Dipped ware is the period term used by potters in late 18th- and 19th-century Britishpotteries for utilitarian earthenware vessels turned on horizontal lathes and decorated with colored slip. The earliest examples have either variegated surfaces or geometric patterns created with the use of a rose and crown engine-turning lathe. By the 1790s mocha decoration began to be used, consisting of dendritic (branching) patterns formed by the reaction of the introduction of an acidic coloring agent to the alkalinity of the wet slip surface. Further decorative motifs were developed in the early 19th century, including common cable, called "earthworm" by collectors, as well as "cat's eyes", "dipped fan", and "twig", all collector terms as no surviving period documents have revealed the terminology used by the manufacturers for such motifs. Much of the factory output was intended for export, with large quantities shipped to North America where bowls, mugs, jugs, and other useful forms were used in households and taverns.
Rickard, Jonathan and Donald Carpentier: "The Little Engine That Could: Adaptation and Use of the Engine-Turning Lathe in the Pottery Industry" in Ceramics in America 2004, Rob Hunter, ed., Chipstone Foundation, Milwaukee, 2004
Carpentier, Donald and Jonathan Rickard: "Slip Decoration in the Age of Industrialization" in Ceramics in America 2001, Rob Hunter, ed., Chipstone Foundation, Milwaukee, 2001