sq mi)., comparatively equivalent to Brazil's Ilha Grande do Gurupá. It is the third largest district of Assam with 4888 km2 after Karbi Anglong and Sonitpur district. Dima Hasao District is surrounded by Karbi Anglong district (E) and Nagaland on North east, Manipur on East, Nagaon Dist. on North, Karbi Anglong Dist(W) on North-west, Meghalaya on West and Cachar district on South.
Dima Hasao district is an Autonomous District (Lok Sabha constituency) enjoying the Sixth Schedule status granted by the Constitution of India. The Dima Hasao District. is administered by Dima Hasao Autonomous Council (DHAC). Members of the Autonomous Council (MAC)are elected by people of Dima Hasao. The Political party who has majority MACs form the ruling party. The Autonomous Council is a powerful body and almost all the department of government are under its control except the police and Law & Order is under Assam Government.
In 2006 the Indian government named Dima Hasao one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the eleven districts in Assam currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).
According to the 2011 census Dima Hasao district has a population of 213,529, roughly equal to the nation of Samoa. This gives it a ranking of 588th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 44 inhabitants per square kilometre (110/sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 13.53%. Dima Hasao has a sex ratio of 931 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 78.99%.
Major languages spoken in the district are the Dimasa, Assamese, Hmar, Zeme, Hrangkhol, Kuki, Biate, Khelma, and few languages of Indo-Aryan like Haflong Hindi (a speech form of Hindi), Nepali and Bengali. Haflong Hindi is the lingua franca in the Dima Hasao.
Dima Hasao District is a land of sensuousness. The population of the district if of various tribes and races who maintain their own dialect, culture, customs and usages. Apart from various tribes, non-tribals also account for a sizable amount of the population. They are mostly government employees, traders, graziers living in urban and semi-urban area. The small and serene villages shelter the lovely people – warm and fascinating – and as colourful as the land itself. Among the various tribes, the prominent ones are as follows.
The Dimasa Kacharis: The Kacharis are the most widely spread tribe in northeast India. They are said to be the earliest inhabitants of the Brahmaputra Valley. The Kacharis belong to the Indo-Mongoloid (Kirata) group which include the Bodos and their allied tribes. They have prominent Mongoloid features with high cheek bones, slit eyes and a slight growth of hair in the body and scant beard. They call themselves Bodo or Bodo-fisa in the Brahmaputra valley and Dimasa or Dima-fisa or ‘sons of the great river’ in the North Cachar Hills & Karbi- Anglong district.
The Dimasa Kacharis greatly inhabit the northern half of the Dima Hasao District and ravines of the Jatinga valley and the adjoining tract.
The Dimasas believe in the existence of a supreme being Madai – Under whom there are several Madais including family deities and evil spirits. The religious practices of the Dimasas are reflected in their Daikho system. A Daikho has a presiding deity with a definite territorial jurisdiction and a distinct group of followers known as Khel. Every Dimasa Kachari family worships its ancestral deity once a year before sowing the next paddy. It is known as Madai Khelimba. This is done for the general welfare of the family. And Misengba is for the good of the whole community. They cremate their dead. The dead body is washed and dressed in new clothes, the corpse is placed inside the house on a mat. A fowl is thrashed to death and placed at the foot of the deceased so that it might show the deceased the right path to heaven. The widow does not tie their hair till cremation. The dead body is cremated by the side of a river or stream.
The Dimasa have a tendency to build their houses on hill slopes with a river or streamlet flowing nearby. The dwelling houses are built on plinth of earth – in two rows facing each other with a sufficiently wide gap in between.
An important institution of the village is Hangsao. It is an association of unmarried boys and girls of the village. It is organized for the purpose of working together in cultivation and lasts only for one year. Throughout the year, the members of the Hangsao work together in the Jhums cutivating by rotation an area of land at every member’s field.
Music and dance play an important role in the day-to-day life of the Dimasa Kacharis. They sing and dance expressing their joy at the youth common houses ‘Nadrang’ or at the courtyard of the ‘Gajaibaou’s house in popular common festival like Bushu or Hangsao – manauba. The female owner of the house, where the Bushu festival is held, is called ‘Gajaibaou’.
By using their traditional musical instruments like Muri, Muri-wathisa, Supin Khram, Khramdubung, they present their traditional dances named – Baidima, Jaubani, Jaupinbani, Rennginbani, Baichargi, Kunlubani, Daislelaibani, Kamauthaikim Kaubani, Nanabairibani, Baururnjla, Kailaibani, Homaudaobani, Rongjaobani, Dausipamaikabani, Daudngjang, Nowaijang, Dailaibani, Narimbani, Rogidaw bihimaiyadaw, Maijaobani, Maisubanai, Richibbani, Michai bonthai jibnai, Homojing ladaibani, Berma charao paibani, Mangusha bondaibani, Madaikalimbani etc.
The males put on the traditional dresses like richa, rikaosa, paguri rimchau and rimchaoramai to perform the folk dances. The females put on Rigu, rijamfini, rijamfinaberen, rikaucha, rikhra, jingsudu etc. and wear ornaments like Kaudima, Khadu, Kamautai, Longbar, Panlaubar. Chandraral, Rongbarcha, Enggrasa, Jongsama, Ligjao, Jingbri, Yausidam etc.
The dance forms of the Dimasa Kacharis are complex in character. They are strictly dependent on instrumental music. No songs are used. Khram (drum) follows the rhythm of the Muri (fife) and so also the dancers. Though one may find the music trilling from Muri to be monotonous, but there are variations with noticeable microtones for different dance forms. That is why young men practice dancing at Nadrang during leisure hours and the village kids follow the rhythm and stepping at a distance from an early age.
The Zeme Nagas : The Zeme Nagas are distributed in Dima Hasao and parts of adjoining Manipur and Nagaland states. They are classified by the anthropologists as one of the sub-tribes of the Kacha Nagas. The Zemes living in Nagaland call themselves Zeliang and those of the Manipur borders are known as Zeliangrong.
Originally they migrated from Nagaland via Manipur and settled down in the north-eastern part of N.C.Hills and south of Maibang, the ancient capital of the Kachari kings. They also settled as far as the bank of the river Kopili. With the decline of the Kachari power, the Zemes became easy victims of the depredations of the mighty Angami Nagas in the neighbourhood. As a result, some of the Zemes migrated to the west and settled in the hills beyond the Diyung valley. They speak their own zemi dialect and are living peacefully along with the other tribes like Dimasa Kachari, Kuki, Hmar for more than two centuries. The Zemes are well built, strong ang healthy with thick black hair and a fair complexion.
The Zemes have seven clans – Mpame, Nkuame, Heneume, Nriame, Ngame,Hezanme and MPanme. Of them Mpame and Nkuame are considered as belonging to the same clan and marriage between these two clans is not encouraged. The clans are exogamous. There is a system of bride price which is paid in terms of Mithuns by the bridegroom to the bride’s parents.
The Zeme Nagas are animist and they believe in the existence of one supreme God and eight other gods under Him who are associated with health, water etc. They believe in witchcraft and black magic. They also believe in the existence of a spiritual world. When a man dies, they believe, he takes a journey to this spiritual world and provisions of food etc. are made for this occasion by keeping aside a share in a basket from the feast to the departed soul held by the relatives of the deceased. The dead body is put in a coffin and buried. A flat stone slab with some markings is placed on the grave as a symbol of identification.
The Zeme villages are on the breezy hill-tops. Each village has dormitories for young boys and girls. The boys’ dormitories are called Hangseuki and the girls’ are known as Leuseuki. All the young unmarried boys and girls spend the night in their respective dormitories. As soon as one is married he or she ceases to be a member of the dormitory which are considered as centers of learning as well as village recreational activities. The girls are taught weaving, spinning, singing and dancing etc. and the boys are taught wrestling, hunting and making of handicrafts. These dormitories also serve as guest houses.
Though a small section of the Zemes have been converted to Christianity, the larger section still honour their traditional festivals connected with agricultural activities and other social institutions. They celebrate some six important festivals during the year.
Youth dormitories play an important role in celebrating their festivals. The main festivals are – Helei-bambe, Nchang-bambe, Pokpat-ngi, Engkamngi, Siami and Hega-ngi – mostly connected with agricultural activities.
Of the folk dances of the Zemes the popular ones are – Herepilim,Johumpeselim, Kan'guibelim, Kerapsaplim, Hakalim, Nbzchuinelim etc.
In their songs and dance performances they use their traditional musical instruments – Insum, Ntui,Mitiam,Hembeu, Inlubai, Kebuike, Inar, Kumtoi, Into etc.
The Zeme traditional male dresses are named as Heni,Njingni,Heteuba,Mpakphai,Peranphai,Lauhepai, etc. The young boys decorate their legs with rice powder paste and tie cane ropes just below the knee. The girls wear Mini Hegiangnine,Paimang,Paitik,Pilim etc and ornaments made of silver, brass and colourful bird feathers for the earlobes.
The Hmars: The Hmars migrated from China and settled first in Burma and scattered around Manipur, Mizoram and Dima Hasao in Assam. They are of Mongoloid stock. Though the tribe is divided into exogamous clans but they do not strictly adhere to exogamy. Monogamy is strictly followed. Arranged cum Love-Marriages are preferred .
The system of bride price is still prevelant & the youngest daughter usually gets an extra price called 'Nuzum'. Earlier they practiced animism & their God was "Pathien" & sacrifices were offered for his appeasement. Now almost the whole of the tribe is converted into Christianity & they have built churches in their villages & religious rites are performed according to the tenets of Christianity.The Hmars built their villages on hill -tops & houses are constructed on wooden planks. Slash & burn system of agricultural practices is still at large amongst the Hmars.
Even after long years of migration from their original abode, the Hmars still adhere to their traditional culture through observing their traditional festivals connecting with agricultural cycle & other community rites & practices. Their cultural traditions are best reflected in their folk songs & dances. Khuong (drum) is the main part of the musical instrument. The other musical instruments are Pheiphit (whistle made of bamboo), Theihlea (bamboo flute), Darkhuong (gong), Darbu (set of small gong), Darmang (flat brass gong), Seki (set of mithun horn), Hna Mut (Leaf instrument), Perkhuong (guitar made of bamboo) etc.
According to the Hmar genealogy, the following are the major clans. They are Lawitlang, Zote, Lungtau, Thiek, Khawbung, Pakhuong, Faihriem, Darngawn, Leiri, Ngurte, Khiengte, Pautu and Ngente.
The chief of their village council is called "LAL" .He is selected from amongst the youngest son except Leiri & Faihriem Clans.He is all-powerful and everybody follows his leadership and directive.
The Hmar womenfolk are great weavers in their tiny loin looms. They dye their homespun yarns into different colours and weave exquisite clothes for the family. Man and women wear different kind of clothes. Hmar – am is finely woven cloth for the aristocratic womenfolk, Tawn lo – puon is a breast cloth never to be touched by a man, Tharlaikawn is a body wrapper with coloured strips on the back for the women. Ngo – tlong is a white wrapper for women, Thangsuo – Puon is for the great hunters and heroes who have earned the title ‘Thangsuo" for valour, Rukrak – puon is a long wrapper for village aristocrats, Hmar – puon is a common cloth with black and white strips, Daraki is a dhoti for the malefolk, Paihar is a chaddar for men, Lukawm is a soft cloth for man’s headgear, Puondum is a chaddar for menfolk and Puon – Kernei is the finely woven breast wrapper for the village maidens.
The festival highlighting agricultural practices is Sikpuiruoi and Butukhuonglom. They express their happiness in Dar lam and Parton lam dances by rhythmic beating of the drums. To honour a great hunter they perform Pheiphitlam dance accompanied by melodious tune trilling from their flutes. To perform Fahral Tawk lam, they use bamboo poles like the Mizos (in their famous Cheraw dance).
The Hmars perform a number of dances –the Harvest dance is called Chon lam, the hunting dance is known as Salu lam and a privately organized festival dance is popular as Thangkawngvailak. The dancers, both boys and girls, put on their colourful traditional dresses and the boys wear headgear Tawnlairang made of bird’s feathers or Lukhum made of bamboo, and the colourful shawl called Hmar puon. The girls adorn themselves with ornaments like Kutsabi (rings), Banbun (bangles), Nabe (earrings), Thi (Seeded Necklace), Thi val (beaded ornaments), Thi hna (beaded ornaments) etc, and wear exquisitely embroidered Puons, Puonbil and Zakuo.They rejoice in drinking ‘ Zu’ (rice beer) and the oldman and woman smoke in their ‘Tuibur’ pipes at their hearts content.
The Hmars are great hunters and while returning with precious games, they dance ‘Salu lam’ to mark their victory.
The Hmars love dancing so much that the very thought of the dance arena brings out the dancers in them. And they dance ‘Chon lam’ while proceeding to the arena.
The Kukis: The Kuki is a generic term for a number of mixed group of people who have migrated into India through Burma from central Asia. In Burma they are called Chin & in Indian frontier states they are best identified as Kukis.
The Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt. of India lists 37 number of tribes in the Kuki group of people in Assam. They are….
1. Baite or Biete, 2. Changsan, 3. Chongloi, 4.Doungel 5.Gamlhou 6. Gangte 7. Guite 8. Hangsing 9. Haokip or Haupit. 10.Haolai 11.Hengna 12. Hangsing 13.Hrangkhawl or Rongkhol 14. Jongbe 15. Khawchung 16. Khwathlang 17. Khelma 18. Kholhou 19. Kipgen 20. Kuki 21. Lienthang 22.Lhangunm 23. Lhoujem 24. Lhouvum 25. Lupheng 26. Mangjol 27. Misao 28. Riang 29. Sairhem 30. Selnam 31. Singson 32. Sitlhou 33. Sukte 34. Thado 35. Thangew 36. Uibuh 37. Vaiphei
Being of mongoloid stock the Kukis are strongly built in features and are stout. They are patriarchal in social organization and the sons inherit the property. Marriage among the Kukis are monogamous and cross-cousin marriage is preferred.
The Kukis prefer to live on the hill tops and their villages are cluster of houses closely constructed to protect from alien raiders. The village headman wields considerable power in their day-to-day life affairs. The headman is assisted by some wise man called Siemang and Pachong & all house-hold heads of the village congregate to discuss & resolve matters relating to the village & the community. Though Christianity has brought considerable changes in their socio-economic life, yet the Kukis still adhere to much of their old customs, laws and habits which their illustrious forefathers adopted from time immemorial.
The Kukis grow dwarf cotton and spun yarns for their own use. They use vegetable dyes in a myriad of hues and weave dreamlike designs mostly geometric in nature. The menfolk prefer colourful Sangkhol, a jacket & a pheichawm(short lungi or dhoti) and wrap a chaddar which is sometimes embroidered like a snake skin.They also wear head dresses viz., tuhpah, delkop.
The women adorn themselves with a nih-san( red slip) underneath a pon've(a wrap around) which was worn from above the chest. The ornaments included bilba( earings), hah-le-chao(bracelets & bangles), khi(necklace) & occassionaly bilkam ( a type of ring shaped earing to stretch the ear lobe . They split their tresses into two and wrap them over their heads into fine knots.
Both men and women enjoy smoking from their intricately crafted pipes named differently. Those made from stones and brass-metal is Sumeng golong, only made from brass-metal is Sum thin golong and those craved out of wood with a brass spout is called Gojung golong.
After the harvest is over, the Kukis observe the Chavang kut festival at the country-yard of the village headman. They perform traditional dances like Jongchalam, Malkanglam etc. to the tune of their traditional musical instruments – Khuong, Dahbo, Pheipit, Gosem, Dah-pi, Dah-cha, Pengkul, theile, theiphit,selki etc. Other festivals are Mim Kut, Sa-ai, Chang-Ai, Hun, Chawn le Han etc.
The participating families wear their traditional dresses Sangkhol, Khamtang, Ponmonvom, saipikhup and the malefolk adorn with Sangkhol, Delkop etc.
The harvest season is always a time for festivities, dancing and singing. The Kukis express the farmer’s happiness in Jongchalam by body breaks and rhythmic steps. And when the days of hard toil in their jhum fields are over, the Kukis rejoice while dancing Malkanglam.
Sagolpheikhal is a dance to express victory in war or in successful group hunting.
The Biates : Believed to be an off shoot of the Lushai-Kuki-Chin group, the Biates migrated from Central China and entered India to settle in northern part of Mizoram from where they were pushed by later immigrants to present day Dima Hasao District in the early 19th century.
The Biates have their own dialect and cultureal traits which are expressed through many a festivals in different occasions. Among them the agriculral festivals like Cemchoikut, Pamcharkut, Lahangkut harvest festival observed by families separately Jolsuak and Salulam to honour the brave hunters of ferocious animals.
During the festive days they consume liberal quantities of Zu fsice beer while dancing and singing their traditional dances like Buontumlam, Kolrikhelam, Rikifacholam, Partonlam, Sulribum-lam, Thingpuilethluk-lam, Meburlam and Darlam in tune with their musical instruments named Dar-ribu, Jamluang, Rossm, Khuang etc.
Both the boys and girls wear their traditional dresses and ornaments during performance of these dances. The girls put a decorated cane ring as a head gear and drape their favourite Jakua, Choipuan, Puanbomzia etc. The boys wear Lukom Jakua, Diarkai etc. The girls ornaments include Rithai, Kuarbet, Bangun, Ritai etc.
On the first day of broadcasting seeds in their jhum fields, the Biate women perform Meburlam dance to please ‘Nbupathien’, their god for crops and bounty. They dance with bamboo tubes in their hands and touch each other’s in a rhythmic way.
After they return from the fields the women sometimes gather in a courtyard and dance dance Rikifachoilam, imitating the wild parrots pecking grains from their jhum fields.
In winter, almost all Biate women go to a nearby stream or riverlet and dance Tuipuilen thluk in praise of the legendary mermaids. They break their bodies like waves in a ocean in tune with the accompanying flute.
The Hrongkhols : Differently described by the ethenographes as Hrangkawal, Rongkhol or Hrongkhol, this tiny group of people of the great Kuki tribe is scatteredly thriving in the Dima Hasao District. Mainly agriculturists, they practice jhum cultivation and build their houses on wooden slit and use bamboo profusely for the floor as well as the walls and thatch for the roofs.
The womenfolk use puans dyed in black and relish smoking from tiny but elaborate smoking pipes like those used by the Mizos of the southern districts.
The Hrangkhols observe the harvest festival called Rual-Chapak and invite the spring season through Parangat festival.
‘Parangat’ means flower. When the spring comes, flowers bloom everywhere. The Hrangkhols observe Parangat on a full moon day. The festval begins in the vening and continues till next morning. Except the main entry to the village, all other paths are closed for the day. The youngmen collect wild flowers from the nearby forest and offer them to the oldest man of the village in adecorated busket. And thereafter they greet each other and welcome the advent of spring. They sing and dance the whole night with drinking bouts of rice-beer in the silvery moonlight.
Like other hill tribes, fish is a symbol of prosperity to the Hrangkhol. They imitate community fishing in their Soksolkirlam dance. It is a rhythmic expression of their prayer for health and happiness.
The Hrangkhols present a special dance ‘Bhailam’ to welcome honourable persons into the village. The male dancers wear Churia, Kamis, Lukom, Changkaltak and the female participants wear Ponbomtak, Ponamnei, Kongkhit, Thepbop etc. They use cornaments called Jakcher, Chumhrui, Lirthei etc.
In these festivals the performance of songs and dance are the main attractive items. They participate in their folk dances known as Darlam, Doinkini, Rochemiam and Soksollam. They play on their traditional musical instruments like Dar, Cheranda, Rochem, Theile etc.
Average literacy rate of Dima Hasao in 2011 were 77.54 compared to 67.62 of 2001. All schools of Dima Hasao are run either by the state government or by private organisations. Mostly English is the primary languages of instruction in most of the schools. The schools are recognized to "Board of Secondary Education, Assam" ( SEBA ) and "Assam Higher Secondary Education Council" ( AHSEC ). All Colleges of Dima Hasao are affiliated to Assam University, a central university, which imparts education in both the general as well as professional streams. The university, which came into existence in 1994, has 16 schools and 35 post-graduate departments under them. The university has 51 affiliated colleges under it.
- Colleges in Dima Hasao;
- B. Bodo College,
- Maibang Degree College,
- Haflong Government College,
- Sengya Sambudhan College,
- J.B Hagjer College
- Reputed English Medium Schools of Dima Hasao
- In Haflong
- St. Agnes High School,
- Don Bosco Higher Secondary School
- Synod Higher Secondary School
- In Maibang
- Pranabananda Vidya Mandir High School
- Ever Green High School
- Sainja Valley High School
- St. Xavier's School
- Maibang High School
- Maibangkro High School
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- Haflong Khurang (Dimasa weekly)
- Haflong Times (English weekly)
- "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- Srivastava, Dayawanti et al. (ed.) (2010). "States and Union Territories: Assam: Government". India 2010: A Reference Annual (54th ed.). New Delhi, India: Additional Director General, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), Government of India. p. 1116. ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7.
- "Island Directory Tables: Islands by Land Area". United Nations Environment Program. 1998-02-18. Retrieved 2011-10-11.
Ilha Grande do Gurupá 4,864km2
- Ministry of Panchayati Raj (8 September 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme". National Institute of Rural Development. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
- US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01.
- Col Ved Prakash, "Encyclopaedia of North-east India, Vol# 2", Atlantic Publishers & Distributors;Pg 575, ISBN 978-81-269-0704-5
- Assam University Homepage
||Karbi Anglong district (Western)||Nagaon district||Karbi Anglong district (Eastern)|
|Jaintia Hills district, Meghalaya||Peren district, Nagaland|
|Cachar district||Tamenglong district, Manipur|