Dinosaur Park Formation

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Dinosaur Park Formation
Stratigraphic range: Late Cretaceous, 76.6–74.8Ma
[1]
Dinosaur Park Fm.jpg
Dinosaur Park Formation exposed along the Red Deer River in Dinosaur Provincial Park, southeastern Alberta, Canada.
Type Geological formation
Unit of Belly River Group
Underlies Bearpaw Formation
Overlies Oldman Formation
Lithology
Primary Sandstone (lower)
Mudstone and siltstone (upper)
Other Bentonite and coal
Location
Region  Alberta
Country  Canada
Type section
Named for Dinosaur Provincial Park
Named by Eberth, D.A. and Hamblin, A.P., 1993.[2][3]

The Dinosaur Park Formation is the uppermost member of the Belly River Group (also known as the Judith River Group), a major geologic unit in southern Alberta. It was laid down during the Campanian stage of the Late Cretaceous epoch between 76.6 and 74.8 million years ago.[1][4] It was deposited in alluvial and coastal plain environments, and it is bounded by the nonmarine Oldman Formation below it and the marine Bearpaw Formation above it.[4]

The Dinosaur Park Formation contains dense concentrations of dinosaur skeletons, both articulated and disarticulated, which are often found with preserved remains of soft tissues. Remains of other animals such as fish, turtles, and crocodilians, as well as plant remains, are also abundant.[5] The formation has been named after Dinosaur Provincial Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site where the formation is well exposed in the badlands that flank the Red Deer River.[3]

Geological Setting[edit]

Restoration of the megafaunal dinosaurs of the Dinosaur Park Formation. From left to right: Pentaceratops, Lambeosaurus, Styracosaurus, Scolosaurus, Prosaurolophus, Panoplosaurus, and a herd of Styracosaurus in the background

The Dinosaur Park Formation is composed of sediments that were derived from the erosion of the mountains to the west. It was deposited on an alluvial to coastal plain by river systems that flowed eastward and southeastward to the Bearpaw Sea, a large inland sea that was part of the Western Interior Seaway. That sea gradually inundated the adjacent coastal plain, depositing the marine shales of the Bearpaw Formation on top of the Dinosaur Park Formation.[4]

The Dinosaur Park Formation is about 70 metres (230 ft) thick at Dinosaur Park. The lower portion of the formation was laid down in fluvial channel environments and consists primarily of fine- to medium-grained, crossbedded sandstones. The upper portion, which was deposited in overbank and floodplain environments, consists primarily of massive to laminated, organic-rich mudstones with abundant root traces, and thin beds of bentonite. The Lethbridge Coal Zone, which consists of several seams of low-rank coal interbedded with mudstones and siltstones, marks the top of the formation.[4]

The sediments of the Dinosaur Park Formation are similar to those of the underlying Oldman Formation and they were originally included in that formation. The two formations are separated by a regional disconformity, however, and are distinguished by petrographic and sedimentologic differences. In addition, articulated skeletal remains and bonebeds are rare in the Oldman Formation but abundant in the Dinosaur Park Formation.[3][4]

Biostratigraphy[edit]

The Dinosaur Park Formation can be divided into at least two distinct faunas. The lower part of the formation is characterized by the abundance of Corythosaurus and Centrosaurus. This group of species is replaced higher in the formation by a different ornithischian fauna characterized by the presence of Lambeosaurus and Styracosaurus. The appearance of several new, rare species of ornithischian at the very top of the formation may indicate that a third distinct fauna had replaced the second during the transition into younger, non-Dinosaur Park sediments, at the same time an inland sea transgresses onto land, but there are fewer remains here. An unnamed pachyrhinosaur, Vagaceratops irvinensis, and Lambeosaurus magnicristatus may be more common in this third fauna.[6][7]

The timeline below follows a synthesis presented by Arbour et al. 2009[1] with additional information from Evans et al. 2009 and Penkalski, 2013.[8] Megaherbivore Assemblage Zones (MAZ) follow data presented by Mallon et al., 2012.[9]
Pachyrhinosaurinae Lambeosaurus magnicristatus Vagaceratops irvinensis Styracosaurus albertensis Lambeosaurus lambei Prosaurolophus maximus Daspletosaurus Panoplosaurus mirus Chasmosaurus belli Gryposaurus incurvimanus Centrosaurus apertus Gryposaurus notabilis Euoplocephalus tutus Gorgosaurus libratus Parasaurolophus walkeri Lambeosaurus clavinitialis Corythosaurus intermedius Corythosaurus casuarius Edmontonia rugosidens Chasmosaurus russelli Dyoplosaurus acutosquameus Scolosaurus cutleri Mercuriceratops gemini

Amphibians[edit]

Remains of the following amphibians have been found in the formation:[10]

Albanerpetonidae (extinct, salamander-like amphibians)

Caudata (salamanders)

Salienta (frogs)

  • 2 unnamed salientans

Dinosaurs[edit]

Remains of the following dinosaurs have been found in the formation:[1][11]

Ornithischians[edit]

Remains of the following Onrithischians have been found in the formation:[12]

Ankylosaurs[edit]

Ankylosaurs reported from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Dyoplosaurus

D. acutosquameus

Lower, 76.5Ma ago[1]

Restored skeleton of ROM 1930, Royal Tyrrell Museum
Panoplosaurus skull
Type specimen at Natural History Museum, London

Edmontonia

E. rugosidens

Lower, 76.5-75.9Ma ago[1]

Euoplocephalus

E. tutus

Lower to Middle, ~76.4-75.6Ma[8]

Although the stratigraphic range of the holotype is uncertain, all specimens that can be reliably referred to E. tutus came from the lower 40 m and the upper >10 m of the Formation. There are no known ankylosaurids from the top 20–25 m of the Formation.[8]

Panoplosaurus

P. mirus

Middle, 75.6Ma ago[1]

"Partial skeleton with complete skull, osteoderms, additional isolated teeth, postcranial elements, osteoderms."[13]

Scolosaurus

S. cutleri

Lower, 76.5Ma ago or more[8]

It possibly came from the upper layers of the underlying Oldman Formation.[8]

Ceratopsians[edit]

An unnamed Pachyrhinosaurus-like taxon has been recovered from the formation.

Ceratopsians reported from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Centrosaurus

C. apertus

Middle, 76.2-75.5Ma ago[1]

"[Fifteen] skulls, several skeletons, all adult; abundant bone-bed material with rare juveniles and subadults."[14] C. nasicornis may be a synonym.

Centorsaurines

Centrosaurus nasicornis
Chasmosaurus belli (top) and C. russelli (bottom) restorations
Styracosaurus albertensis
Vagaceratops irvinensis restoration

Chasmosaurus

C. belli

Middle, 76-75.5Ma ago[1]

"[Twelve] skulls, several skeletons."[14]

Chasmosaurines

C. russelli

Lower, 76.5-76Ma ago[1]

"[Six] complete or partial skulls."[15]

Mercuriceratops

M. gemini[16]

Lower, ~77Ma ago[16]

"one apomorphic squamosal"[16]

A chasmosaurine

Monoclonius

M. lowei

Centorsaurines

Pentaceratops[17]

P. aquilonius[18]

Uppermost, 74.8 MA[19]

two frill fragments[20]

A species of Pentaceratops.[21]

Spinops[22]

S. sternbergorum[22]

Lower, 76.5Ma[22]

"partial parietal bone, partial dentary, unidentifiable limb fragments, partial skull, and partial right squamosal."[22]

A centrosaurine, may actually be from the upper Oldman Formation.[22]

Styracosaurus

S. albertensis

Upper, 75.5-75.2Ma ago[1]

"[Two] skulls, [three] skeletons, additional material in bone beds."[14]

Centrosaurines

Unescoceratops

U. koppelhusae

Partial lower jaw[23]

Leptoceratopsids

Vagaceratops

V. irvinensis

Upper, 75Ma ago[1]

"[Three] skulls, skeleton lacking tail."[15]

Chasmosaurine species previously classified in the genus Chasmosaurus.[24]

Ornithopods[edit]

The head of Gryposaurus notabilis.

At least one indeterminate hypsilophodont specimenhas been recovered from the formation.

In a 2001 review of hadrosaur eggshell and hatchling material from the Dinosaur Park Formation, Darren H. Tanke and M. K. Brett-Surman concluded that hadrosaurs nested in both the ancient upland and lowlands of the formation's depositional environment.[25] The upland nesting grounds may have been preferred by the less common hadrosaurs, like Brachylophosaurus or Parasaurolophus. However, the authors were unable to determine what specific factors shaped nesting ground choice in the formation's hadrosaurs. They suggested that behavior, diet, soil condition, and competition between dinosaur species all potentially influenced where hadrosaurs nested.[26]

Sub-centimeter fragments of pebbly-textured hadrosaur eggshell have been reported from the Dinosaur Park Formation. This eggshell is similar to the hadrosaur eggshell of Devil's Coulee in southern Alberta as well as that of the Two Medicine and Judith River Formations in Montana, United States.[27] While present, dinosaur eggshell is very rare in the Dinosaur Park Formation and is only found in two different microfossil sites.[25] These sites are distinguished by large numbers of pisidiid clams and other less common shelled invertebrates like unionid clams and snails. This association is not a coincidence as the invertebrate shells would have slowly dissolved and released enough basic calcium carbonate to protect the eggshells from naturally occurring acids that otherwise would have dissolved them and prevented fossilization.[27]

In contrast with eggshell fossils, the remains of very young hadrosaurs are actually somewhat common. Darren Tanke has observed that an experienced collector could actually discover multiple juvenile hadrosaur specimens in a single day. The most common remains of young hadrosaurs in the Dinosaur Park Formation are dentaries, bones from limbs and feet, as well as vertebral centra. The material showed little or none of the abrasion that would have resulted from transport, meaning the fossils were buried near their point of origin.[28] Bonebeds 23, 28, 47, and 50 are productive sources of young hadrosaur remains in the formation, especially bonebed 50. The bones of juvenile hadrosaurs and fossil eggshell fragments are not known to have preserved in association with each other, despite both being present in the formation.[29]

Ornithopods reported from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Corythosaurus

C. casuarius

Lower-Middle, 76.5-75.5Ma ago[1]

"Approximately [ten] articulated skulls and associated postcrania, [ten to fifteen] articulated skulls, isolated skull elements, juvenile to adult."[30]

Life restoration of Lambeosaurus

Gryposaurus

G. incurvimanus

Middle, 76-75.5Ma ago[1]

"Single fully articulated skull and skeleton."[31]

Junior synonym of G. notabilis

G. notabilis

Lower, 76.2-76Ma ago[1]

"Approximately [ten] complete skulls, [twelve] fragmentary skulls, associated postcrania."[31]

Lambeosaurus

L. lambei

Upper, 75.5-75Ma ago[1]

"Approximately [seven] articulated skulls with associated postcrania, [possibly ten] articulated skulls, isolated skull elements, juvenile to adult."[32]

L. magnicristatus

Upper/Bearpaw Formation, 74.8Ma ago[1]

"[Two] complete skulls, one with associated, articulated postcrania."[32]

Parasaurolophus

P. walkeri

Lower, 76.5-75.3Ma ago[7]

"Complete skull and postcranial skeleton."[32]

Prosaurolophus

P. maximus

"[Twenty to twenty-five] individuals, including at least [seven] articulated skulls and associated postcrania."[31]

Pachycephalosaurs[edit]

Pachycephalosaurs reported from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Foraminacephale [33]

F. brevis

Hanssuesia

H. sternbergi

Microcephale

Gravitholus

G. albertae

"Frontoparietal dome."[34]

Ornatotholus

O. browni

Junior synonym of Stegoceras validum

Stegoceras

S. breve

Reclassified as Foraminacephale brevis.[33]

S. sternbergi

Reclassified as Hanssuesia sternbergi.

S. validum

Specimens including frontoparietal dome.[34]

Troodon

T. sternbergi

Reclassified as Hanssuesia sternbergi. The genus Troodon is now recognized as a theropod.

Theropods[edit]

In the Dinosaur Park Formation, small theropods are rare due to the tendency of their thin-walled bones to be broken or poorly preserved.[35] Small bones of small theropods that were preyed upon by larger ones may have been swallowed whole and digested.[36] In this context, the discovery of a small theropod dinosaur with preserved tooth marks was especially valuable.[35] Possible indeterminate avimimid and therizinosaurid remains are known from the formation.

Ornithomimids[edit]

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.
Ornithomimids reported from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

"Dromiceiomimus'"

D. samuelli

type specimen

An ornithomimid, probably represents a species of Struthiomimus [37] (or possibly a new genus)

Ornithomimus

O. altus

Reclassified as Struthiomimus altus

O. elegans

Reclassified as Leptorhynchos elegans

Struthiomimus

S. altus

type specimen

An ornithomimid

S. samuelli

Reclassified as "Dromiceiomimus" samueli

Oviraptorosaurs[edit]

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.
Oviraptorosaurs reported from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Caenagnathus

C. collinsi

Mandible, type specimen

Caenagnathid [38]

C. sternbergi

Mandible, type specimen

Caenagnathid, possibly synonymous with Chirostenotes pergracilis[38]

Chirostenotes

C. pergracilis

Several fragmentary specimens, type specimen

Caenagnathids

Leptorhynchos

L. elegans

Several fragmentary specimens, type specimen

Caenagnathids

Macrophalangia

M. canadensis

Junior synonym of Chirostenotes pergracilis

Paravians[edit]

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.
Paravians reported from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

cf. Baptornis

Indeterminate

A hesperornithine bird

cf. Cimolopteryx

Indeterminate

Partial coracoid

A possible charadriiform bird

Dromaeosaurus

D. albertensis

Several specimens and teeth, type specimen

A dromaeosaurid

Hesperonychus

H. elizabethae

Hip bones and partial toes and claws, type specimen

A dromaeosaurid, also found in the Oldman Formation

cf. Palintropus

Unnamed

Partial shoulder girdles

An ambiortiform bird.

cf. Paronychodon

cf. P. lacustris

Teeth

An indeterminate maniraptoran, also found in the Judith River

Richardoestesia

R. gilmorei

Mandible, type specimen

A dromaeosaurid.

Saurornitholestes

S. langstoni

Incomplete skeleton and teeth, type specimen. A dentary referred to Saurornitholestes was discovered that preserved tooth marks left by a young tyrannosaur.[39]

A dromaeosaurid

Stenonychosaurus

S. inequalis

Junior synonym of Troodon inequalis

Troodon

T. formosus

Partial skeletons

A troodontid, also found in the Oldman, Judith River, and Two Medicine Formations

T. inequalis

Nearly complete skeleton, type specimen

A troodontid

Tyrannosaurs[edit]

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.
Tyrannosaurs reported from the Dinosaur Park Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Albertosaurus

A. libratus

Reclassified as Gorgosaurus libratus

A. sternbergi

Junior synonym of Gorgosaurus libratus

Daspletosaurus

Unnamed species[40]

Middle-Upper, 75.6-75Ma ago[1]

Several specimens

A tyrannosaurid, also present in the Bearpaw Formation

Gorgosaurus

G. libratus

Lower-Middle, 76.6-75.1Ma ago[1]

Numerous specimens, type specimen[40]

A tyrannosaurid

G. sternbergi

Junior synonym of G. libratus

Fish[edit]

Remains of the following fish have been found in the formation:[41]

Chondrichthyans

Acipenseriformes (sturgeons)

  • unnamed sturgeon
  • unnamed paddlefish

Holostean fish

Teleost fish

Invertebrates[edit]

Remains of the following invertebrates have been cound in the formation:[42]

Freshwater bivalves

  • Fusconaia
  • Lampsilis
  • Sphaerium (2 species)

Freshwater gastropods

  • Campeloma (2 species)
  • Elimia
  • Goniobasis (3 species)
  • Hydrobia
  • Lioplacodes (2 species)

Mammals[edit]

Remains of the following mammals have been found in the formation:[43]

Multituberculata

Marsupials

Placentals

Unknown therians: at least 1 species

Plants[edit]

Plant body fossils[edit]

The following plant body fossils have been found in the formation:[44]

Gymnosperms

Ginkgos

Angiosperms

Palynomorphs[edit]

Palynomorphs are organic-walled microfossils, like spores, pollen, and algae. The following palynomorphs have been found in the formation:[45]

Unknown producers

  • at least 8 species

Fungi

Chlorophyta (green algae and blue-green algae)

Pyrrhophyta (dinoflagellates, a type of marine algae)

Bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts)

Anthocerotophyta (hornworts)
  • at least 5 species
Marchantiophyta (liverworts)
  • at least 14 species
Bryophyta (mosses)
  • at least 5 species

Lycopodiophyta

Lycopodiaceae (club mosses)
  • at least 11 species
Selaginellaceae (small club mosses)
  • at least 6 species
Isoetaceae (quillworts)
  • at least 1 species

Polypodiophyta

Osmundaceae (cinnamon ferns)
  • at least 6 species
Schizaeaceae (climbing ferns)
  • at least 20 species
Gleicheniaceae (Gleichenia and allies; coral ferns)
  • at least 5 species
Cyatheaceae (Cyathea and allies)
  • at least 4 species
Dicksoniaceae (Dicksonia and allies)
  • at least 3 species
Polypodiaceae (ferns)
  • at least 4 species
Matoniaceae
  • at least 1 species
Marsileaceae
  • at least 1 species

Pinophyta (gymnosperms)

Cycadaceae (cycads)
  • at least 3 species
Caytoniaceae
  • at least 1 species
Pinaceae (pines)
  • at least 4 species
Cupressaceae (cypresses)
  • at least 3 species
Podocarpaceae (Podocarpus and allies)
  • at least 4 species
Cheirolepidiaceae
  • at least 2 species
Ephedraceae (Mormon teas)
  • at least 6 species

Unknown gymnosperms: at least 3 species

Magnoliophyta (angiosperms)

Magnoliopsida (dicots)
Buxaceae (boxwood)
  • at least 1 species
Gunneraceae (gunneras)
  • at least 1 species
Salicaceae (willows, cottonwood, quaking aspen)
  • at least 1 species
Droseraceae (sundews)
  • at least 1 species
Olacaceae (tallowwood)
  • at least 2 species
Loranthaceae (showy mistletoes)
  • at least 1 species
Sapindaceae (soapberry)
  • at least 1 species
Aceraceae (maples)
  • at least 1 species
Proteaceae (proteas)
  • at least 9 species
Compositae (sunflowers)
  • at least 1 species
Fagaceae (beeches, oaks, chestnuts)
  • at least 2 species
Betulaceae (birches, alders)
  • at least 1 species
Ulmaceae (elms)
  • at least 1 species
Chenopodiaceae (goosefoots)
  • at least 1 species
Liliopsida (monocots)
Liliaceae (lilies)
  • at least 6 species
Cyperaceae (sedges)
  • at least 1 species
Sparganiaceae (bur-reeds)
  • possibly 1 species
Unknown angiosperms: at least 88 species

Other reptiles[edit]

Choristoderes[edit]

Choristoderes, or champsosaurs, were aquatic reptiles. Small examples looked like lizards, while larger types were superficially similar to crocodilians. Remains of the following Choristoderes have been found in the formation:[46]

Crocodylians[edit]

Remains of the following Crocodylians have been found in the formation:[47]

Lizards[edit]

Remains of the following lizards have been found in the formation:[48]

Helodermatids

Necrosaurids

Teiids

Varanids

Xenosaurids

Plesiosaurs[edit]

Remains of the following Plesiosaurs have been found in the formation:[49]

Pterosaurs[edit]

Remains of the following Pterosaurs have been found in the formation:[50]

Turtles[edit]

Remains of the following turtles have been found in the formation:[52]

Timeline of new taxa[edit]

The following timeline displays valid taxa first discovered in the dinosaur. Some species may have been referred to other genera subsequent to their initial description. 21st century in paleontology 20th century in paleontology 19th century in paleontology 2090s in paleontology 2080s in paleontology 2070s in paleontology 2060s in paleontology 2050s in paleontology 2040s in paleontology 2030s in paleontology 2020s in paleontology 2010s in paleontology 2000s in paleontology 1990s in paleontology 1980s in paleontology 1970s in paleontology 1960s in paleontology 1950s in paleontology 1940s in paleontology 1930s in paleontology 1920s in paleontology 1910s in paleontology 1900s in paleontology 1890s in paleontology 1880s in paleontology 1870s in paleontology 1860s in paleontology 1850s in paleontology 1840s in paleontology 1830s in paleontology 1820s in paleontology 1810s in paleontology 1800s in paleontology Leptorhynchos Unescoceratops Vagaceratops Hesperonychus Chasmosaurus irvinensis Richardoestesia Gravitholus Saurornitholestes Daspletosaurus Troodon sternbergi Chasmosaurus russeli Lambeosaurus magnicristatus Stenonychosaurus inequalis Scolosaurus Dyoplosaurus Chirostenotes Lambeosaurus Parasaurolophus Dromaeosaurus Panoplosaurus Struthiomimus Prosaurolophus Gryposaurus Gorgosaurus Corythosaurus Chasmosaurus Styracosaurus Centrosaurus Stereocephalus tutus Stegoceras Ornithomimus altus Monoclonius belli Euoplocephalus 21st century in paleontology 20th century in paleontology 19th century in paleontology 2090s in paleontology 2080s in paleontology 2070s in paleontology 2060s in paleontology 2050s in paleontology 2040s in paleontology 2030s in paleontology 2020s in paleontology 2010s in paleontology 2000s in paleontology 1990s in paleontology 1980s in paleontology 1970s in paleontology 1960s in paleontology 1950s in paleontology 1940s in paleontology 1930s in paleontology 1920s in paleontology 1910s in paleontology 1900s in paleontology 1890s in paleontology 1880s in paleontology 1870s in paleontology 1860s in paleontology 1850s in paleontology 1840s in paleontology 1830s in paleontology 1820s in paleontology 1810s in paleontology 1800s in paleontology

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Arbour, V. M.; Burns, M. E.; Sissons, R. L. (2009). "A redescription of the ankylosaurid dinosaur Dyoplosaurus acutosquameus Parks, 1924 (Ornithischia: Ankylosauria) and a revision of the genus". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29 (4): 1117–1135. doi:10.1671/039.029.0405. 
  2. ^ Lexicon of Canadian Geologic Units: Dinosaur Park Formation
  3. ^ a b c Eberth, D.A. and Hamblin A.P. 1993. Tectonic, stratigraphic, and sedimentologic significance of a regional discontinuity in the upper Judith River Group (Belly River wedge) of southern Alberta, Saskatchewan, and northern Montana. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 30: 174-200.
  4. ^ a b c d e Eberth, D.A. 2005. The geology. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis,p.54-82. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  5. ^ Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 277-291. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  6. ^ Ryan and Evans (2005).
  7. ^ a b Evans D.C., Bavington R., Campione N.E. (2009). "An unusual hadrosaurid braincase from the Dinosaur Park Formation and the biostratigraphy of Parasaurolophus (Ornithischia: Lambeosaurinae) from southern Alberta". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 46 (11): 791–800. Bibcode:2009CaJES..46..791E. doi:10.1139/E09-050. 
  8. ^ a b c d e Penkalski, P. (2013). "A new ankylosaurid from the late Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation of Montana, USA". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. doi:10.4202/app.2012.0125.  edit
  9. ^ Mallon, J. C., Evans, D. C., Ryan, M. J., & Anderson, J. S. (2012). Megaherbivorous dinosaur turnover in the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.
  10. ^ Gardner, J.D. 2005. Lissamphibians. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 186-201. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  11. ^ Currie, P.J. 2005. Theropods, including birds. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 367-397. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  12. ^ Ryan, M.J., and Evans, D.C. 2005. Ornithischian dinosaurs. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 312-348. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  13. ^ "Table 17.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 365.
  14. ^ a b c "Table 23.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 495.
  15. ^ a b "Table 23.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 496.
  16. ^ a b c Ryan, Michael J.; Evans, David C.; Currie, Phillip J.; Loewen, Mark A. (2014). "A New chasmosaurine from northern Laramidia expands frill disparity in ceratopsid dinosaurs". Naturwissenschaften. doi:10.1007/s00114-014-1183-1
  17. ^ Nicholas R. Longrich (2014). "The horned dinosaurs Pentaceratops and Kosmoceratops from the upper Campanian of Alberta and implications for dinosaur biogeography". Cretaceous Research 51: 292–308. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2014.06.011. 
  18. ^ Nicholas R. Longrich (2014). "The horned dinosaurs Pentaceratops and Kosmoceratops from the upper Campanian of Alberta and implications for dinosaur biogeography". Cretaceous Research 51: 292–308. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2014.06.011. 
  19. ^ Nicholas R. Longrich (2014). "The horned dinosaurs Pentaceratops and Kosmoceratops from the upper Campanian of Alberta and implications for dinosaur biogeography". Cretaceous Research 51: 292–308. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2014.06.011. 
  20. ^ Nicholas R. Longrich (2014). "The horned dinosaurs Pentaceratops and Kosmoceratops from the upper Campanian of Alberta and implications for dinosaur biogeography". Cretaceous Research 51: 292–308. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2014.06.011. 
  21. ^ Nicholas R. Longrich (2014). "The horned dinosaurs Pentaceratops and Kosmoceratops from the upper Campanian of Alberta and implications for dinosaur biogeography". Cretaceous Research 51: 292–308. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2014.06.011. 
  22. ^ Cite error: The named reference Spinops was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  23. ^ Michael J. Ryan, David C. Evans, Philip J. Currie, Caleb M. Brown and Don Brinkman (2012). "New leptoceratopsids from the Upper Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada". Cretaceous Research 35: 69–80. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2011.11.018. 
  24. ^ Scott D. Sampson, Mark A. Loewen, Andrew A. Farke, Eric M. Roberts, Catherine A. Forster, Joshua A. Smith, Alan L. Titus (2010). "New Horned Dinosaurs from Utah Provide Evidence for Intracontinental Dinosaur Endemism". PLoS ONE 5 (9): e12292. Bibcode:2010PLoSO...512292S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012292. PMC 2929175. PMID 20877459. 
  25. ^ a b "Abstract," Tanke and Brett-Surman (2001). Page 206.
  26. ^ "Conclusions," Tanke and Brett-Surman (2001). Page 212.
  27. ^ a b "Eggshell," Tanke and Brett-Surman (2001). Page 209.
  28. ^ "Introduction," Tanke and Brett-Surman (2001). Page 208.
  29. ^ "Discussion," Tanke and Brett-Surman (2001). Page 212.
  30. ^ "Table 20.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 441.
  31. ^ a b c "Table 20.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 440.
  32. ^ a b c "Table 20.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 442.
  33. ^ a b Schott, R.K. 2011. Ontogeny, diversity, and systematics of pachycephalosaur dinosaurs from the Belly River Group of Alberta. Master of Science thesis. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of Toronto, 173 pp.PDF
  34. ^ a b "Table 21.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 465.
  35. ^ a b "Introduction," Jacobsen (2001). Page 59.
  36. ^ "Discussion," Jacobsen (2001). Page 61.
  37. ^ Longrich, N. (2008). "A new, large ornithomimid from the Cretaceous Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, Canada: Implications for the study of dissociated dinosaur remains." Palaeontology, 51(4): 983-997.
  38. ^ a b Longrich, N. R.; Barnes, K.; Clark, S.; Millar, L. (2013). "Caenagnathidae from the Upper Campanian Aguja Formation of West Texas, and a Revision of the Caenagnathinae". Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History 54: 23. doi:10.3374/014.054.0102.  edit
  39. ^ "Abstract," Jacobsen (2001). Page 58.
  40. ^ a b Currie, Philip J. (2003). "Cranial anatomy of tyrannosaurids from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta" (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 48 (2): 191–226. 
  41. ^ Neuman, A.G., and Brinkman, D.B. 2005. Fishes of the fluvial beds. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 167-185. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  42. ^ Johnston, P.A., and Hendy, A.J.W. 2005. Paleoecology of mollusks from the Upper Cretaceous Belly River Group. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 139-166. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  43. ^ Fox, R.C. 2005. Late Cretaceous mammals. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 417-435. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  44. ^ Koppelhus, E.B. 2005. Paleobotany. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 131-138. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  45. ^ Braman, D.R., and Koppelhus, E.B. 2005. Campanian palynomorphs. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 101-130. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  46. ^ K.Gao and Brinkman, D.B. 2005. Choristoderes from the Park and its vicinity. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 221-234. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  47. ^ Xiao-Chun Wu. 2005. Crocodylians. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 277-291. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  48. ^ Caldwell, M.W. The squamates: origins, phylogeny, and paleoecology. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds). 2005. ‘’Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed.’’ Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 235-248. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  49. ^ Sato, T., Eberth, D.A., Nicholls, E.L., and Manabe, M. 2005. Plesiosaurian remains from non-marine to paralic sediments. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed.’’ Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 249-276. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  50. ^ Godfrey, S.J., and Currie, P.J. 2005. Pterosaurs. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 292-311. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.
  51. ^ Robert M. Sullivan and Denver W. Fowler (2011). "Navajodactylus boerei, n. gen., n. sp., (Pterosauria, ?Azhdarchidae) from the Upper Cretaceous Kirtland Formation (upper Campanian) of New Mexico". Fossil Record 3. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 53: 393–404. 
  52. ^ Brinkman, D.B. 2005. Turtles: diversity, paleoecology, and distribution. In: Currie, P.J., and Koppelhus, E.B. (eds), Dinosaur Provincial Park: A Spectacular Ancient Ecosystem Revealed. Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis, p. 202-220. ISBN 0-253-34595-2.

References[edit]

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