Directed set

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In mathematics, a directed set (or a directed preorder or a filtered set) is a nonempty set A together with a reflexive and transitive binary relation ≤ (that is, a preorder), with the additional property that every pair of elements has an upper bound:[1] In other words, for any a and b in A there must exist a c in A with ac and bc.

Directed sets are a generalization of nonempty totally ordered sets, that is, all totally ordered sets are directed sets (contrast partially ordered sets which need not be directed). In topology, directed sets are used to define nets, which generalize sequences and unite the various notions of limit used in analysis. Directed sets also give rise to direct limits in abstract algebra and (more generally) category theory.

Equivalent definition[edit]

In addition to the definition above, there is an equivalent definition. A directed set is a set A with a preorder such that every finite subset of A has an upper bound. In this definition, the existence of an upper bound of the empty subset implies that A is nonempty.

Examples[edit]

Examples of directed sets include:

  • The set of natural numbers N with the ordinary order ≤ is a directed set (and so is every totally ordered set).
  • Let D1 and D2 be directed sets. Then the Cartesian product set D1 \times D2 can be made into a directed set by defining (n1, n2) ≤ (m1, m2) if and only if n1m1 and n2m2. In analogy to the product order this is the product direction on the Cartesian product.
  • It follows from previous example that the set N \times N of pairs of natural numbers can be made into a directed set by defining (n0, n1) ≤ (m0, m1) if and only if n0m0 and n1m1.
  • If x0 is a real number, we can turn the set R − {x0} into a directed set by writing ab if and only if
    |ax0| ≥ |bx0|. We then say that the reals have been directed towards x0. This is an example of a directed set that is not ordered (neither totally nor partially).
  • A (trivial) example of a partially ordered set that is not directed is the set {a, b}, in which the only order relations are aa and bb. A less trivial example is like the previous example of the "reals directed towards x0" but in which the ordering rule only applies to pairs of elements on the same side of x0.
  • If T is a topological space and x0 is a point in T, we turn the set of all neighbourhoods of x0 into a directed set by writing UV if and only if U contains V.
    • For every U: UU; since U contains itself.
    • For every U,V,W: if UV and VW, then UW; since if U contains V and V contains W then U contains W.
    • For every U, V: there exists the set U \cap V such that UU \cap V and VU \cap V; since both U and V contain U \cap V.
  • In a poset P, every lower closure of an element, i.e. every subset of the form {a| a in P, ax} where x is a fixed element from P, is directed.
Witness

Contrast with semilattices[edit]

Directed sets are a more general concept than (join) semilattices: every join semilattice is a directed set, as the join or least upper bound of two elements is the desired c. The converse does not hold however, witness the directed set {1000,0001,1101,1011,1111} ordered bitwise (e.g. 1000 ≤ 1011 holds, but 0001 ≤ 1000 does not, since in the last bit 1 > 0), where {1000,0001} has three upper bounds but no least upper bound, cf. picture.

Directed subsets[edit]

The order relation in a directed sets is not required to be antisymmetric, and therefore directed sets are not always partial orders. However, the term directed set is also used frequently in the context of posets. In this setting, a subset A of a partially ordered set (P,≤) is called a directed subset if it is a directed set according to the same partial order: in other words, it is not the empty set, and every pair of elements has an upper bound. Here the order relation on the elements of A is inherited from P; for this reason, reflexivity and transitivity need not be required explicitly.

A directed subset of a poset is not required to be downward closed; a subset of a poset is directed if and only if its downward closure is an ideal. While the definition of a directed set is for an "upward-directed" set (every pair of elements has an upper bound), it is also possible to define a downward-directed set in which every pair of elements has a common lower bound. A subset of a poset is downward-directed if and only if its upper closure is a filter.

Directed subsets are used in domain theory, which studies directed complete partial orders.[2] These are posets in which every upward-directed set is required to have a least upper bound. In this context, directed subsets again provide a generalization of convergent sequences.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Kelley, p. 65.
  2. ^ Gierz, p. 2.

References[edit]

  • J. L. Kelley (1955), General Topology.
  • Gierz, Hofmann, Keimel, et al. (2003), Continuous Lattices and Domains, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80338-1.