Dimples may appear and disappear over an extended period. Professor McDonald, citing limited research, concludes dimples have been mislabeled as genetically inherited and as a dominant trait. However, the University of Utah consider dimples an "irregular" dominant trait that is probably controlled mostly by one gene but is influenced by other genes.
Dimples are a facial muscle deformity. Dimples may be caused by variations in the structure of the facial muscle known as zygomaticus major. Specifically, the presence of a double or bifid zygomaticus major muscle may explain the formation of cheek dimples. This bifid variation of the muscle originates as a single structure from the zygomatic bone. As it travels anteriorly, it then divides with a superior bundle that inserts in the typical position above the corner of the mouth. An inferior bundle inserts below the corner of the mouth.
- Garg, Anu. "A.Word.A.Day". Wordsmith. Retrieved 2013-08-12.
- Dimple - The Free Dictionary
- Am J Med Genet. 1990 Jul;36(3):376. Cheek dimples.
- Pessa, JE; Zadoo, VP; Garza, PA; Adrian Jr, EK; Dewitt, AI; Garza, JR (1998). "Double or bifid zygomaticus major muscle: anatomy, incidence, and clinical correlation". Clinical Anatomy 11 (5): 310–3. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2353(1998)11:5<310::AID-CA3>3.0.CO;2-T. PMID 9725574.
- McDonald, J.H. "Myths of Human Genetics". Sparky House Publishing. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
- Utah. "Observable Human Characteristics". Retrieved 26 January 2015.
- "Dimple Creation – Cute as a button, who pays for a deformity?".
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