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- Diogenes of Sinope (412–323 BC), the philosopher, better known as Diogenes the Cynic or simply Diogenes.
Others named Diogenes include:
- Diogenes of Apollonia or Diogenes Apolloniates (c. 460 BC), philosopher
- Diogenes of Athens (tragedian) (late 5th century or early 4th century BC), writer of tragedies
- Diogenes of Babylon or "Diogenes the Stoic" (c. 230 – c. 150 BC), Stoic philosopher from Seleucia, frequently confused with the following
- Diogenes of Seleucia (Epicurean) (died 146 BC), Epicurean philosopher and adviser to King Alexander of Syria
- Antonius Diogenes (2nd century BC), A Greek romance writer, most notable for his work The Wonders of Thule
- Diogenes of Tarsus (2nd century BC), Epicurean philosopher
- Diogenes of Judea (fl. c. 100–76 BC), general and advisor of Hasmonean king Alexander Jannaeus
- Diogenes of Athens (sculptor) (late 1st century BC–early 1st century AD), sculptor who worked in Augustan Rome
- Diogenes (explorer) (1st century AD), Greek merchant and explorer
- Diogenes of Byzantium (114–129 AD), bishop of Byzantium
- Diogenes of Oenoanda (2nd century AD), Epicurean
- Diogenes Laërtius (between 200–500 AD), historian and philologist
- Diogenes (bishop of Edessa) (d. 411/412)
- Constantine Diogenes (died 1032), Byzantine general
- Romanos IV Diogenes (died 1072), Byzantine emperor 1068–1071, son of Constantine Diogenes
- Nikephoros Diogenes, Byzantine general, son of Romanos IV
- Diogenes syndrome, a misnomer for a mental disorder
Note: "Diogenes" is sometimes confused with the name of Digenes Akritas, the hero of a famous Byzantine epic.
- Diogenes (genus) is a genus of hermit crabs
In modern literature
- Diogenes, a British satirical magazine published from 1853–1855
- Diogenes journal from the International Council of Philosophy and Humanistic Studies
- Diogenes Verlag, a Swiss publishing house
- The Diogenes Club, named after Diogenes of Sinope, co-founded by Sherlock Holmes' brother Mycroft
- Diogenes, an interstellar scout ship in Poul Anderson's The Entity
- Diogenes Small, fictional character created by Colin Dexter in the Inspector Morse series of books
- Diogenes Pendergast, fictional character from Douglas Preston and Lincoln Child's Pendergast series of books
- Diogenes Teufelsdröckh, the fictional philosopher of Clothes Philosophy described in Thomas Carlyle's Sartor Resartus
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