Great albatross

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Great albatross
Temporal range: Early Pliocene to present
Diomedea epomorpha (Mattern).jpg
Southern royal albatross
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Procellariiformes
Family: Diomedeidae
Genus: Diomedea
Linnaeus, 1758
Species

Diomedea exulans
Wandering albatross
Diomedea antipodensis
Antipodean albatross
Diomedea amsterdamensis
Amsterdam albatross
Diomedea dabbenea
Tristan albatross
Diomedea sanfordi
Northern royal albatross
Diomedea epomophora
Southern royal albatross
Diomedea milleri
Diomedea thyridata

The great albatrosses are seabirds in the genus Diomedea in the albatross family. The genus Diomedea formerly included all albatrosses except the sooty albatrosses, but in 1996 the genus was split, with the mollymawks and the North Pacific albatrosses both being elevated to separate genera.[1] The great albatrosses themselves form two species complexes, the wandering and Amsterdam albatrosses, and the royal albatrosses. The splitting of the great albatrosses into six or seven species has been accepted by most, though not all authorities.[2][3]

Etymology[edit]

Diomedea comes from the Greek hero Diomedes, who, according to legend, was driven by a storm to Italy and was stranded with his companions who were turned to birds.[4]

Description[edit]

The wandering albatross and the southern royal albatross are the largest of the albatrosses and are amongst the largest of flying birds. They have the largest wingspans of any bird, being up to 3.5 m (11 ft) from tip to tip, although the average is a little over 3 m (9.8 ft). Large adult males of these two species may exceed 11 kg (24 lb) in weight, as heavy as a large swan.

Facial features of various Diomedea species.

The great albatrosses are predominantly white in plumage as adults, with birds becoming whiter as they age. The two royal albatrosses at all ages and the larger, older male wandering albatrosses are totally white-bodied, while adult females and younger animals of the other species have dark pencilling marks on the edges of their feathers. Generally the smaller species or subspecies and the juveniles have more dark brown colour. The recently discovered Amsterdam albatross retains the dark brown plumage of juvenile birds into adulthood.

Habitat and range[edit]

The great albatrosses range across the Southern Ocean, and nest (for the most part) on isolated oceanic islands. The wandering albatrosses nest on islands around the Southern Ocean, from the Atlantic Ocean (South Georgia and Tristan da Cunha), to the Indian Ocean and New Zealand's Subantarctic islands. The royal albatrosses nest only on New Zealand's Subantarctic islands, with one unusual colony on New Zealand's Otago Peninsula.

Systematics and evolution[edit]

Genus Diomedea – great albatrosses

The earliest known fossils of the genus are from the Middle Miocene, about 12–15 mya. By that time, the genera Phoebastria and Diomedea had already diverged.

Fossil species[5][6]

  • Diomedea milleri (Round Mountain Silt Middle Miocene of Sharktooth Hill and possibly Astoria Middle Miocene of Oregon, US)
  • Diomedea sp. (Late Miocene of Valdez Peninsula, Antarctica)[5]
  • Diomedea sp. (Early Pliocene of South Africa)[5]
  • Diomedea sp. (Early Pliocene of Bone Valley, Florida, US)[5]
  • Diomedea thyridata Wilkinson, 1969 (Upper Miocene, Beaumaris Bay Fossil Site, Australia) [7][8]

At least four species were found in the Early Pliocene deposits of Lee Creek Mine, North Carolina in the US.[5] These may in part be identical with the forms mentioned above. Assignment of the undescribed taxa to Diomedea is tentative since most of them were discovered before the splitting of this genus. Especially the Southern Hemisphere species probably belong to other genera.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nunn, Gary B.; Cooper, John; Jouventin, Pierre; Robertson, Chris J. R. & Robertson Graham G. (1996). "Evolutionary relationships among extant albatrosses (Procellariiformes: Diomedeidae) established from complete cytochrome-b gene sequences". Auk 113 (4): 784–801. doi:10.2307/4088857. 
  2. ^ Penhallurick, John & Wink, Michael (2004). "Analysis of the taxonomy and nomenclature of the Procellariformes based on complete nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene". EMU 104 (2): 125. doi:10.1071/MU01060. 
  3. ^ Rheindt, F. E. & Austin, J. (2005). "Major analytical and conceptual shortcomings in a recent taxonomic revision of the Procellariiformes – A reply to Penhallurick and Wink (2004)". EMU 105 (2): 181. doi:10.1071/MU04039. 
  4. ^ Gotch, A. F. (1995) [1979]. "Albatrosses, Fulmars, Shearwaters, and Petrels". Latin Names Explained. A Guide to the Scientific Classifications of Reptiles, Birds & Mammals. New York, NY: Facts on File. p. 190. ISBN 0-8160-3377-3. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Olson, Storrs L. (1985): Section X, H, 1. Diomedeidae. In: Farner, D.S.; King, J.R. & Parkes, Kenneth C. (eds.): Avian Biology 8: 208–210. Academic Press, New York.
  6. ^ Haaramo, Mikko (2005): Mikko's Phylogeny Archive: Diomedeidae – albatrosses. Version of 2005-11-15. Retrieved 2006-09-25.
  7. ^ Diomedea thyridata. zipcodezoo.com
  8. ^ Beaumaris Bay Fossil Site, Beaumaris, VIC Profile. aussieheritage.com.au

Further reading[edit]