Dinosaur size

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other large prehistoric reptiles, see Largest prehistoric animals#Reptiles (Reptilia).

Size has been one of the most interesting aspects of dinosaur science to the general public. This article lists the largest and smallest dinosaurs from various groups, sorted in order of weight and length.

Scale diagram comparing a human and the largest known dinosaurs of five major clades

This list excludes unpublished size estimates. In some cases, dinosaurs are known that will be included on this list if/when they are officially described. In addition, weight estimates for dinosaurs are much more variable than length estimates, because estimating length for extinct animals is much more easily done from a skeleton than estimating weight. Estimating weight is most easily done with the laser scan skeleton technique that puts a "virtual" skin over it, but even this is only an estimate.[1]

Amphicoelias is the largest dinosaur known, estimated 58 m (190 ft) and 122.4 t (134.9 short tons) in peer-reviewed journals [2]and 40–60 m (130–200 ft) and 100–150 t (110–170 short tons) in semi-technical books. [3]

Theropods[edit]

Main article: Theropoda

Sizes are given with a range, where possible, of estimates that have not been contradicted by more recent studies. In cases where a range of currently accepted estimates exist, sources are given for the sources with the lowest and highest estimates, respectively, and only the highest values are given if these individual sources give a range of estimates.

Longest theropods[edit]

Size comparison of selected giant theropod dinosaurs
  1. Spinosaurus aegyptiacus: 14–18 m (46–59 ft)[4][3][5]
  2. Giganotosaurus carolinii: 12.2–14 m (40–46 ft)[6][3]
  3. Oxalaia quilombensis: 11–14 m (36–46 ft)[7][8]
  4. Carcharodontosaurus saharicus: 12–13.3 m (39–44 ft)[7][9]
  5. Carcharodontosaurus iguidensis: 10 m (33 ft)-(comparable to C. saharicus)[3][10]
  6. Tyrannotitan chubutensis: 12.2–13 m (40–43 ft)[3][7]
  7. Chilantaisaurus tashuikouensis: 11–13 m (36–43 ft)?[3][7]
  8. Saurophaganax maximus: 10.5–13 m (34–43 ft)[3][7]
  9. Mapusaurus roseae: 11.5–12.6 m (38–41 ft)[3][7]
  10. Tyrannosaurus rex: 12–12.5 m (39–41 ft)[3][4]

Heaviest theropods[edit]

Size by overall weight of all theropods with maximum weight estimates of over 5 metric tons (5.5 short tons).

  1. Spinosaurus aegyptiacus: 7–20.9 t (7.7–23.0 short tons)[9][5]
  2. Tyrannosaurus rex: 4.5–18.5 t (5.0–20.4 short tons)[11][12][13][14]
  3. Carcharodontosaurus saharicus: 3–15.1 t (3.3–16.6 short tons)[9][15][16]
  4. Carcharodontosaurus iguidensis: 4 t (4.4 short tons)-(comparable to C. saharicus)[3][10]
  5. Giganotosaurus carolinii: 6.1–13.8 t (6.7–15.2 short tons) (2.6–13.8 t (2.9–15.2 short tons))[9][16][17]
  6. Acrocanthosaurus atokensis: 3.7–7.3 t (4.1–8.0 short tons)[12][18]
  7. Tyrannotitan chubutensis: 5.6–7 t (6.2–7.7 short tons)[12][3]
  8. Oxalaia quilombensis: 5–7 t (5.5–7.7 short tons)[8]
  9. Deinocheirus mirificus: 6.4 t (7.1 short tons)[19]
  10. Chilantaisaurus tashuikouensis: 2.5–6 t (2.8–6.6 short tons)[20][21]

Shortest theropods[edit]

  1. Mellisuga helenae: 5–6 cm (2.0–2.4 in)[22][23]
  2. Selasphorus rufus: 7–9 cm (2.8–3.5 in)[24]

Lightest theropods[edit]

  1. Mellisuga helenae: 2 g (0.071 oz)[25]
  2. Selasphorus rufus: 2–5 g (0.071–0.176 oz)[24]
  3. Calypte costae: 3.38–4.43 g (0.119–0.156 oz)[26]
  4. Calypte anna: 3.85–5.33 g (0.136–0.188 oz)[26]

Shortest non-avialan theropods[edit]

Size comparison of the smallest non-avialan theropods
  1. Unnamed (BEXHM: 2008.14.1): 17–50 cm (6.7–19.7 in)[27][28]
  2. Epidexipteryx hui: 25 cm (9.8 in)[29]
  3. Eosinopteryx brevipenna: 30 cm (12 in)[30]
  4. Nqwebasaurus thwazi: 30 cm (12 in)[9]
  5. "Ornithomimus" minutus: 30 cm (12 in)[7]
  6. Palaeopteryx thompsoni: 30 cm (12 in)?[7]
  7. Parvicursor remotus: 30–39 cm (12–15 in)[31][7]
  8. Microraptor zhaoianus: 42–120 cm (17–47 in)[32][33]
  9. Xixianykus zhangi: 50 cm (20 in)[7]
  10. Alwalkeria maleriensis: 50 cm (20 in)?[7]

Lightest non-avialan theropods[edit]

A list of all known non-avian theropods with an adult weight of 1 kg (2.2 lb) or less.

  1. Parvicursor remotus: 137–162 g (4.8–5.7 oz)[16][31]
  2. Epidexipteryx hui: 164–391 g (5.8–13.8 oz)[16][29]
  3. Compsognathus longipes: 0.26–3.5 kg (0.57–7.72 lb)[9][15]
  4. Ceratonykus oculatus: 0.3 kg (0.66 lb)[16]
  5. Juravenator starki: 0.34–0.41 kg (0.75–0.90 lb)[16][9]
  6. Ligabueino andesi: 0.35–0.5 kg (0.77–1.10 lb)[16][3]
  7. Microraptor zhaoianus: 0.4 kg (0.88 lb)[16]
  8. Sinosauropteryx prima: 0.55–0.99 kg (1.2–2.2 lb)[16][9]
  9. Rahonavis ostromi: 0.58 kg (1.3 lb)[16]
  10. Mahakala omnogovae: 0.76–0.79 kg (1.7–1.7 lb)[16][12]

Sauropodomorphs[edit]

Main article: Sauropodomorpha

Sauropodomorph size is difficult to estimate given their usually fragmentary state of preservation. Sauropods are often preserved without their tails, so the margin of error in overall length estimates is high. Mass is calculated using the cube of the length, so for species in which the length is particularly uncertain, the weight is even more so. Estimates that are particularly uncertain (due to very fragmentary or lost material) are preceded by a question mark. Each number represents the highest estimate of a given research paper.

Note that, generally, the giant sauropods can be divided into two categories: the shorter but stockier and more massive forms (mainly titanosaurs and some brachiosaurids), and the longer but slenderer and more light-weight forms (mainly diplodocids).

Longest sauropodomorphs[edit]

Size comparison of selected giant sauropod dinosaurs
  1. Amphicoelias fragillimus: 40–60 m (130–200 ft)[3]
  2. Argentinosaurus huinculensis: 30–39.7 m (98–130 ft)[34][35]
  3. Turiasaurus riodevensis: 30–39 m (98–128 ft)[36][3][7]
  4. Mamenchisaurus sinocanadorum: 26–35 m (85–115 ft)[3][37][ dubious - discuss]
  5. Supersaurus vivianae: 33–35 m (108–115 ft)[38][3]
  6. Futalognkosaurus dukei: 26–34 m (85–112 ft)[2][39][40][7][41]
  7. Diplodocus hallorum("Seismosaurus"): 30–33.5 m (98–110 ft)[38][17][42]
  8. "Antarctosaurus" giganteus: 30–33 m (98–108 ft)[3][7]
  9. Xinjiangtitan shanshanesis: 30–32 m (98–105 ft)[43]
  10. Paralititan stromeri: 20–32 m (66–105 ft)[3][7]

Heaviest sauropodomorphs[edit]

Size by overall weight of all sauropods 35 t (39 short tons) and over.

  1. Amphicoelias fragillimus: 100–150 t (110–170 short tons)[3]
  2. Argentinosaurus huinculensis: 50–90 t (55–99 short tons)[16][3]
  3. "Antarctosaurus" giganteus: 69–80 t (76–88 short tons)[17][3]
  4. Apatosaurus ajax: 36–80 metric tons (40–88 short tons)[44]
  5. Mamenchisaurus sinocanadorum: 75 t (83 short tons)[3][[[Wikipedia:Accuracy dispute|dubious]] - discuss]
  6. Sauroposeidon proteles: 40–60 t (44–66 short tons)[3][41][45]
  7. Dreadnoughtus schrani: 59.3 t (65.4 short tons) + [46]
  8. Paralititan stromeri: 20–59 t (22–65 short tons)[47][3]
  9. Unnamed (MPM-PV-39): 58 t (64 short tons)[48]
  10. Brachiosaurus altithorax: 28.7–56.3 t (31.6–62.1 short tons)[16][49]

Shortest sauropodomorphs[edit]

Estimated size of Saturnalia, compared to a human.
  1. Agnosphitys cromhallensis: 70 cm (2.3 ft)[7]
  2. Eoraptor lunensis: 1–1.7 m (3.3–5.6 ft)[7][3]
  3. Pampadromaeus barberenai: 1.5 m (4.9 ft)[7]
  4. Saturnalia tupiniquim: 1.5 m (4.9 ft)[7]
  5. Chromogisaurus novasi: 1.5 m (4.9 ft)[7]
  6. Guaibasaurus candelariensis: 2 m (6.6 ft)[7][3]
  7. Asylosaurus yalensis: 2–2.1 m (6.6–6.9 ft)[7][3]
  8. Leyesaurus marayensis: 2.1 m (6.9 ft)?[7]
  9. Adeopapposaurus mognai: 2.1–3 m (6.9–9.8 ft)[7][3]
  10. Unaysaurus tolentinoi: 2.5 m (8.2 ft)[7]

Lightest sauropododomorphs[edit]

  1. Eoraptor lunensis: 2–17.3 kg (4.4–38.1 lb)[16][3]
  2. Pampadromaeus barberenai: 8.5 kg (19 lb)[16]
  3. Saturnalia tupiniquim: 10–10.6 kg (22–23 lb)[16][3]
  4. Chromogisaurus novasi: 13.1 kg (29 lb)[16]
  5. Asylosaurus yalensis: 25 kg (55 lb)[3]
  6. Guaibasaurus candelariensis: 25–30.3 kg (55–67 lb)[16][3]
  7. Adeopapposaurus mognai: 43.9–70 kg (97–154 lb)[16][3]
  8. Coloradisaurus brevis: 70 kg (150 lb)[3]
  9. Anchisaurus polyzelus: 70–137.6 kg (154–303 lb)[16][3]
  10. Sarahsaurus aurifontanalis: 100.2 kg (221 lb)[16]

Ornithopods[edit]

Main article: Ornithopoda

Longest ornithopods[edit]

Size comparison of selected giant ornithopod dinosaurs
  1. Shantungosaurus giganteus: 15–18.7 m (49–61 ft)[15][7][50][51]
  2. Hypsibema crassicauda: 15 m (49 ft)?[7]
  3. Hypsibema missouriensis (Parrosaurus):[7] 15 m (49 ft)?[7]
  4. Edmontosaurus regalis: 9–13 m (30–43 ft)[3][52][53]
  5. Iguanodon bernissartensis: 10–13 m (33–43 ft)[7][54]
  6. Magnapaulia laticaudus: 12.5 m (41 ft)[55]
  7. Saurolophus angustirostris: 12 m (39 ft)[3][56]
  8. Ornithotarsus immanis: 12 m (39 ft)?[7]
  9. Edmontosaurus annectens (Anatosaurus): 9–12 m (30–39 ft)[3][7][57]
  10. Kritosaurus sp.: 11 m (36 ft)[58]

Heaviest ornithopods[edit]

  1. Magnapaulia laticaudus: 12–23 t (13–25 short tons)[3][59]
  2. Shantungosaurus giganteus: 9.9–22.5 t (10.9–24.8 short tons)[16][15][3][60]
  3. Iguanodon seeleyi: 15 t (17 short tons)[16]
  4. Saurolophus angustirostris: 6.6–9 t (7.3–9.9 short tons)[3]
  5. Iguanodon bernissartensis: 8.3–8.6 t (9.1–9.5 short tons)[16]
  6. Edmontosaurus annectens (Anatotitan): 3.2–7.6 t (3.5–8.4 short tons)[16][15][61]
  7. Brachylophosaurus canadensis: 4.5–7 t (5.0–7.7 short tons)[16][3]
  8. Saurolophus osborni: 6.6 t (7.3 short tons)[16]
  9. Lanzhousaurus magnidens: 6 t (6.6 short tons)[3]
  10. Parasaurolophus walkeri: 3–5.1 t (3.3–5.6 short tons)[16][15][62]

Shortest ornithopods[edit]

  1. Gasparinisaura cincosaltensis: 0.65–1.7 m (2.1–5.6 ft)[15][3][7]
  2. Leaellynasaura amicagraphica: 0.9–3 m (3.0–9.8 ft)[3][7]
  3. Valdosaurus canaliculatus: 1.3 m (4.3 ft)[3]
  4. Notohypsilophodon comodorensis: 1.3 m (4.3 ft)[3]
  5. Fulgurotherium australe: 1.3–2 m (4.3–6.6 ft)[3][7]
  6. Siluosaurus zhangqiani: 1.4 m (4.6 ft)[7]
  7. Qantassaurus intrepidus: 1.4–2 m (4.6–6.6 ft)[3][7]
  8. Changchunsaurus parvus: 1.5 m (4.9 ft)[3]
  9. Thescelosaurus sp.: 1.5 m (4.9 ft)[15]
  10. Yandusaurus hongheensis: 1.5–3.8 m (4.9–12.5 ft)[3][7]

Lightest ornithopods[edit]

  1. Gasparinisaura cincosaltensis: 1–13 kg (2.2–28.7 lb)[16][15][3][12]
  2. Yueosaurus tiantaiensis: 3.9 kg (8.6 lb)[16]
  3. Fulgurotherium australe: 6 kg (13 lb)[3]
  4. Notohypsilophodon comodorensis: 6 kg (13 lb)[3]
  5. Yandusaurus hongheensis: 6.6–7.5 kg (15–17 lb)[15][61]
  6. Hypsilophodon foxii: 7–21 kg (15–46 lb)[15][3][61]
  7. Thescelosaurus sp.: 7.9–86 kg (17–190 lb)[15][61]
  8. Valdosaurus canaliculatus: 10 kg (22 lb)[3]
  9. Haya griva: 11 kg (24 lb)[16]
  10. Agilisaurus louderbacki: 12 kg (26 lb)[3]

Ceratopsians[edit]

Main article: Ceratopsia

Longest ceratopsians[edit]

Size comparison of selected giant ceratopsian dinosaurs
  1. Eotriceratops xerinsularis: 8.5–9 m (28–30 ft)[3][7]
  2. Triceratops horridus: 8–9 m (26–30 ft)[15][3][7]
  3. Torosaurus latus: 8–9 m (26–30 ft)[3][7]
  4. Triceratops prorsus: 7.9–9 m (26–30 ft)[3][7][63][64]
  5. Titanoceratops ouranos: 6.8–9 m (22–30 ft)[7][65]
  6. Ojoceratops fowleri: 8 m (26 ft)[7]
  7. Coahuilaceratops magnacuerna: 8 m (26 ft)[7]
  8. Pentaceratops sternbergii: 6–8 m (20–26 ft)[15][3][7][66]
  9. Pachyrhinosaurus canadensis: 6–8 m (20–26 ft)[3][7]
  10. Pachyrhinosaurus lakustai: 5–8 m (16–26 ft)[3][7]

Heaviest ceratopsians[edit]

  1. Triceratops horridus: 5–14 t (5.5–15.4 short tons)[16][15]
  2. Triceratops prorsus: 9–10.9 t (9.9–12.0 short tons)[16][3]
  3. Titanoceratops ouranos: 4.7–10.8 t (5.2–11.9 short tons)[16][67]
  4. Eotriceratops xerinsularis: 10 t (11 short tons)[3]
  5. Pentaceratops sternbergii: 4.7 t (5.2 short tons)[15]
  6. Pachyrhinosaurus canadensis: 3–4.4 t (3.3–4.9 short tons)[16][3][62]
  7. Styracosaurus albertensis: 2.7–4.2 t (3.0–4.6 short tons)[16][68]
  8. Utahceratops gettyi: 3–4 t (3.3–4.4 short tons)[69]
  9. Achelousaurus horneri: 2–3 t (2.2–3.3 short tons)[3]
  10. Agujaceratops mariscalensis: 2.6 t (2.9 short tons)[16]

Shortest ceratopsians[edit]

  1. Yamaceratops dorngobiensis: 50–150 cm (1.6–4.9 ft)[3][7]
  2. Archaeoceratops yujingziensis: 55 cm (1.80 ft)[70]
  3. Microceratus gobiensis: 60 cm (2.0 ft)[7]
  4. Aquilops americanus: 60 cm (2.0 ft)[71]
  5. Chaoyangsaurus youngi: 60–100 cm (2.0–3.3 ft)[3][7]
  6. Xuanhuaceratops niei: 60–100 cm (2.0–3.3 ft)[3][7]
  7. Graciliceratops mongoliensis: 60–200 cm (2.0–6.6 ft)[7][72]
  8. Archaeoceratops oshimai: 67–150 cm (2.20–4.92 ft)[3][7][70]
  9. Bagaceratops rozhdestvenskyi: 80–90 cm (2.6–3.0 ft)[3][7]
  10. Psittacosaurus lujiatunensis: 90 cm (3.0 ft)[3]

Lightest ceratopsians[edit]

  1. Aquilops americanus: 1.5 kg (3.3 lb)[71]
  2. Liaoceratops yanzigouensis: 2 kg (4.4 lb)[3]
  3. Yamaceratops dorngobiensis: 2 kg (4.4 lb)[3]
  4. Psittacosaurus sinensis: 4.1 kg (9.0 lb)[16]
  5. Psittacosaurus lujiatunensis: 5 kg (11 lb)[3]
  6. Yinlong downsi: 5.5 kg (12 lb)[16]
  7. Micropachycephalosaurus hongtuyanensis: 5.9 kg (13 lb)[16]
  8. Chaoyangsaurus youngi: 6 kg (13 lb)[3]
  9. Xuanhuaceratops niei: 6 kg (13 lb)[3]
  10. Psittacosaurus gobiensis: 6–9.4 kg (13–21 lb)[16][3]

Pachycephalosaurs[edit]

Main article: Pachycephalosauria

Longest pachycephalosaurs[edit]

Size comparison of an adult P. wyomingensis (green), potential growth stages, and a human

Size by overall length, including tail, of all pachycephalosaurs measuring 3 meters or more in length.

  1. Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis: 4.5–7 m (15–23 ft)[3][7]
  2. Stygimoloch spinifer: 3 m (9.8 ft)[7]
  3. Gravitholus albertae: 3 m (9.8 ft)?[7]

Shortest pachycephalosaurs[edit]

Size by overall length, including tail, of all pachycephalosaurs measuring 2 meters or less in length as adults.

  1. Colepiocephale lambei: 1.8 m (5.9 ft)[7]
  2. Stegoceras validum: 2 m (6.6 ft)[7]
  3. Texacephale langstoni: 2 m (6.6 ft)[7]

Thyreophorans[edit]

Main article: Thyreophora

Longest thyreophorans[edit]

Size of Stegosaurus armatus compared to a human
Estimated size of Ankylosaurus compared to a human.
  1. Cedarpelta bilbeyhallorum: 7–9 m (23–30 ft)[3][7]
  2. Stegosaurus ungulatus: 7–9 m (23–30 ft)[3][7]
  3. Ankylosaurus magniventris: 6.25–9 m (20.5–29.5 ft)[73][7]
  4. Dacentrurus armatus: 7–8 m (23–26 ft)[74][3][7]
  5. Sauropelta edwardsorum: 5.2–7.6 m (17–25 ft)[75][3][7]
  6. Dyoplosaurus acutosquameus: 7 m (23 ft)?[7]
  7. Tuojiangosaurus multispinus: 6.5–7 m (21–23 ft)[15][3][7]
  8. Wuerhosaurus homheni: 6.1–7 m (20–23 ft)[3][7]
  9. Edmontonia longiceps: 6–7 m (20–23 ft)[3][7]
  10. Jiangjunosaurus junggarensis: 6–7 m (20–23 ft)[3][7]

Heaviest thyreophorans[edit]

  1. Dacentrurus armatus: 5–7.4 t (5.5–8.2 short tons)[3][16]
  2. Stegosaurus ungulatus: 3.8–7 t (4.2–7.7 short tons)[3][16]
  3. Ankylosaurus magniventris: 1.7–6 t (1.9–6.6 short tons)[15][16][3]
  4. Stegosaurus stenops: 2.6–5.3 t (2.9–5.8 short tons)[15][3][76][62]
  5. Cedarpelta bilbeyhallorum: 5 t (5.5 short tons)[3]
  6. Hesperosaurus mjosi: 3.5–5 t (3.9–5.5 short tons)[16][3][76]
  7. Tuojiangosaurus multispinus: 1.1–4.8 t (1.2–5.3 short tons)[15][16]
  8. Wuerhosaurus homheni: 4 t (4.4 short tons)[3]
  9. Niobrarasaurus coleii: 4 t (4.4 short tons)[3]
  10. Gobisaurus domoculus: 3.5 t (3.9 short tons)[3]

Shortest thyreophorans[edit]

  1. Tatisaurus oehleri: 1.2 m (3.9 ft)[7]
  2. Scutellosaurus lawleri: 1.2–1.3 m (3.9–4.3 ft)[3][7]
  3. Dracopelta zbyszewskii: 2 m (6.6 ft)[7]
  4. Minmi paravertebra: 2–3 m (6.6–9.8 ft)[3][7]

Lightest thyreophorans[edit]

  1. Scutellosaurus lawleri: 3 kg (6.6 lb)[3]
  2. Emausaurus ernsti: 50 kg (110 lb)[3]
  3. Scelidosaurus harrisonii: 64.5–270 kg (142–595 lb)[15][3]
  4. Animantarx ramaljonesi: 300 kg (660 lb)[3]
  5. Struthiosaurus transylvanicus: 300 kg (660 lb)[3]
  6. Struthiosaurus austriacus: 300 kg (660 lb)[3]
  7. Gargoyleosaurus parkpinorum: 300 kg (660 lb)[3]
  8. Mymoorapelta maysi: 300 kg (660 lb)[3]
  9. Minmi paravertebra: 300 kg (660 lb)[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Strauss, Bob."Why Were Dinosaurs So Big? The Facts and Theories Behind Dinosaur Gigantism". About Education. http://dinosaurs.about.com/od/dinosaurevolution/a/bigdinos.htm
  2. ^ a b Carpenter, K. (2006). "Biggest of the big: a critical re-evaluation of the mega-sauropod Amphicoelias fragillimus." In Foster, J.R. and Lucas, S.G., eds., 2006, Paleontology and Geology of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 36: 131–138.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de Gregory S. Paul (2010). The Princeton Field Guide to Dinosaurs. United States of America: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691137209. 
  4. ^ a b Ibrahim, Nizar; Sereno, Paul C.; Dal Sasso, Cristiano; Maganuco, Simone; Fabri, Matteo; Martill, David M.; Zouhri, Samir; Myhrvold, Nathan; Lurino, Dawid A. (2014). "Semiaquatic adaptations in a giant predatory dinosaur". Science 345 (6204). doi:10.1126/science.1258750.  Supplementary Information
  5. ^ a b dal Sasso, C.; Maganuco, S.; Buffetaut, E.; Mendez, M.A. (2005). "New information on the skull of the enigmatic theropod Spinosaurus, with remarks on its sizes and affinities". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 25 (4): 888–896. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2005)025[0888:NIOTSO]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0272-4634. 
  6. ^ Coria, R. A.; Currie, P. J. (2006). "A new carcharodontosaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous of Argentina". Geodiversitas 28 (1): 71–118. ISSN 1280-9659. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw Rey LV, Holtz, Jr TR (2007). Dinosaurs: the most complete, up-to-date encyclopedia for dinosaur lovers of all ages. United States of America: Random House. ISBN 0-375-82419-7.  PDF (Updated on 2012)
  8. ^ a b Kellner, Alexander W.A.; Sergio A.K. Azevedeo; Elaine B. Machado; Luciana B. Carvalho; Deise D.R. Henriques (2011). "A new dinosaur (Theropoda, Spinosauridae) from the Cretaceous (Cenomanian) Alcântara Formation, Cajual Island, Brazil". Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 83 (1): 99–108. doi:10.1590/S0001-37652011000100006. ISSN 0001-3765. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Therrien, F.; Henderson, D.M. (2007). "My theropod is bigger than yours...or not: estimating body size from skull length in theropods". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27 (1): 108–115. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2007)27[108:MTIBTY]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0272-4634. 
  10. ^ a b Brusatte, S.L.; Sereno, P.C. (2007). "A new species of Carcharodontosaurus (dinosauria: theropoda) from the Cenomanian of Niger and a revision of the genus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 27(4):". doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2007)27[902:ANSOCD]2.0.CO;2. 
  11. ^ Hutchinson J.R., Bates K.T., Molnar J., Allen V, Makovicky P.J. (2011). "A Computational Analysis of Limb and Body Dimensions in Tyrannosaurus rex with Implications for Locomotion, Ontogeny, and Growth". PLoS ONE 6 (10): e26037. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...626037H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026037. 
  12. ^ a b c d e Nicolás E. Campione, David C. Evans, Caleb M. Brown, Matthew T. Carrano (2014). Body mass estimation in non-avian bipeds using a theoretical conversion to quadruped stylopodial proportions. Methods in Ecology and Evolution. doi:10.1111/2041-210X.12226
  13. ^ Anderson, JF; Hall-Martin, AJ; Russell, Dale (1985). "Long bone circumference and weight in mammals, birds and dinosaurs". Journal of Zoology 207 (1): 53–61. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1985.tb04915.x. 
  14. ^ Bakker, Robert T. (1986). The Dinosaur Heresies. New York: Kensington Publishing. ISBN 0-688-04287-2. OCLC 13699558. [page needed]
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Seebacher, F. (2001). "A new method to calculate allometric length-mass relationships of dinosaurs". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21 (1): 51–60. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2001)021[0051:ANMTCA]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0272-4634. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at Benson, RBJ; Campione, NE; Carrano, MT; Mannion, PD; Sullivan, C et al. (2014). "Rates of Dinosaur Body Mass Evolution Indicate 170 Million Years of Sustained Ecological Innovation on the Avian Stem Lineage". PLoS Biol 12 (5): e1001853. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001853. 
  17. ^ a b c Mazzetta, Gerardo V.; Christiansen, Per; Fariña, Richard A. (2004). "Giants and Bizarres: Body Size of Some Southern South American Cretaceous Dinosaurs" (PDF). Historical Biology 16 (2-4): 71–83. doi:10.1080/08912960410001715132. Retrieved 2008-01-08. 
  18. ^ Bates, KT; Manning, PL; Hodgetts, D; Sellers, WI (2009). "Estimating Mass Properties of Dinosaurs Using Laser". PLoS ONE 4 (2). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004532. 
  19. ^ Lee, Yuong-Nam; Barsbold, Rinchen; Currie, Philip J.; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Lee, Hang-Jae; Godefroit, Pascal; Escuillié, François; Chinzorig, Tsogtbaatar (2014) [22 October 2014]. "Resolving the long-standing enigmas of a giant ornithomimosaur Deinocheirus mirificus". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature13874. 
  20. ^ Brusatte, S.L.; Chure, D.J.; Benson, R.B.J.; Xu, X. (2010). "The osteology of Shaochilong maortuensis, a carcharodontosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Late Cretaceous of Asia". Zootaxa 2334: 1–46. 
  21. ^ Benson R.B.J., Carrano M.T, Brusatte S.L.; Carrano; Brusatte (2010). "A new clade of archaic large-bodied predatory dinosaurs (Theropoda: Allosauroidea) that survived to the latest Mesozoic". Naturwissenschaften 97 (1): 71–78. Bibcode:2010NW.....97...71B. doi:10.1007/s00114-009-0614-x. PMID 19826771. 
  22. ^ Del Hoyo, J. Elliott, A. and Sargatal, J.(1999) Handbook of the Birds of the World Volume 5: Barn-owls to Hummingbirds Lynx Edicions, Barcelona
  23. ^ CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses by John B. Dunning Jr. (Editor). CRC Press (1992), ISBN 978-0-8493-4258-5.
  24. ^ a b "Rufous Hummingbird" All about birds Cornell Lab of Ornithology.
  25. ^ Suarez, R. K. (1992). Hummingbird flight: sustaining the highest mass-specific metabolic rates among vertebrates. Experientia, 48(6), 565-570. Chicago
  26. ^ a b Powers, D. R. (1991). Diurnal variation in mass, metabolic rate, and respiratory quotient in Anna's and Costa's hummingbirds. Physiological Zoology, 850-870.
  27. ^ Naish, D. (2012). Happy 6th Birthday, Tetrapod Zoology (part II) Tetrapod Zoology, January 25, 2012.
  28. ^ Naish, D. and Sweetman, S.C. (2011). "A tiny maniraptoran dinosaur in the Lower Cretaceous Hastings Group: evidence from a new vertebrate-bearing locality in south-east England." Cretaceous Research, 32: 464-471. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2011.03.001
  29. ^ a b Zhang, F.; Zhou, Z.; Xu, X.; Wang, X.; Sullivan, C. (2008). "A bizarre Jurassic maniraptoran from China with elongate ribbon-like feathers". Nature 455 (7216): 1105–8. Bibcode:2008Natur.455.1105Z. doi:10.1038/nature07447. PMID 18948955.  edit
  30. ^ Godefroit, P.; Demuynck, H.; Dyke, G.; Hu, D.; Escuillié, F. O.; Claeys, P. (2013). "Reduced plumage and flight ability of a new Jurassic paravian theropod from China". Nature Communications 4: 1394. doi:10.1038/ncomms2389. PMID 23340434.  edit
  31. ^ a b Which was the smallest dinosaur? Royal Tyrrell Museum. Last accessed 2008-05-23.
  32. ^ Chatterjee, S., and Templin, R.J. (2007). "Biplane wing planform and flight performance of the feathered dinosaur Microraptor gui." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(5): 1576-1580. [1]
  33. ^ Benson, R.B.J. & Brussatte, S. (2012). Prehistoric Life. London: Dorling Kindersley. p. 332. ISBN 978-0-7566-9910-9. 
  34. ^ Jianu, Coralia-Maria; Weishampel, David B. (1999). "The smallest of the largest: a new look at possible dwarfing in sauropod dinosaurs.". Geologie en Mijinbouw 78. 
  35. ^ Sellers, W. I.; Margetts, L.; Coria, R. A. ­B.; Manning, P. L. (2013). Carrier, David, ed. "March of the Titans: The Locomotor Capabilities of Sauropod Dinosaurs". PLoS ONE 8 (10): e78733. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078733. PMC 3864407. PMID 24348896.  edit
  36. ^ Royo-Torres, R.; Cobos, A.; Alcalá, L. (2006). "A Giant European Dinosaur and a New Sauropod Clade". Science 314 (5807): 1925–1927. Bibcode:2006Sci...314.1925R. doi:10.1126/science.1132885. PMID 17185599. 
  37. ^ Russell, Dale A.; Zheng, Zhong (1993). "A large mamenchisaurid from the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, People's Republic of China". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 30 (10): 2082. Bibcode:1993CaJES..30.2082R. doi:10.1139/e93-180. 
  38. ^ a b Lovelace, David M.; Hartman, Scott A.; Wahl, William R. (2007). "Morphology of a specimen of Supersaurus (Dinosauria, Sauropoda) from the Morrison Formation of Wyoming, and a re-evaluation of diplodocid phylogeny". Arquivos do Museu Nacional 65 (4): 527–544. 
  39. ^ Calvo, J.O.; Juárez Valieri, R.D. & Porfiri, J.D. 2008. Re-sizing giants: estimation of body length of Futalognkosaurus dukei and implications for giant titanosaurian sauropods. 3° Congreso Latinoamericano de Paleontología de Vertebrados. Neuquén, Argentina.
  40. ^ Calvo, J.O., Porfiri, J.D., González-Riga, B.J., and Kellner, A.W. (2007) "A new Cretaceous terrestrial ecosystem from Gondwana with the description of a new sauropod dinosaur". Anais Academia Brasileira Ciencia, 79(3): 529-41.[2]
  41. ^ a b Wedel, Mathew J.; Cifelli, R.L.; Sanders, R.K. (2000). "Osteology, paleobiology, and relationships of the sauropod dinosaur Sauroposeidon" (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 45: 343–3888. 
  42. ^ Herne, Matthew C.; Lucas, Spencer G. (2006). "Seismosaurus hallorum: Osteological reconstruction from the holotype". New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 36. 
  43. ^ Wu, Wen-hao; Zhou, Chang-Fu; Wings, Oliver; Toru, Sekiya; Dong, Zhi-ming (2013). "A new gigantic sauropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Shanshan, Xinjiang" (PDF). Global Geology 32 (3): 437–446. doi:10.3969/j.issn.1004-5589.2013.03.002 (inactive 2015-01-12). 
  44. ^ Wedel, M. 2013.A giant, skeletally immature individual of Apatosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Oklahoma. The Annual Symposium of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Comparative Anatomy 2013:45.
  45. ^ Wedel, Mathew J.; Cifelli, Richard L. (Summer 2005). "Sauroposeidon: Oklahoma's Native Giant" (PDF). Oklahoma Geology Notes 65 (2): 40–57. 
  46. ^ Lacovara, Kenneth J.; Ibiricu, L.M.; Lamanna, M.C.; Poole, J.C.; Schroeter, E.R.; Ullmann, P.V.; Voegele, K.K.; Boles, Z.M.; Egerton, V.M.; Harris, J.D.; Martínez, R.D.; Novas, F.E.; Coughenour, Christopher L.; Schein, Jason P.; Harris, Jerald D.; Martínez, Rubén D.; Novas, Fernando E. (September 4, 2014). "A Gigantic, Exceptionally Complete Titanosaurian Sauropod Dinosaur from Southern Patagonia, Argentina". Scientific Reports 4: 6196. doi:10.1038/srep06196. PMID 25186586. 
  47. ^ Burness, G.P.; Flannery, T.; Flannery, T (2001). "Dinosaurs, dragons, and dwarfs: The evolution of maximal body size". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98 (25): 14518–14523. Bibcode:2001PNAS...9814518B. doi:10.1073/pnas.251548698. PMC 64714. PMID 11724953. 
  48. ^ Lacovara, K; Harris J., Lammana M., Novas F., Martinez R., and Amrosio, A. 2004. An enormous sauropod from the Maastrichtian Pari Aike Formation of southernmost Patagonia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 24(3) Supplement, 81A
  49. ^ Taylor, M.P. (2009). "A Re-evaluation of Brachiosaurus altithorax Riggs 1903 (Dinosauria, Sauropod) and its generic separation from Giraffatitan brancai (Janensh 1914)". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29 (3): 787–806. doi:10.1671/039.029.0309. 
  50. ^ Zhao, X.; Li, D.; Han, G.; Hao, H.; Liu, F.; Li, L.; Fang, X. (2007). "Zhuchengosaurus maximus from Shandong Province". Acta Geoscientia Sinica 28 (2): 111–122. doi:10.1007/s10114-005-0808-x. 
  51. ^ Zhao Xijin, Wang Kebai, & Li Dunjing (2011). "Huaxiaosaurus aigahtens". Geological Bulletin of China 30 (11): 1671–1688. 
  52. ^ Glut, Donald F. (1997). "Edmontosaurus". Dinosaurs: The Encyclopedia. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co. pp. 389–396. ISBN 0-89950-917-7. 
  53. ^ Lambert, David; the Diagram Group (1990). The Dinosaur Data Book. New York: Avon Books. p. 60. ISBN 0-380-75896-2. 
  54. ^ Naish, Darren; David M. Martill (2001). "Ornithopod dinosaurs". Dinosaurs of the Isle of Wight. London: The Palaeontological Association. pp. 60–132. ISBN 0-901702-72-2. 
  55. ^ Prieto-Márquez, A.; Chiappe, L. M.; Joshi, S. H. (2012). Dodson, Peter, ed. "The lambeosaurine dinosaur Magnapaulia laticaudus from the Late Cretaceous of Baja California, Northwestern Mexico". PLoS ONE 7 (6): e38207. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038207. PMC 3373519. PMID 22719869.  edit
  56. ^ Glut, Donald F. (1997). "Saurolophus". Dinosaurs: The Encyclopedia. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co. pp. 788–789. ISBN 0-89950-917-7. 
  57. ^ Sues, Hans-Dieter (1997). "ornithopods". In James Orville Farlow and M. K. Brett-Surman (eds.). The Complete Dinosaur. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. p. 338. ISBN 0-253-33349-0. 
  58. ^ Kirkland, James I.; Hernández-Rivera, René; Gates, Terry; Paul, Gregory S.; Nesbitt, Sterling; Serrano-Brañas, Claudia Inés; Garcia-de la Garza, Juan Pablo (2006). "Large hadrosaurine dinosaurs from the latest Campanian of Coahuila, Mexico". In Lucas, S.G.; and Sullivan, Robert M. (eds.). Late Cretaceous Vertebrates from the Western Interior. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 35. Albuquerque, New Mexico: New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science. pp. 299–315. 
  59. ^ Morris, William J. (1981). "A new species of hadrosaurian dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Baja California: ?Lambeosaurus laticaudus". Journal of Paleontology 55 (2): 453–462. JSTOR 1304231. 
  60. ^ Horner, John R.; Weishampel, David B.; Forster, Catherine A (2004). "Hadrosauridae". In Weishampel, David B.; Dodson, Peter; and Osmólska, Halszka (eds.). The Dinosauria (2nd ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 438–463. ISBN 0-520-24209-2. 
  61. ^ a b c d Paul, Gregory S. (1997). "Dinosaur models: the good, the bad, and using them to estimate the mass of dinosaurs". Dinofest International 1997: 129–154.
  62. ^ a b c Bakker, R. T. 1980. Dinosaur heresy-dinosaur renaissance; pp. 351-462 in R. D. K. Thomas and E. C. Olson (eds.), A Cold Look at the Warm-blooded Dinosaurs. AAAS Selected Symposia Series No. 28.
  63. ^ "T Dinosaurs Page 2". DinoDictionary.com. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  64. ^ "Triceratops in The Natural History Museum's Dino Directory". Internt.nhm.ac.uk. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  65. ^ Lehman, T.M. (1998). "A gigantic skull and skeleton of the horned dinosaur Pentaceratops sternbergi". From New Mexico: Journal of Paleontology, 72 (5): 894–906. 
  66. ^ Wiman, C. (1930). "Über Ceratopsia aus der Oberen Kreide in New Mexico". Nova Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum Upsaliensis. 4 7 (2): 1–19. 
  67. ^ Longrich, N.R. (2011). "Titanoceratops ouranos, a giant horned dinosaur from the Late Campanian of New Mexico". Cretaceous Research 32 (3): 264–276. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2010.12.007. 
  68. ^ Lambert, D. (1993). The Ultimate Dinosaur Book. Dorling Kindersley: New York, 152–167. ISBN 1-56458-304-X.
  69. ^ "Descubren nuevos dinosaurios con cuernos" [New dinosaurs with horns have been discovered]. La Nación (in Spanish). 26 September 2010. 
  70. ^ a b You, Hai-Lu; Tanque, Kyo; Dodson, Peter (2010). "A new species of Archaeoceratops (Dinosauria: Neoceratopsia) from the Early Cretaceous of the Mazongshan area, northwestern China". In Ryan, Michael J.; Chinnery-Allgeier, Brenda J.; and Eberth, David A. (editors.). New Perspectives on Horned Dinosaurs: The Royal Tyrrell Museum Ceratopsian Symposium. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. pp. 59–67. ISBN 978-0-253-35358-0. 
  71. ^ a b Farke, Andrew A.; Maxwell, W. Desmond; Cifelli, Richard L.; Wedel, Mathew J. (2014-12-10). "A Ceratopsian Dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Western North America, and the Biogeography of Neoceratopsia". PLoS ONE 9 (12). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0112055. 
  72. ^ Sereno, P.C.2000. ""The fossil record, systematics and evolution of pachycephalosaurs and ceratopsians from Asia." The age of dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia:480–516.". 
  73. ^ Carpenter, K. (2004). "Redescription of Ankylosaurus magniventris Brown 1908 (Ankylosauridae) from the Upper Cretaceous of the Western Interior of North America". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 41 (8): 961–986. Bibcode:2004CaJES..41..961C. doi:10.1139/e04-043. 
  74. ^ Galton, Peter M.; Upchurch, Paul, 2004, "Stegosauria" In: Weishampel, David B.; Dodson, Peter; and Osmólska, Halszka (eds.): The Dinosauria, 2nd edition, Berkeley: University of California Press. Pp. 344-345
  75. ^ Carpenter, Kenneth. (1984). "Skeletal reconstruction and life restoration of Sauropelta (Ankylosauria: Nodosauridae) from the Cretaceous of North America". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 21 (12): 1491–1498. Bibcode:1984CaJES..21.1491C. doi:10.1139/e84-154. 
  76. ^ a b Foster, J.R. (2003). Paleoecological analysis of the vertebrate fauna of the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic), Rocky Mountain region, U.S.A. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 23. Albuquerque, New Mexico: New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science. 

External links[edit]