Dinosaur Park Formation

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Dinosaur Park Formation
Stratigraphic range: Late Cretaceous, 76.6–74.8Ma
[1]
Dinosaur Park Fm.jpg
Dinosaur Park Formation exposed along the Red Deer River in Dinosaur Provincial Park, southeastern Alberta, Canada.
Type Geological formation
Unit of Belly River Group
Underlies Bearpaw Formation
Overlies Oldman Formation
Lithology
Primary Sandstone (lower)
Mudstone and siltstone (upper)
Other Bentonite and coal
Location
Region  Alberta
Country  Canada
Type section
Named for Dinosaur Provincial Park
Named by Eberth, D.A. and Hamblin, A.P., 1993.[2][3]

The Dinosaur Park Formation is the uppermost member of the Belly River Group (also known as the Judith River Group), a major geologic unit in southern Alberta. It was laid down during the Campanian stage of the Late Cretaceous epoch between 76.6 and 74.8 million years ago.[1][4] It was deposited in alluvial and coastal plain environments, and it is bounded by the nonmarine Oldman Formation below it and the marine Bearpaw Formation above it.[4]

The Dinosaur Park Formation contains dense concentrations of dinosaur skeletons, both articulated and disarticulated, which are often found with preserved remains of soft tissues. Remains of other animals such as fish, turtles, and crocodilians, as well as plant remains, are also abundant.[5] The formation has been named after Dinosaur Provincial Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site where the formation is well exposed in the badlands that flank the Red Deer River.[3]

Geological Setting[edit]

Restoration of the megafaunal dinosaurs of the Dinosaur Park Formation

The Dinosaur Park Formation is composed of sediments that were derived from the erosion of the mountains to the west. It was deposited on an alluvial to coastal plain by river systems that flowed eastward and southeastward to the Bearpaw Sea, a large inland sea that was part of the Western Interior Seaway. That sea gradually inundated the adjacent coastal plain, depositing the marine shales of the Bearpaw Formation on top of the Dinosaur Park Formation.[4]

The Dinosaur Park Formation is about 70 metres (230 ft) thick at Dinosaur Park. The lower portion of the formation was laid down in fluvial channel environments and consists primarily of fine- to medium-grained, crossbedded sandstones. The upper portion, which was deposited in overbank and floodplain environments, consists primarily of massive to laminated, organic-rich mudstones with abundant root traces, and thin beds of bentonite. The Lethbridge Coal Zone, which consists of several seams of low-rank coal interbedded with mudstones and siltstones, marks the top of the formation.[4]

The sediments of the Dinosaur Park Formation are similar to those of the underlying Oldman Formation and they were originally included in that formation. The two formations are separated by a regional disconformity, however, and are distinguished by petrographic and sedimentologic differences. In addition, articulated skeletal remains and bonebeds are rare in the Oldman Formation but abundant in the Dinosaur Park Formation.[3][4]

Biostratigraphy[edit]

The Dinosaur Park Formation can be divided into at least two distinct faunas. The lower part of the formation is characterized by the abundance of Corythosaurus and Centrosaurus. This group of species is replaced higher in the formation by a different ornithischian fauna characterized by the presence of Lambeosaurus and Styracosaurus. The appearance of several new, rare species of ornithischian at the very top of the formation may indicate that a third distinct fauna had replaced the second during the transition into younger, non-Dinosaur Park sediments, at the same time an inland sea transgresses onto land, but there are fewer remains here. An unnamed pachyrhinosaur, Vagaceratops irvinensis, and Lambeosaurus magnicristatus may be more common in this third fauna.[6][7]

The timeline below follows a synthesis presented by Arbour et al. 2009[1] with additional information from Evans et al. 2009 and Penkalski, 2013.[8] Megaherbivore Assemblage Zones (MAZ) follow data presented by Mallon et al., 2012.[9]
Pachyrhinosaurinae Lambeosaurus magnicristatus Vagaceratops irvinensis Styracosaurus albertensis Lambeosaurus lambei Prosaurolophus maximus Daspletosaurus Panoplosaurus mirus Chasmosaurus belli Gryposaurus incurvimanus Centrosaurus apertus Gryposaurus notabilis Euoplocephalus tutus Gorgosaurus libratus Parasaurolophus walkeri Lambeosaurus clavinitialis Corythosaurus intermedius Corythosaurus casuarius Edmontonia rugosidens Chasmosaurus russelli Dyoplosaurus acutosquameus Scolosaurus cutleri

Amphibians[edit]

Remains of the following amphibians have been found in the formation:[10]

Albanerpetonidae (extinct, salamander-like amphibians)

Caudata (salamanders)

Salienta (frogs)

  • 2 unnamed salientans

Dinosaurs[edit]

Remains of the following dinosaurs have been found in the formation:[1][11]

Ornithischians[edit]

Remains of the following Onrithischians have been found in the formation:[12]

Ankylosaurs[edit]

Ankylosaurs reported from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Dyoplosaurus

D. acutosquameus

Lower, 76.5Ma ago[1]

Edmontonia

E. rugosidens

Lower, 76.5-75.9Ma ago[1]

Euoplocephalus

E. tutus

Lower to Middle, ~76.4-75.6Ma[8]

Although the stratigraphic range of the holotype is uncertain, all specimens that can be reliably referred to E. tutus came from the lower 40 m and the upper >10 m of the Formation. There are no known ankylosaurids from the top 20–25 m of the Formation.[8]

Panoplosaurus

P. mirus

Middle, 75.6Ma ago[1]

"Partial skeleton with complete skull, osteoderms, additional isolated teeth, postcranial elements, osteoderms."[13]

Scolosaurus

S. cutleri

Lower, 76.5Ma ago or more[8]

It possibly came from the upper layers of the underlying Oldman Formation.[8]

Ceratopsians[edit]

An unnamed Pachyrhinosaurus-like taxon has been recovered from the formation.

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.
Ceratopsians reported from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Centrosaurus

C. apertus

Middle, 76.2-75.5Ma ago[1]

"[Fifteen] skulls, several skeletons, all adult; abundant bone-bed material with rare juveniles and subadults."[14]

Centrosaurines

Chasmosaurus

C. belli

Middle, 76-75.5Ma ago[1]

"[Twelve] skulls, several skeletons."[14]

Chasmosaurines

C. irvinensis

Reclassified as Vagaceratops irvinensis[15]

C. russelli

Lower, 76.5-76Ma ago[1]

"[Six] complete or partial skulls."[16]

Chasmosaurines

Leptoceratops

Remains attributed to an indeterminate species of Leptoceratops have been reclassified as Unescoceratops

Monoclonius

M. lowei

Centorsaurines

Styracosaurus

S. albertensis

Upper, 75.5-75.2Ma ago[1]

"[Two] skulls, [three] skeletons, additional material in bone beds."[14]

Centrosaurines

Unescoceratops

U. koppelhusae

Partial lower jaw[17]

Leptoceratopsids

Vagaceratops

V. irvinensis

Upper, 75Ma ago[1]

"[Three] skulls, skeleton lacking tail."[16]

Chasmosaurines

"Almond Formation" ceratopsid

Unnamed

Upper Unit 1, Horseshoe Canyon Formation, 72.2-71Ma ago[1]

Misidentified as Anchiceratops, it is actually a new species, probably the same as a new Pentaceratops-like form from the Almond Formation of Wyoming [18]

Ornithopods[edit]

The head of Gryposaurus notabilis.

At least one indeterminate hypsilophodont specimenhas been recovered from the formation.

In 2001 Darren H. Tanke and M. K. Brett-Surman reviewed and described eggshell and hatchling material from the Dinosaur Park Formation.[19] Eggshell is rare in the Park, being present in only two microfossil sites, both of which are predominated by the preserved shells of invertebrate life.[19] The survival of hadrosaur eggshell fragments in the presence of these invertebrate shells may be result of calcium in the invertebrate shells buffering contemporary acidic water which would have dissolved them.[19] The hadrosaur eggshell fragments "show little to no stream abrasion" suggesting that the material did not originate far from their final burial place in the Park.[19] The authors felt that their newly reported material corroborated the then-recent suggestion that hadrosaurs did not nest exclusively in upland areas, but also areas of lower elevation.[19] Some recovered hadrosaur fossils might actually be from embryos.[20] Hatchling and nestling-sized hadrosaur remains had been falsely considered rare in Dinosaur Park Formation due to bias on the part of collectors seeking larger specimens and sometimes not recognizing what was encountered.[20] Hadrosaurs had been speculated to be upland breeders due to the lack of preserved egg and hatchling material.[20] However young hadrosaur remains had been previously reported from lowland deposits.[20]

Life restoration of Parasaurolophus walkeri.

Darren Tanke observed that an experienced collector could actually discover multiple juvenile hadrosaur specimens a day.[20] During the 1992 field season a concerted effort was undertaken by the Royal Tyrell Museum to recover the remains of young hadrosaurs.[20] The researchers describe the acquisition that season of 43 specimens as being a success.[20] Most of the recovered fossils were of dentaries missing their teeth, bones from limbs and feet, as well as vertebral centra.[20] The material showed little or none of the abrasion that would have resulted from transport, meaning the fossils were buried near their point of origin.[20] The researchers conclude that this meant that hadrosaurs were nesting in the lowlands of the area represented by the strata containing the fossils and that previous workers hypotheses of lowland hadrosaur breeding were "confirmed."[20] Most of the shells from the microfossil site are from pisidiid clams, but rarely unionid clams and gastropods are found.[21] It was the slow dissolution of these shells releasing calcium carbonate into the water that raised the water's pH high enough to prevent the eggshells from dissolving.[21]

Life restoration of a Prosaurolophus maximus head.

No fragment's greatest dimension exceeds one cm.[21] The eggshells' surface has a pebbly texture.[21] The eggshell is similar to the eggshells from the Two Medicine and Judith River Formations in Montana.[21] Dinosaur Provincial Park eggshell is similar to eggshell from the Devil's Coulee in southern Alberta.[21] Most hadrosaur neonate bones are incomplete due to their small size and vulnerability to the high erosion rates in the Dinosaur Provincial Park.[22] Dentaries are common hadrosaur neonate fossils.[22] Most specimens don't preserve all of the tooth replacement gooves.[22] Most preserve "only about [ten] tooth files."[22] No neural arches are represented among the vertebrae fossils.[23] Although some limb bones show signs of transport wear, the distances traveled before burial were probably not far as such small bones would be unlikely to survive the great diversity of scavengers and acidic water conditions.[24] Bonebeds 23, 28, 47, and 50 yielded "unusually high" numbers of young hadrosaur remains.[25] Certain outcrops of bonebed 50 are "particularly rich," producing around a dozen such fossils a year.[25] Dinosaur eggshell is lacking from the bone beds producing the hadrosaur juvenile bones.[25] Tanke concluded that the abundance of bone in these locations is not due to collecting biases or intensity.[25]

The authors concluded that hadrosaurs nested in both upland or lowland area, although described factors influencing the division of breeding locations as unknown.[26] They suggested that "diet, soil conditions, habits, [and] competition" between dinosaur genera might have played roles.[26] Some of the less common hadrosaurs in the Dinosaur Park Formation of Dinosaur Provincial Park like Parasaurolophus may represent the remains of individuals who died while migrating through the region.[26] They might also have had a more upland habitat where they may have nested or fed.[26]

Ornithopods reported from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Corythosaurus

C. casuarius

Lower-Middle, 76.5-75.5Ma ago[1]

"Approximately [ten] articulated skulls and associated postcrania, [ten to fifteen] articulated skulls, isolated skull elements, juvenile to adult."[27]

Life restoration of Lambeosaurus

Gryposaurus

G. incurvimanus

Middle, 76-75.5Ma ago[1]

"Single fully articulated skull and skeleton."[28]

Junior synonym of G. notabilis

G. notabilis

Lower, 76.2-76Ma ago[1]

"Approximately [ten] complete skulls, [twelve] fragmentary skulls, associated postcrania."[28]

Lambeosaurus

L. lambei

Upper, 75.5-75Ma ago[1]

"Approximately [seven] articulated skulls with associated postcrania, [possibly ten] articulated skulls, isolated skull elements, juvenile to adult."[29]

L. magnicristatus

Upper/Bearpaw Formation, 74.8Ma ago[1]

"[Two] complete skulls, one with associated, articulated postcrania."[29]

Parasaurolophus

P. walkeri

Lower, 76.5-75.3Ma ago[7]

"Complete skull and postcranial skeleton."[29]

Prosaurolophus

P. maximus

"[Twenty to twenty-five] individuals, including at least [seven] articulated skulls and associated postcrania."[28]

Pachycephalosaurs[edit]

Pachycephalosaurs reported from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Foraminacephale [30]

F. brevis

Hanssuesia

H. sternbergi

Gravitholus

G. albertae

"Frontoparietal dome."[31]

Ornatotholus

O. browni

Junior synonym of Stegoceras validum

Stegoceras

S. breve

Reclassified as Foraminacephale brevis. [32]

S. sternbergi

Reclassified as Hanssuesia sternbergi.

S. validum

Specimens including frontoparietal dome.[31]

Troodon

T. sternbergi

Reclassified as Hanssuesia sternbergi. The genus Troodon is now recognized as a theropod.

Theropods[edit]

In the Dinosaur Park Formation, small theropods are rare due to the tendency of their thin-walled bones to be broken or poorly preserved.[33] Small bones of small theropods that were preyed upon by larger ones may have been swallowed whole and digested.[34] In this context, the discovery of a small theropod dinosaur with preserved tooth marks was especially valuable.[33] Possible indeterminate avimimid and therizinosaurid remains are known from the formation.

Ornithomimids[edit]

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.
Ornithomimids reported from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

"Dromiceiomimus'"

D. samuelli

type specimen

An ornithomimid, probably represents a species of Struthiomimus [35] (or possibly a new genus)

Ornithomimus

O. altus

Reclassified as Struthiomimus altus

O. elegans

Reclassified as Leptorhynchos elegans

Struthiomimus

S. altus

type specimen

An ornithomimid

S. samuelli

Reclassified as "Dromiceiomimus" samueli

Oviraptorosaurs[edit]

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.
Oviraptorosaurs reported from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Caenagnathus

C. collinsi

Mandible, type specimen

Caenagnathid [36]

C. sternbergi

Mandible, type specimen

Caenagnathid, possibly synonymous with Chirostenotes pergracilis[36]

Chirostenotes

C. pergracilis

Several fragmentary specimens, type specimen

Caenagnathids

Leptorhynchos

L. elegans

Several fragmentary specimens, type specimen

Caenagnathids

Macrophalangia

M. canadensis

Junior synonym of Chirostenotes pergracilis

Paravians[edit]

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.
Paravians reported from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

cf. Baptornis

Indeterminate

A hesperornithine bird

cf. Cimolopteryx

Indeterminate

Partial coracoid

A possible charadriiform bird

Dromaeosaurus

D. albertensis

Several specimens and teeth, type specimen

A dromaeosaurid

Hesperonychus

H. elizabethae

Hip bones and partial toes and claws, type specimen

A dromaeosaurid, also found in the Oldman Formation

cf. Palintropus

Unnamed

Partial shoulder girdles

An ambiortiform bird.

cf. Paronychodon

cf. P. lacustris

Teeth

An indeterminate maniraptoran, also found in the Judith River

Richardoestesia

R. gilmorei

Mandible, type specimen

A dromaeosaurid.

Saurornitholestes

S. langstoni

Incomplete skeleton and teeth, type specimen. A dentary referred to Saurornitholestes was discovered that preserved tooth marks left by a young tyrannosaur.[37]

A dromaeosaurid

Stenonychosaurus

S. inequalis

Junior synonym of Troodon inequalis

Troodon

T. formosus

Partial skeletons

A troodontid, also found in the Oldman, Judith River, and Two Medicine Formations

T. inequalis

Nearly complete skeleton, type specimen

A troodontid

Tyrannosaurs[edit]

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.
Tyrannosaurs reported from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Albertosaurus

A. libratus

Reclassified as Gorgosaurus libratus

A. sternbergi

Junior synonym of Gorgosaurus libratus

Daspletosaurus

Unnamed species[38]

Middle-Upper, 75.6-75Ma ago[1]

Several specimens

A tryannosaurid, also present in the Bearpaw Formation

Gorgosaurus

G. libratus

Lower-Middle, 76.6-75.1Ma ago[1]

Numerous specimens, type specimen[38]

A tyrannosaurid

G. sternbergi

Junior synonym of G. libratus

Fish[edit]

Remains of the following fish have been found in the formation:[39]

Chondrichthyans

Acipenseriformes (sturgeons)

  • unnamed sturgeon
  • unnamed paddlefish

Holostean fish

Teleost fish

Invertebrates[edit]

Remains of the following invertebrates have been cound in the formation:[40]

Freshwater bivalves

  • Fusconaia
  • Lampsilis
  • Sphaerium (2 species)

Freshwater gastropods

  • Campeloma (2 species)
  • Elimia
  • Goniobasis (3 species)
  • Hydrobia
  • Lioplacodes (2 species)

Mammals[edit]

Remains of the following mammals have been found in the formation:[41]

Multituberculata

Marsupials

Placentals

Unknown therians: at least 1 species

Plants[edit]

Plant body fossils[edit]

The following plant body fossils have been found in the formation:[42]

Gymnosperms

Ginkgos

Angiosperms

Palynomorphs[edit]

Palynomorphs are organic-walled microfossils, like spores, pollen, and algae. The following palynomorphs have been found in the formation:[43]

Unknown producers

  • at least 8 species

Fungi

Chlorophyta (green algae and blue-green algae)

Pyrrhophyta (dinoflagellates, a type of marine algae)

Bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts)

Anthocerotophyta (hornworts)
  • at least 5 species
Marchantiophyta (liverworts)
  • at least 14 species
Bryophyta (mosses)
  • at least 5 species

Lycopodiophyta

Lycopodiaceae (club mosses)
  • at least 11 species
Selaginellaceae (small club mosses)
  • at least 6 species
Isoetaceae (quillworts)
  • at least 1 species

Polypodiophyta

Osmundaceae (cinnamon ferns)
  • at least 6 species
Schizaeaceae (climbing ferns)
  • at least 20 species
Gleicheniaceae (Gleichenia and allies; coral ferns)
  • at least 5 species
Cyatheaceae (Cyathea and allies)
  • at least 4 species
Dicksoniaceae (Dicksonia and allies)
  • at least 3 species
Polypodiaceae (ferns)
  • at least 4 species
Matoniaceae
  • at least 1 species
Marsileaceae
  • at least 1 species

Pinophyta (gymnosperms)

Cycadaceae (cycads)
  • at least 3 species
Caytoniaceae
  • at least 1 species
Pinaceae (pines)
  • at least 4 species
Cupressaceae (cypresses)
  • at least 3 species
Podocarpaceae (Podocarpus and allies)
  • at least 4 species
Cheirolepidiaceae
  • at least 2 species
Ephedraceae (Mormon teas)
  • at least 6 species

Unknown gymnosperms: at least 3 species

Magnoliophyta (angiosperms)

Magnoliopsida (dicots)
Buxaceae (boxwood)
  • at least 1 species
Gunneraceae (gunneras)
  • at least 1 species
Salicaceae (willows, cottonwood, quaking aspen)
  • at least 1 species
Droseraceae (sundews)
  • at least 1 species
Olacaceae (tallowwood)
  • at least 2 species
Loranthaceae (showy mistletoes)
  • at least 1 species
Sapindaceae (soapberry)
  • at least 1 species
Aceraceae (maples)
  • at least 1 species
Proteaceae (proteas)
  • at least 9 species
Compositae (sunflowers)
  • at least 1 species
Fagaceae (beeches, oaks, chestnuts)
  • at least 2 species
Betulaceae (birches, alders)
  • at least 1 species
Ulmaceae (elms)
  • at least 1 species
Chenopodiaceae (goosefoots)
  • at least 1 species
Liliopsida (monocots)
Liliaceae (lilies)
  • at least 6 species
Cyperaceae (sedges)
  • at least 1 species
Sparganiaceae (bur-reeds)
  • possibly 1 species
Unknown angiosperms: at least 88 species

Other reptiles[edit]

Choristoderes[edit]

Choristoderes, or champsosaurs, were aquatic reptiles. Small examples looked like lizards, while larger types were superficially similar to crocodilians. Remains of the following Choristoderes have been found in the formation:[44]

Crocodylians[edit]

Remains of the following Crocodylians have been found in the formation:[45]

Lizards[edit]

Remains of the following lizards have been found in the formation:[46]

Helodermatids

Necrosaurids

Teiids

Varanids

Xenosaurids

Plesiosaurs[edit]

Remains of the following Plesiosaurs have been found in the formation:[47]

Pterosaurs[edit]

Remains of the following Pterosaurs have been found in the formation:[48]

Turtles[edit]

Remains of the following turtles have been found in the formation:[50]


Timeline of new taxa[edit]

The following timeline displays valid taxa first discovered in the dinosaur. Some species may have been referred to other genera subsequent to their initial description. 21st century in paleontology 20th century in paleontology 19th century in paleontology 2090s in paleontology 2080s in paleontology 2070s in paleontology 2060s in paleontology 2050s in paleontology 2040s in paleontology 2030s in paleontology 2020s in paleontology 2010s in paleontology 2000s in paleontology 1990s in paleontology 1980s in paleontology 1970s in paleontology 1960s in paleontology 1950s in paleontology 1940s in paleontology 1930s in paleontology 1920s in paleontology 1910s in paleontology 1900s in paleontology 1890s in paleontology 1880s in paleontology 1870s in paleontology 1860s in paleontology 1850s in paleontology 1840s in paleontology 1830s in paleontology 1820s in paleontology 1810s in paleontology 1800s in paleontology Leptorhynchos Unescoceratops Vagaceratops Hesperonychus Chasmosaurus irvinensis Richardoestesia Gravitholus Saurornitholestes Daspletosaurus Troodon sternbergi Chasmosaurus russeli Lambeosaurus magnicristatus Stenonychosaurus inequalis Scolosaurus Dyoplosaurus Chirostenotes Lambeosaurus Parasaurolophus Dromaeosaurus Panoplosaurus Struthiomimus Prosaurolophus Gryposaurus Gorgosaurus Corythosaurus Chasmosaurus Styracosaurus Centrosaurus Stereocephalus tutus Stegoceras Ornithomimus altus Monoclonius belli Euoplocephalus 21st century in paleontology 20th century in paleontology 19th century in paleontology 2090s in paleontology 2080s in paleontology 2070s in paleontology 2060s in paleontology 2050s in paleontology 2040s in paleontology 2030s in paleontology 2020s in paleontology 2010s in paleontology 2000s in paleontology 1990s in paleontology 1980s in paleontology 1970s in paleontology 1960s in paleontology 1950s in paleontology 1940s in paleontology 1930s in paleontology 1920s in paleontology 1910s in paleontology 1900s in paleontology 1890s in paleontology 1880s in paleontology 1870s in paleontology 1860s in paleontology 1850s in paleontology 1840s in paleontology 1830s in paleontology 1820s in paleontology 1810s in paleontology 1800s in paleontology

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Arbour, V. M.; Burns, M. E.; and Sissons, R. L. (2009). "A redescription of the ankylosaurid dinosaur Dyoplosaurus acutosquameus Parks, 1924 (Ornithischia: Ankylosauria) and a revision of the genus". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29 (4): 1117–1135. doi:10.1671/039.029.0405. 
  2. ^ Lexicon of Canadian Geologic Units: Dinosaur Park Formation
  3. ^ a b c Eberth, D.A. and Hamblin A.P. 1993. Tectonic, stratigraphic, and sedimentologic significance of a regional discontinuity in the upper Judith River Group (Belly River wedge) of southern Alberta, Saskatchewan, and northern Montana. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 30: 174-200.
  4. ^ a b c d e Eberth, D.A. 2005. The geology. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis,p.54-82. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  5. ^ Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 277-291. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  6. ^ Ryan and Evans (2005).
  7. ^ a b Evans D.C., Bavington R., Campione N.E. (2009). "An unusual hadrosaurid braincase from the Dinosaur Park Formation and the biostratigraphy of Parasaurolophus (Ornithischia: Lambeosaurinae) from southern Alberta". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 46 (11): 791–800. Bibcode:2009CaJES..46..791E. doi:10.1139/E09-050. 
  8. ^ a b c d e Penkalski, P. (2013). "A new ankylosaurid from the late Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation of Montana, USA". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. doi:10.4202/app.2012.0125.  edit
  9. ^ Mallon, J. C., Evans, D. C., Ryan, M. J., & Anderson, J. S. (2012). Megaherbivorous dinosaur turnover in the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.
  10. ^ Gardner, J.D. 2005. Lissamphibians. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 186-201. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  11. ^ Currie, P.J. 2005. Theropods, including birds. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 367-397. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  12. ^ Ryan, M.J., and Evans, D.C. 2005. Ornithischian dinosaurs. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 312-348. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  13. ^ "Table 17.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 365.
  14. ^ a b c "Table 23.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 495.
  15. ^ Scott D. Sampson, Mark A. Loewen, Andrew A. Farke, Eric M. Roberts, Catherine A. Forster, Joshua A. Smith, Alan L. Titus (2010). "New Horned Dinosaurs from Utah Provide Evidence for Intracontinental Dinosaur Endemism". PLoS ONE 5 (9): e12292. Bibcode:2010PLoSO...512292S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012292. PMC 2929175. PMID 20877459. 
  16. ^ a b "Table 23.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 496.
  17. ^ Michael J. Ryan, David C. Evans, Philip J. Currie, Caleb M. Brown and Don Brinkman (2012). "New leptoceratopsids from the Upper Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada". Cretaceous Research 35: 69–80. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2011.11.018. 
  18. ^ Farke, A. A. "Cranial osteology and phylogenetic relationships of the chasmosaurine ceratopsid Torosaurus latus", pp. 235-257. In K. Carpenter (ed.). Horns and Beaks: Ceratopsian and Ornithopod Dinosaurs. Indiana Univ. Press (Bloomington), 2006.
  19. ^ a b c d e "Abstract," Tanke and Brett-Surman (2001). Page 206.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Introduction," Tanke and Brett-Surman (2001). Page 208.
  21. ^ a b c d e f "Eggshell," Tanke and Brett-Surman (2001). Page 209.
  22. ^ a b c d "Bones," Tanke and Brett-Surman (2001). Page 209.
  23. ^ "Bones," Tanke and Brett-Surman (2001). Page 211.
  24. ^ "Discussion," Tanke and Brett-Surman (2001). Pages 211-212.
  25. ^ a b c d "Discussion," Tanke and Brett-Surman (2001). Page 212.
  26. ^ a b c d "Conclusions," Tanke and Brett-Surman (2001). Page 212.
  27. ^ "Table 20.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 441.
  28. ^ a b c "Table 20.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 440.
  29. ^ a b c "Table 20.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 442.
  30. ^ Schott, R.K. 2011. Ontogeny, diversity, and systematics of pachycephalosaur dinosaurs from the Belly River Group of Alberta. Master of Science thesis. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of Toronto, 173 pp.PDF
  31. ^ a b "Table 21.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 465.
  32. ^ Schott, R.K. 2011. Ontogeny, diversity, and systematics of pachycephalosaur dinosaurs from the Belly River Group of Alberta. Master of Science thesis. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of Toronto, 173 pp.PDF
  33. ^ a b "Introduction," Jacobsen (2001). Page 59.
  34. ^ "Discussion," Jacobsen (2001). Page 61.
  35. ^ Longrich, N. (2008). "A new, large ornithomimid from the Cretaceous Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, Canada: Implications for the study of dissociated dinosaur remains." Palaeontology, 51(4): 983-997.
  36. ^ a b Longrich, N. R.; Barnes, K.; Clark, S.; Millar, L. (2013). "Caenagnathidae from the Upper Campanian Aguja Formation of West Texas, and a Revision of the Caenagnathinae". Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History 54: 23. doi:10.3374/014.054.0102.  edit
  37. ^ "Abstract," Jacobsen (2001). Page 58.
  38. ^ a b Currie, Philip J. (2003). "Cranial anatomy of tyrannosaurids from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta" (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 48 (2): 191–226. 
  39. ^ Neuman, A.G., and Brinkman, D.B. 2005. Fishes of the fluvial beds. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 167-185. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  40. ^ Johnston, P.A., and Hendy, A.J.W. 2005. Paleoecology of mollusks from the Upper Cretaceous Belly River Group. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 139-166. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  41. ^ Fox, R.C. 2005. Late Cretaceous mammals. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 417-435. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  42. ^ Koppelhus, E.B. 2005. Paleobotany. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 131-138. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  43. ^ Braman, D.R., and Koppelhus, E.B. 2005. Campanian palynomorphs. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 101-130. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  44. ^ K.Gao and Brinkman, D.B. 2005. Choristoderes from the Park and its vicinity. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 221-234. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  45. ^ Xiao-Chun Wu. 2005. Crocodylians. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 277-291. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  46. ^ Caldwell, M.W. The squamates: origins, phylogeny, and paleoecology. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds). 2005. ‘’Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed.’’ Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 235-248. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  47. ^ Sato, T., Eberth, D.A., Nicholls, E.L., and Manabe, M. 2005. Plesiosaurian remains from non-marine to paralic sediments. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed.’’ Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 249-276. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  48. ^ Godfrey, S.J., and Currie, P.J. 2005. Pterosaurs. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 292-311. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  49. ^ Robert M. Sullivan and Denver W. Fowler (2011). "Navajodactylus boerei, n. gen., n. sp., (Pterosauria, ?Azhdarchidae) from the Upper Cretaceous Kirtland Formation (upper Campanian) of New Mexico". Fossil Record 3. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 53: 393–404. 
  50. ^ Brinkman, D.B. 2005. Turtles: diversity, paleoecology, and distribution. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 202-220. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.

References[edit]

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